Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Mineralization, antiforms and crustal extension in andesitic arcs

  • A. H. G. Mitchell (a1) and J. C. Carlile (a2)

The distribution and stratigraphic position of porphyry copper and epithermal gold deposits in andesitic arcs of the western Pacific and eastern Europe suggest that porphyry copper and epithermal vein deposits of adularia–sericite type develop successively under different stress regimes in an evolving arc, rather than being genetically related as commonly supposed. Absence of coeval high-level stocks in the root zones of many adularia-sericite deposits suggests that circulation of the dominantly meteoric hydrothermal fluids is not driven by shallow intrusions. The location of several world-class deposits on basement geanticlines, and on more localized antiforms of which at least one has been interpreted as a metamorphic core complex, implies that elevation of the arc, emplacement of magmatic sills at depth and adularia–sericite type gold mineralization are genetically related to subduction-induced crustal extension. Ascent of deep hydrothermal fluids, predominantly meteoric but with a metamorphic or magmatic component, may be controlled by regional low-angle structures at depth, analogous to those inferred for some mesothermal gold deposits. Mineralization at shallow (epithermal) depths in high-angle structures largely reflects the high geothermal gradient and mixing of deep fluid with cool meteoric water in or at the base of the permeable volcanic cover. Andesitic magmatism may resume following porphyry copper mineralization, adularia–sericite epithermal gold mineralization, or continued extension to form a ‘back arc’ spreading system, depending on the relative plate motion.

Hide All
Ashley R. P. 1982. Occurrence Model for Enargite-Gold Deposits. United States Geological Survey, Open-File Report 82–795, 144–7.
Bethke P. M. 1984. Controls on base and precious metal mineralization in deeper epithermal environments. United States Geological Survey, Open-File Report no. 84–890, 40 pp.
Billington W. C. 1987. The Wapolu gold prospect, E'Entrecasteaux Islands, Papua New Guinea. In Proceedings of the Pacific Rim Congress '87, pp. 51–5. Victoria: Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy.
Bogdanov B. 1982. Bulgaria. In Mineral Deposits of Europe, Vol. 2: Southeast Europe, pp. 215–32. London: Institution of Mining and Metallurgy.
Bogie I. & Lawless J. V. 1987. Controls on the hydrology of large volcanically-hosted geothermal systems: implications for exploration for epithermal mineral deposits. In Proceedings of the Pacific Rim Congress '87, pp. 5760. Victoria: Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy.
Bonham H. F. 1986. Models for volcanic-hosted epithermal deposits: a brief review. In International Volcanological Congress, Proceedings of Symposium 5: Volcanism, Hydrothermal Systems and Related Mineralisation, pp. 1318. University of Auckland: Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy.
Buick I. S. 1991. The late Alpine evolution of an extensional shear zone, Naxos, Greece. Journal of the Geological Society, London 148, 93103.
Burnham C. W. 1979. Magmas and hydrothermal fluids. In Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Ore Deposits, 2nd ed. (ed. Barnes H. L.), pp. 71136. New York: Wiley-Interscience.
Carlile J. C. & Mitchell A. H. G. 1994. Magmatic arcs and gold-copper mineralization in Indonesia. In Gold Deposits of Indonesia. Journal of Geochemical Exploration Special Issue, (in press).
Carlile J. C. & Sitorus T. 1994. Gold mineralization in the Bayah dome, western Java. Journal of Geochemical Exploration (in press).
Csontos L., Nagymarosy A., Horvath F. & Kovac M. 1992. Tertiary evolution of the Intra-Carpathian area: a model. Tectonophysics 208, 221–41.
Davidson J. & Mpodozis C. 1991. Regional geological setting of epithermal gold deposits, Chile. Economic Geology 86, 1174–86.
Davis G. A. & Lister G. S. 1988. Detachment faulting in continental extension; perspectives from the South-western US Cordillera. Geological Society of America Special Paper 218, 133–59.
Dunkl I. 1992. Palaeogene repeated reheating and Miocene tectonics recorded in the fission track ages of Valence Hills, Bakony unit, Hungary. Terra Nova Abstract Suppl. 2, 1819.
Elder D. & Cashman S. M. 1992. Tectonic control and fluid evolution in the Quartz Hill, California, lode gold deposits. Economic Geology 87, 17951812.
Garcia J. S. & Bongolan M. B. 1989. Developments in enargite ore search at Lepanto, Mankayan, Benguet, Philippines. In Mineral Resources Development Symposium (Abs.), 2 pp. Manila: Phihppine Mine Safety Association.
Giggenbach W. F. 1992. SEG Distinguished Lecture: Magma degassing and mineral deposition in hydrothermal systems along convergent plate boundaries. Economic Geology 87, 1927–44.
Gonzalez A. 1956. Geology of the Lepanto copper mine, Mankayan, Mountain Province. In Copper Deposits of the Philippines Part I (eds Kinkel A. R. et al. ). pp. 1750. Manila: Philippine Bureau of Mines Special Project Series Publication 16.
Hamilton W. B. 1988. Plate tectonics and island arcs. Geological Society of America Bulletin 100, 1503–27.
Heald P., Foley N. K. & Hayba D. O. 1987. Comparative anatomy of volcanic-hosted epithermal deposits: acid-sulfate and adularia-sericite types. Economic Geology 82, 126.
Hedenquist J. W. 1987. Mineralization associated with volcanic-related hydrothermal systems in the Circum-Pacific Basin. In Transactions of the Fourth Circum-Pacific Energy and Mineral Resources Conference (ed. Horm M. K.), pp. 513–24. Singapore: American Association of Petroleum Geologists.
Henley R. & Ellis A. J. 1983. Geothermal systems ancient and modern: a geochemical review. Earth Science Reviews 19, 150.
Hill E. J., Baldwin S. L. & Lister G. S. 1992. Unroofing of active metamorphic core complexes in the D'Entre-casteaux Islands, Papua New Guinea. Geology 20, 907–10.
Holland H. D. 1965. Some applications of thermochemical data to problems of ore deposits, II, Mineral assemblages and the composition of ore-forming fluids. Economic Geology 60, 1101–66.
Hollister V. F. 1975. An appraisal of the nature and source of porphyry copper deposits. Minerals Science and Engineering 7, 225–33.
Ianovici V. & Borcos M. 1982. Romania. In Mineral Deposits of Europe, Vol. 2: Southeast Europe, pp. 55137. London: Institution of Mining and Metallurgy.
Izawa E. et al. 1990. The Hishikari gold deposit: high-grade epithermal veins in Quaternary volcanics of southern Kyushu, Japan. In Epithermal Gold Mineralization of the Circum-Pacific: Geology, Geochemistry, Origin and Exploration II (eds Hedenquist J. W., White N. C., and Siddeley G.), pp. 156. Journal of Geochemical Exploration no. 36.
Jankovic S. 1982. Yugoslavia. In Mineral Deposits of Europe, Vol 2: Southeast Europe, pp. 143202. London: Institution of Mining and Metallurgy.
Kaliciak M., Koncony V. & Lexa J. 1989. Relationship of structure and evolution of the Neogene volcanics in Slovakia to block faulting. Geological Proceedings, Dionyz Stur Geological Institute 88, 79103.
Kurz W., Neubauer F., Ganser H. & Horner H. 1992. Tertiary brittle tectonics in the Eastern Tauern Window, Eastern Alps, Austria: significance for uplift-models of metamorphic domes. Terra Nova Abstract Suppl. 2, 92–3.
Leach T. M. & Corbett G. J. 1993. Porphyry-related carbonate base metal gold systems: the transition between the epithermal and porphyry environments. In Geological Society of Australia 2nd National Meeting, Abs. No. 34, pp. 3940. Armidale: Geological Society of Australia.
Leach T. M. & Erceg M. M. 1990. The Wau River high sulphur epithermal gold deposit, Papua New Guinea. In Proceedings of the Pacific Rim Congress, pp. 451–6. Victoria: Australasian Institution of Mining and Metallurgy.
Lexa J. 1993. Plate tectonic aspects of the Miocene volcanic hosted ore deposits in the Carpatho-Pannonian region. In Plate Tectonic Aspects of Alpine Metallogeny in the Carpatho-Balkan Region, Abs. p. 6. Budapest: Hungarian Geological Survey and Dionyz Stur Institute of Geology.
Lowell J. G. & Guilbert J. M. 1970. Lateral and vertical alteration-mineralization zoning in porphyry ore deposits. Economic Geology 65, 373408.
Mitchell A. H. S. 1992. Epithermal and porphyry type mineralization in the western Pacific and east European magmatic arcs. Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy Section B: Applied Earth Science 101, B12538.
Mitchell A. H. G. 1993. Cretaceous–Cenozoic tectonic events in the western Myanmar-Assam region. Journal of the Geological Society, London 150, 1089–102.
Mitchell A. H. G. & Leach T. M. 1991. Epithermal Gold in the Philippines: Island Arc Metallogenesis, Geothermal Fields and Geology. London: Academic Press, 457 pp.
Pamic J. 1992. Younger Alpine magmatic and metamorphic processes in the adjoining area of the northern Vardar zone, eastern Periadriatic zone and the Southern Pannonian Basin. Terra Nova Abstract Suppl. 2, 50–1.
Panto G. 1951. Ore deposit of Lahoca of Recsk, Hungary. Bulletin of the Hungarian Geological Society 81, 146–52.
Rye R. O., Bethke P. M. & Wasserman M. D. 1992. The stable isotope geochemistry of acid sulphate alteration. Economic Geology 87, 225–62.
Rytuba J. 1992. Hot-spring precious metal depositing in the Sonoma and Clear Lake volcanic fields, California, USA. In Ore-Forming Processes of Precious Metal Deposits, (Abs.), 3 pp. Santiago: Workshop, Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria.
Sillitoe R. H. 1983. Enargite-bearing massive sulfide deposits high in porphyry copper systems. Economic Geology 78, 348–52.
Sillitoe R. H. & Bonham H. F. Jr 1984. Volcanic landforms and ore deposits. Economic Geology 79, 1286–98.
Sillitoe R. H. & Gappe I. M. 1984. Philippine Porphyry Copper Deposits: Geologic Setting and Characteristics. Coordinating Committee for Regional Offshore Prospecting in East Asia, Technical Publication no. 14, 89 pp.
Stohl J. & Lexa J. 1993. Banska Stiavnica-Hodrusa ore district. In Plate Tectonic Aspects of Alpine Metallogeny in the Carpatho-Balkan Region. Field Trip Guide, pp. 816, Budapest: Hungarian Geological Survey.
Titley S. R. 1975. Geological characteristics and environment of some porphyry copper occurrences in the southwestern Pacific. Economic Geology 70, 499514.
United Nations 1977 a. Geology and mineralization in the Baguio area, northern Luzon. Technical Report No. 5, DP/UN/PHI-85–001/5, 82 pp. New York: United Nations Development Programme.
United nations 1987 b. Geology and mineralization in the Panganiban-Tabas and Bulala areas, Camerines Norte. Technical Report No. 1, DP/UN/PHI-85–001/1, 43 pp. New York: United Nations Development Programme.
Van Bemmelen R. W. 1949. The Geology of Indonesia, V.IA. The Hague: Government Printing Office, 732 pp.
White N. C. & Hedenquist J. W. 1990. Epithermal environments and styles of mineralization: variations and their causes, and guidelines for exploration. In Epithermal Gold Mineralization of the Circum-Pacific: Geology, Geochemistry, Origin and Exploration II (eds Hedenquist J. W., White N. C. and Siddeley G.), pp. 445–74. Journal of Geochemical Exploration no. 36.
Zelenka T. 1975. A recski melyszinti szinesfem ercelofordulas szerkezeti-magma foldtani helyzete. Bulletin of the Hungarian Geological Society 105, 582–97.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Geological Magazine
  • ISSN: 0016-7568
  • EISSN: 1469-5081
  • URL: /core/journals/geological-magazine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 2 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 82 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 24th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.