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Southeast Asian Hesitation: ASEAN Countries and the International Criminal Court

  • Lasse Schuldt
Extract

In one of his final press releases, the former United Nations Special Rapporteur on the human rights situation in Myanmar, Tomás Ojea Quintana, urged that greater attention be given to the further deterioration of the human rights situation in Rakhine State. He submitted that the discrimination and persecution against the Rohingya community in Rakhine could amount to crimes against humanity. In his final report, prior to the end of his six-year mandate, Quintana states that “extrajudicial killing, rape, and other forms of sexual violence, arbitrary detention, torture, and ill-treatment in detention, denial of due process and fair trial rights, and the forcible transfer and severe deprivation of liberty of populations has taken place on a large scale and has been directed against” the Rohingya Muslim population in Rakhine State. However, there is no sign that any of the alleged crimes are being adequately investigated by the competent domestic authorities. Furthermore, the ICC does not have jurisdiction as Myanmar is not a State Party to the Rome Statute.

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References
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1 Press Release, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Myanmar: UN Expert Raises Alarm on Rakhine State, U.N. Press Release (Apr. 7, 2014), http://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=14476&LangID=E.

2 Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in Myanmar, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in Myanmar, Human Rights Council, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/25/64 (Apr. 2, 2014) (by Tomás Ojea Quintana), http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session25/Pages/ListReports.aspx.

3 Id. at 13.

4 Tansubhapol, Thanida, Surapong Renews Case for ICC Intervention in Clashes, Bangkok Post, Nov. 8, 2012; see also Achara Ashayagachat, Rally Will Be Litmus Test for Both Sides, Bangkok Post, Apr. 17, 2014.

5 Thailand signed the Rome Statute on 2 October 2000, but has not yet ratified it.

6 According to Article 12(3) of the Rome Statute, a State which is not a Party to the Statute “may, by declaration lodged with the Registrar, accept the exercise of jurisdiction by the Court.” Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court art. 12, para. 3, July 17, 1993, 2187 U.N.T.S. 3 [hereinafter Rome Statute].

7 Indonesia; Religious Minorities Targets of Rising Violence, Hum. Rts. Watch, Feb. 28, 2013, http://www.hrw.org/news/2013/02/2S/indanesia-religious-minorities-targets-rising-violence.

8 See McDonald, Mark, Teachers Being Targeted and Murdered in Thailand, N.Y. Times, Dec. 16, 2012; see also Bomb Kills Three Policemen in Thai South, NewStraitsTimes, Apr. 26, 2014, http://cached.newslookup.com/cached.php?ref_id=433&siteid=2354&id=5818638&t=1398488301.

9 For the referral mechanisms under the Rome Statute, see infra Part C.II.1.

10 The ten Member States of ASEAN are: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.

11 The Special Panels were set up by the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET). U.N. Transitional Administration in Timor, East, On the Establishment of Panels with Exclusive Jurisdiction Over Serious Criminal Offences, Regulation No. 2000/15 (June 6, 2000), http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/etimor/untaetR/Reg0015E.pdf.

12 Id. at § 22.1.

13 Id. at § 1.3.

14 Freeland, Steven, International Criminal Justice in the Asia-Pacific Region: The Role of the International Criminal Court Treaty Regime, 11 J. Int'l Crim. Just. 1029, 1043 (2013).

15 See Introduction to the ECCC, Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, http://www.eccc.gov.kh/en/about-eccc/introduction.

16 G.A. Res. 57/228, Khmer Rouge Trials, U.N. Doc. A/RES/57/228 B (22 May 2003) [hereinafter ECCC Agreement], http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/Cam%20ARES%2057%20228B.pdf.

17 ECCC Agreement art. 3(2)(a).

18 ECCC Agreement art. 9.

19 For the proceedings against Kaing Guek Eav, see Kaing Guek Eav: Biography, Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, http://www.eccc.gov.kh/en/indicted-person/kaing-guek-eav; for proceedings against Nuan Chea, see Nuon Chea: Biography, Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, http://www.eccc.gov.kh/en/indicted-person/nuori-chea.

20 UN Voices Concern as Second Judge Resigns from Cambodia Genocide Court, U.N. News Centre (Mar. 19, 2012), http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=41578&Cr=Cambodia&Cr1=#.U2ckl6LBeDY; see also Joe Freeman, Pauw, Pestman and Ianuzzi Leave Khmer Rouge Court “Farce” Behind, The Phonm Phen Post (Dec. 21, 2012), http://www.phnompenhpost.com/national/pauw-pestmari-and-ianuzzi-leave-khmer-rouge-court-farce-behind.

21 Sperfeldt, Christoph, From the Margins of internationalized Criminal Justice: Lessons Learned at the Extraordinary Chambers of Cambodia, 11 J. Int'l Crim. Just., 1111, 1136 (2013); see also Suzannah Linton, Putting Cambodia's Extraordinary Chambers into Context, 11 Singapore Year Book of Int'l Law 195, 256 (2007) (“Disturbingly substandard as it is, this form of court was the best that could be agreed upon.”).

22 United Nations Diplomatic Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court, Rome, It., June 15-July 17, 1998, Summary Records of the Plenary Meetings and of the Meetings of the Committee of the Whole, U.N. Doc. A/CONF.183/13 (Vol. II), 106 [hereinafter Rome Conference] (statement of Somboon Sangiambut, Head of the Thailand Delegation), http://legal.un.org/icc/rome/praceedings/E/Rome%20Proceedings_v2_e.pdf.

23 On 11 June 2010, the Assembly of States Parties, on its review conference in Kampala, Uganda, adopted amendments of the Rome Statute on the definition of the crime of aggression. However, the Court will not exercise its jurisdiction before 1 January 2017. For the amendments, see Review Conference of the Rome Statute, Kampala, Uganda, May 31-June 11, 2010, ICC Doc. RC/9/11 (2010).

24 For all current situations and cases, see Situations and Cases, International Criminal Court, http://www.icc-cpi.int/en_menus/icc/situatians%20and%20cases/Pages/situations%20and%20cases.aspx.

25 Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyllo, Case No. ICC 01/04-01/06, Judgment (Mar. 14, 2012), http://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/doc/doc1379838.pdf; Prosecutor v. Mathieu Ngudjala Chui?, Case No. ICC-01/04-02/12, Judgment (Dec. 18, 2012), http://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/doc/dac1579080.pdf; Prosecutor v. Germain Katanga, Case No. ICC-01/04-01/07 (Mar. 7, 2014), http://www.icc-cpi.int/en_menus/icc/situations%20and%20cases/situations/situation%20icc%200104/related%20cases/icc%200104%200107/Pages/democratic%20republic%20of%20the%20congo.aspx.

26 See Akhavan, Payam, The Rise, and Fall, and Rise, of International Criminal Justice, 11 J. Int'l Crim. Just. 527, 527536 (2013); Delmas-Marty, Mireille, Ambiguities and Lacunae: The International Criminal Court Ten Years On, 11 J. Int'l Crim. Just. 553, 553-561 (2013); Isanga, Joseph M., The International Criminal Court Ten Years Later: Appraisal and Prospects, 21 Cardozo J. Int'l & Comp. L. 235, 235-323 (2013); Schabas, William A., The International Criminal Court at Ten, 22 Crim. L.F., 493, 493-509 (2011).

27 Schabas, William A., The Banality of International Justice, 11 J. Int'l Crim. Just. 545, 545-551 (2013); Struett, Michael J., Why the International Criminal Court Must Pretend to Ignore Politics, 26 Ethics & Int'L Aff. 83, 33-92 (2012).

28 See, e.g., Kapur, Amrita, Asian Values v. The Paper Tiger: Dismantling the Threat to Asian Values Posed by the International Criminal Court, 11 J. Int'l Crim. Just. 1059, 1087 (2013). For a review of the ICC's practice in this regard, see Daniel Nsereko, The ICC and Complementarity in Practice, 26 Leiden J. Int'l L., 427, 427-447 (2013).

29 See Symposium, , Justice for All? Ten Years of the International Criminal Court in the Asia-Pacific Region, 11 J. Int'l Crim. Just. 1023, 1023-1137 (2013).

30 Cambodia signed the Rome Statute on 23 October 2000 and deposited its instrument of ratification on 11 April 2002.

31 The Philippines signed the Rome Statute on 28 December 2000.

32 In November 2012, a Government panel that was set up in 1999 in order to consider ratification of the ICC Statute had been revived but did not reach a consensus. See Thanida Tansubhapal & King-Oua Laohong, Panel Revived to Mull ICC Cover, Bangkok Post (Nov. 30, 2012).

33 United Nations Regional Groups of Member States, Dep't for Gen. Assembly & Conf. Mgmt., http://www.un.org/depts/DGACM/RegionalGroups.shtml (last modified May 9, 2014).

34 Rome Conference, supra note 22, at 73 (statement of Muladi, Head of the Indonesia delegation).

35 Id. at 111 (statement of Nguyen Ba Son, Head of the Vietnam delegation).

36 Id. at 91 (statement of Pengiran Maidin Pengiran Haji Hashim, Head of the Brunei Darussalam delegation).

37 Id. at 200 (statement of Arizal Effendi, Deputy Head of the Indonesia delegation).

38 Id. at 109 (statement of R. Vengadesan, Head of the Malaysia delegation).

39 Id. at 308 (statement of Nguyen Ba Son, Head of the Vietnam delegation).

40 Id. at 82 (statement of Lauro L. Baja, Jr., Head of the Philippines delegation).

41 Id. at 199 (statement of Piyawat Niyomrerks, Deputy Director-General, Dep't of Treaties and Legal Affairs, Thai Ministry of Foreign Affairs).

42 Thanarajasingam, S., Deputy Permanent Representative of Malaysia, Statement on Agenda Item 142 (Nov. 1, 1995), http://www.iccnow.org/documents/Malaysia1PrepCmt1Nov95.pdf.

43 Rome Conference, supra note 22, at 73 (statement of Muladi, Head of the Indonesia delegation).

44 Id. at 337–38 (statement of Arizal Effendi, Deputy Head of the Indonesia delegation).

45 Id. at 81–82 (statement of Lionel Yee, Deputy Head of the Singapore delegation).

46 Id. at 124 (statement of Lionel Yee, Deputy Head of Singapore delegation).

47 Id. at 109 (statement of R. Vengadesan, Head of the Malaysia delegation).

48 Id. at 287 (statement of Pham Truong Giang, First Secretary, Vietnam Permanent Mission).

49 Id. at 106-07 (statement of Somboon Sangiambut, Head of the Thailand Delegation).

50 Bangladesh joined on 23 March 2010, the Philippines on 30 August 2011, the Maldives on 21 September 2011, Vanuatu on 2 December 2011, and Palestine on 2 January 2015. See Asia Pacific States, Int'l Crim. Ct., http://www.icc-cpi.int/en_menus/asp/states%20parties/asian%20states/Pages/asian%20states.aspx.

51 Kapur, , supra note 28, at 1061; Song, Sang-Hyun, Preventive Potential of the International Criminal Court, 3 Asian J. Int'l L., 203, 212 (2013).

52 See U.N. Human Rights, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, National Plans of Action for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights, http://www.ohchr.org/EN/lssues/PlansActions/Pages/PlansofActionIndex.aspx.

53 U.N. Human Rights, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Indonesia, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/21/7, 14-22 (July 5, 2012), http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/RegularSession/Session21/A-HRC-21-7_en.pdf.

54 Saragih, Bagus B.T., Denny to leave for The Hague for Study on Rome Statute, Jakarta Post (Mar. 4, 2013).

55 Id.

56 Don't Worry, We Don't Look Back: ICC President Ensures, Jakarta Post (Dec. 18, 2013). According to Article 11(1), the Court has jurisdiction ratione ternporis only with respect to crimes committed after the entry into force of the Statute; Article 11(2) further provides that the Court may exercise its jurisdiction only with respect to crimes committed after the entry into force of the Statute for each respective state; additionally, according to Article 124, a State may declare that, for a period of seven years after the entry into force of the Statute for the State concerned, it does not accept the jurisdiction of the Court with respect to war crimes when a crime is alleged to have been committed by its nationals or on its territory. See Rome Statute, supra note 6, art. 12, para. 3.

57 Saragih, , supra note 54, at para. 11.

58 Sihaloho, Markus Junianto, Defense Minister Dodges Question on Blocking ICC Treaty's Ratification, Jakarta Globe (May 21, 2013), http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/news/defense-minister-dodges-question-on-blocking-icc-treatys-ratification/.

59 See Human Rights Resource Centre (HRRC), The Institute for Policy Research and Advocacy (ELSAM) & Indonesian Coalition for the International Criminal Court (CICC), Progress Report: Indonesia Efforts to Ratify the 1998 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, 7 (Dec. 14, 2012), http://www.elsam.or.id/downloads/1357181136_Bahan_Untuk_Diplomatic_Briefing_14_Des_2012.pdf.

60 Press Release, Coalition for the International Criminal Court (CICC), Laos: Acceding to Rome Statute Is in Line with Commitment to Rule of Law (Sept. 27, 2013), http://www.iccnow.org/documents/CICC_PR_URC_Laos_ENG.pdf.

61 For an early assessment, see Toon, Valeriane, Internationa! Criminal Court: Reservations of Non-State Parties in Southeast Asia, 26 Contemp. Southesast Asia, 218, 224 (2004).

62 See Coalition for the International Criminal Court, Country Factsheet Malaysia, http://www.iccnow.org/?mad=cau ntry&iduct=106.

63 Id.

64 Carvalho, Martin, Nazri: Moves to Accede to Rome Statute of International Criminal Court, Star Online (June 12, 2012), http://www.thestar.com.my/News/Natian/2012/06/12/Nairi-Moves-to-accede-to-Rome-Statute-of-International-Criminal-Court/.

65 Tansubhapol, & Laohang, , supra note 32.

66 Id.

67 Id.

68 See Press Release, CICC, supra note 60, at 1.

69 Southeast Asian countries may consider Australia's and New Zealand's experiences with regard to the adjustment of their domestic legal systems. See Boas, Gideon, An Overview of Implementation by Australia of the Statute of the International Criminal Court, 2 J. Int'lCrim. Just. 179 (2004); Juliet, Hay, Implementing the ICC Statute in New Zealand, 2 J, Int'l. Crim. Just. 191 (2004).

71 See Gillian, Goh, The “ASEAN Way,” Non-Intervention and ASEAN's Role in Conflict Management, 3 Stan. J. E. Asian Aff. 113 (2003).

72 Brunei Darussalam joined in 1984, Vietnam in 1995, Laos and Myanmar in 1997, and Cambodia in 1999. Overview, Association or Southeast Asian Nations, http://www.asean.org/asean/about-asean/overview (last visited Feb. 13, 2015). In 2011, Timor-Leste submitted an application to become the eleventh member of ASEAN. Press Release, ASEAN Secretariat News, Timor-Leste Remains Committed to Join ASEAN (Nov. 4, 2014), http://www.asean.org/news/asean-secretariat-news/item/timor-leste-remains-committed-to-join-asean. Timor-Leste ratified the Rome Statute in 2002. Timor-Leste, Int'l Crim. Ct., http://www.icc-cpi.int/en_menus/asp/states%20parties/asian%20states/Pages/timor%20leste.aspx.

73 The Asean Declaration (Bangkok Declaration), §§ 1-2, Aug. 8, 1967, 6 I.L.M. 1223, available at http://www.asean.org/news/item/the-asean-declaration-bangkok-declaration.

74 Id. at pmbl., para. 4.

75 Kapur, , supra note 28, at 1063; Nasu, Hitoshi, Revisiting the Principle of Non-Intervention: A Structural Principle of international Law or a Political Obstacle to Regional Security in Asia?, 3 Asian J. Int'l L., 25, 46 (2013).

76 Nasu, , supra note 75, at 36. The ASEAN principles are particularly being expressed when faced or challenged by the views of other states or organizations. Goh, supra note 71, at 115.

77 Goh, , supra note 71, at 114; Nasu, , supra note 75, at 36.

78 Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia, art. 2, Feb. 24, 1976, 27 I.L.M. 610, available at http://www.asean.org/news/item/treaty-of-amity-and-cooperation-in-southeast-asia-indonesia-24-february-1976-3. These principles have been reiterated by the ASEAN Bali Concords II (2003) and III (2011).

79 Kapur, , supra note 28, at 1074; Nasu, , supra note 75, at 36; Simon, Sheldon, ASEAN and Multilateralism: The Long, Bumpy Road to Community, 30 Contemp. Southeast Asia, 264, 269 (2008). After Vietnamese troops entered Cambodia in 1978, ASEAN called for the withdrawal of all foreign troops from Cambodia. Goh, supra note 71, at 117.

80 Nasu, , supra note 75, at 36.

81 G.A. Res. 25/2625, U.N. Doc. A/RES/25/2625 (Oct. 24, 1970), http://www.un-documents.net/a25r2625.htm.

82 Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua (Nicar. v. U.S.), 1986 I.C.J. 14, ¶ 108 (June 27).

83 For an analysis of this development, see Hiro Katsumata, Why is ASEAN Diplomacy Changing? From “Non-Interference” to “Open and Frank Discussions,” 44 Asian Surv. 237 (2004).

84 Nasu, , supra note 75, at 38; Thayer, Carlyle A., Re-inventing ASEAN: From Constructive Engagement to Flexible Intervention, 3 Harv. Asia Pac. Rev. 67, 70 (1999).

85 Nasu, , supra note 75, at 39.

86 Goh, , supra note 71, at 118.

87 See Nasu, supra note 75, at 41.

88 By the end of the year 2015, the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC)—envisaged as ASEAN's most integrated pillar—shall be achieved.

89 ASEAN Charter pmbl. para. 7.

90 Desierto, Diane A., Universalizing Core Human Rights in the “New” ASEAN: A Reassessment of Culture and Development Justifications Against the Global Rejection of Impunity, 1 Göttingen J. Int'l L. 77, 92 (2009).

91 Id. at 91.

92 ASEAN Should Voice Concern Over Thai Coup: Natalegawa, Globalpost (May 23, 2014, 8:33 AM), http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/kyodo-news-international/140523/asean-should-voice-concern-over-thai-coup-natalegawa-D.

93 Id.

94 Pandey, Umesh, Achara Ashayagachat & Thanida Tansubhapol, World Leaders: Return Democracy, Bangkok Post (May 24, 2014).

95 Id.

96 Philippines House Resolution No 1175: Grave Concern Over Thai Military Coup, ASEAN Parliamentarians for Hum. Rts. (May 28, 2014), http://www.aseanmp.org/?p=3081.

97 Id.

98 In its “Statement of ASEAN Foreign Ministers on the Recent Developments in the Rakhine State, Myanmar” (August 17, 2012), ASEAN “welcomed the steps the Government of Myanmar has taken to address the domestic issue”, http://www.asean.org/images/archive/documents/Statement%20of%20ASEAN%20FM%20on%20Recent%20Developments%20m%20the%20Rakhine%20State.pdf.

99 Myanmar's New Challenges, Bangkok Post (May 5, 2014, 9:42 AM), http://www.bangkokpost.com/most-recent/408178/myanmar-day-in-the-sun-overshadawed-by-new-challenges.

100 Nasu, , supra note 75, at 46.

101 ASEAN Foreign Ministers’ Statement on the Developments in Thailand, Ass'n of Southeast Asian Nations (May 11, 2014), http://www.asean.org/news/asean-statement-cammuniques/item/asean-foreign-ministers-statement-on-the-developments-in-thailand?category_id=26.

102 Statute, Rome, supra note 6, art. 12(2)(a)–(b).

103 Id. art. 13(1).

104 Id. art. 13(2).

105 Kapur, , supra note 28, at 1078.

106 Id.

107 This has been criticized by Human Rights Watch. See UN Security Council: Address Inconsistency in ICC Referrals, Hum. Rts. Watch (Oct. 16, 2012), http://www.hrw.org/news/2012/10/16/un-security-council-address-inconsistency-icc-referrals-0.

108 See Kapur, , supra note 28, at 1078.

109 Simmons, Beth A. & Danner, Allison, Credible Commitments and the International Criminal Court, 64 Int'l Org. 225, 244 (2010).

110 Statute, Rome, supra note 6, art. 17(1)(b).

111 Id. art. 17(3).

113 Id. at para. 124.

114 For details about the investigation, see id. at para. 130.

115 For further citations, see Kapur, supra note 28, at 10S7.

116 Id. at 1087.

117 Freeland, supra note 14, at 1050.

118 Office of the Prosecutor, Report on Prosecutorial Strategy, Int'l Crim. Ct., 5 (Sept. 14, 2006), http://www.icc-cpi.int/NR/rdonlyres/D673DD8C-D427-4547-BC69-2D363E07274B/143708/ProsecutorialStrategy20060914_English.pdf.

120 Freeland, supra note 14, at 50.

121 Establishing the Ad Hoc Human Rights Court, Law No. 26, arts. 8, 9, 42 (2000), 208 State Gazette 23 (Indon.). For the criticism surrounding this law, see Kapur, supra note 28, at 1072.

122 Laws of Malaysia, Act A1430, Penal Code (Amendment) Act 2012, § 107, http://54.251.120.208/doc/laws/Act_A1430_Penal_Code_(amendment).pdf.

123 See Toon, supra note 61, at 225.

124 In the case of Malaysia, see Coalition for the International Criminal Court, supra note 62.

125 Lionel Yee, Deputy Head of Singapore delegation, Rome Conference, 82.

126 Statute, Rome, supra note 6, pmbl., paras. 3–4.

127 William Theodore de Bary, Asian Values and Human Rights: A Confucian Communitarian Perspective (2000); Fukuyama, Francis, Confucianism and Democracy, 6 J. Democracy 20 (1995), http://www.u.arizona.edu/~zshipley/pol437/docs/fukuyama_1995.pdf; Kim, So Young, Do Asian Values Exist? Empirical Tests of the Four Dimensions of Asian Values, 10 J. E. Asian Stud. 315 (2010); Kapur, , supra note 28; Herman Joseph S. Kraft, Human Rights, ASEAN and Constructivism; Revisiting the “Asian Values” Discourse, 22 Philippine Pol. Sci. J. 33 (2001); Welzel, Christian, The Asian Values Thesis Revisited: Evidence from the World Values Surveys, 12 Japanese]. Pol. Sci. 1 (2011).

128 For a deeper analysis of the Asian values debate and its impact on international criminal law, see Kapur, supra note 28, at 1064.

129 Chimni, B.S., Asian Civilizations and International Law: Some Reflections, 1 Asian J. Int'l L. 39, 41 (2011).

130 Kim, , supra note 127, at 338; Welzel, , supra note 127, at 29.

131 Ginbar, Yuval, Human Rights in ASEAN—Setting Sail or Treading Water?, 10 Hum. Rts. L. Rev. 504, 506 (2010).

132 ASEAN Charter pmbl., para. 8.

133 Id. art. 14.

134 Id. art 1(7).

136 Robertson, Phil, Betraying Human Rights, ASEAN Style, Nation (May 14, 2012, 1:00 AM), http://www.nationmultimedia.com/opinian/Betraying-human-rights-ASEAN-stvle-30181860.html.

137 Pillay Encourages ASEAN to Ensure Human Rights Declaration is Implemented in Accordance with International Obligations, Office High Commissioner for Hum. Rts. (Nov. 19, 2012), http://www.ohchr.org/en/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=12809&LangID=E.

138 Ginbar, , supra note 131, at 506.

139 Joint Communique of the Twenty-Sixth ASEAN Ministerial Meeting Singapore, 23-24 July 1993, Ass'n of Southeast Asian Nations, para. 16, http://www.asean.org/news/item/joint-communique-of-the-twenty-sixth-asean-ministerial-meeting-singapore-23-24-july-1993.

140 Id. at para. 17.

141 The Commission has been criticized for its inability to protect individuals’ human rights. See Ginbar, supra note 131, at 514; Kapur, , supra note 28, at 1064.

142 ASEAN Intergovernmental Comm'n on Hum. Rts., Terms of Reference, § 1.6 (Oct. 2009), http://aichr.org/?dl_name=TOR-of-AICHR.pdf.

143 Id. § 1.4.

144 Those Southeast Asian countries that were independent at the time all voted for the adoption of the Declaration, namely the Union of Burma, the Republic of the Philippines, and the (then) Kingdom of Siam.

145 G.A. Res. 217A (III), U.N. Doc. A/RES/217A(III) (Dec. 10, 1948), http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/.

146 Statute, Rome, supra note 6, pmbl., paras. 3–4.

147 Kapur, , supra note 28, at 1068.

148 Desierto, , supra note 90, at 95, 108; Kapur, , supra note 28, at 1069.

149 Barcelona Traction (Belg. v. Spain), Judgment, 1970 I.C.J. 3, paras. 33-34 (Feb. 5, 1970).

150 Currently, Brunei, Indonesia, and Thailand have not signed the Genocide Convention. See Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, United Nations Treaty Collection, https://treaties.un.org/pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-1&chapter=4&lang=en.

151 See Kapur, supra note 28, at 1070.

152 Rome Conference, supra note 22, at 163 (statement of Puyawat Niyomrerks, Deputy Director-General, Department of Treaties and Legal Affairs, Thai Ministry of Foreign Affairs).

153 Kapur, , supra note 28, at 1070.

154 See Tomuschat, Christian, Asia and Internationa! Law—Common Ground and Regional Diversity, 1 Asian J. Int'l L. 217, 227 (2011).

155 Currently, Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam are observer states to the ASP.

156 Song, , supra note 51, at 206.

157 Framework Agreement on Comprehensive Partnership and Cooperation Between the European Community and Its Member States, of the One Part, and the Republic of Indonesia, of the Other Part, Apr. 26, 2014, 2014 O.J. (L 125/17), art. 4(3), http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=uriserv:OJ.L_.2D14.125.01.0017.01.ENG; the EU-Indonesia PCA entered into force on 1 May 2014.

158 Framework Agreement on Comprehensive Partnership and Cooperation Between the European Union and Its Member States, of the One Part, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, of the Other Part, June 27, 2012, art. 11(4), http://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/vietnam/documents/eu_vietnam/pca.pdf.

* Dr. Lasse Schuldt, Faculty of Law, Thammasat University, Bangkok. The author wishes to thank Ms. Papawadee Tanodomdej for her very helpful comments on a prior draft of this article.

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