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Published online by Cambridge University Press: 12 July 2019
This article explores parallels between the ‘shunning’ and ‘seeking’ of membership of the EU in the context of Brexit and stalled enlargement in south-east Europe, via a focus on the partial, fragmentary and contested governance of citizenship. The case studies place Union citizenship into a wider political and socio-economic context, demonstrating its central importance as an enabler of personal freedom. At the same time, they highlight how the denial or removal of Union citizenship can engender individual strategies to recover lost or denied benefits. From the analysis, parallels emerge between Union citizenship and national citizenship; both offer a promise of equality, but a reality of differentiation and inequality. At the same time, by delving deep into the case studies, it proves possible to illuminate the complex and often ‘messy’ constitutional edifice of the European Union, involving sometimes contradictory processes of Europeanisation and de-Europeanisation affecting citizenship regimes at all levels.
1 See most recently, in the context of the interpretation of Article 50 TEU, Case C-621/18 Wightman and others v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union ECLI:EU:C:2018:999.
3 Shaw, J, ‘Citizenship and Free Movement in a Changing EU: Navigating an Archipelago of Contradictions’ in Martill, B and Staiger, U (eds), Brexit and Beyond: Rethinking the Futures of Europe (UCL Press, London, 2018) 260.Google Scholar
4 U Staiger and B Martill, ‘Rethinking the Futures of Europe’ in ibid.
5 At the insistence of Greece because of concerns around its own region of Macedonia, on independence the country was formally known as the ‘Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia’. The country has recently altered its name after the Prespo agreement with Greece and is now called Northern Macedonia.
6 For a review of EU’s relations with the Western Balkans see Vogel, T, Out of Focus: the EU’s Relations with the Western Balkans, Blog, Heinrich Böll Foundation 9 October 2018, available at: <https://eu.boell.org/en/2018/10/09/out-focus-eus-relations-western-balkans>.Google Scholar
8 It should be noted that this binary division, and the importance of national sovereignty in this context, dominates the CJEU’s judgment in Wightman (n 1).
9 Baker, C, Race and the Yugoslav Region (Manchester University Press, Manchester 2018) 183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar Others have argued for parallels between the disintegration of Yugoslavia and the crisis of integration that the EU faces more generally: Becker, J, ‘In the Yugoslav Mirror: The EU Disintegration Crisis’ (2017) 14 Globalizations 840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
10 Zaccaria, B, The EEC’s Yugoslav Policy in Cold War Europe, 1968–1980 (Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2016);CrossRefGoogle Scholar Obadic, I, ‘A Troubled Relationship: Yugoslavia and the European Economic Community in Détente’ (2014) 21 European Review of History: Revue europeenne d’histoire 329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
12 Wincott, D, ‘Brexit and the State of the United Kingdom’ in Diamond, P, Nedergaard, P and Rosamond, B (eds), The Routledge Handbook of the Politics of Brexit (Routledge, London, 2018) 15;CrossRefGoogle Scholar Jessop, B, ‘The Organic Crisis of the British State: Putting Brexit in its Place’ (2017) 14 Globalizations 133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
14 Hillion, C, ‘The Creeping Nationalisation of the EU Enlargement Policy’, SIEPS Report 2010.Google Scholar
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18 Case C-184/99 Grzelczyk ECLI:EU:C:2001:458, para 31.
19 Strumia, F, ‘European Citizenship and Transnational Rights: Chronicles of a Troubled Narrative’ in Thym, D (ed), Questioning EU Citizenship: Judges and the Limits of Free Movement and Solidarity in the EU (Hart, Oxford, 2017) 149.Google Scholar
20 Wiesner, C et al., ‘Introduction: Shaping Citizenship as a Political Concept’ in Wiesner, C et al. (eds), Shaping Citizenship (Routledge, New York, NY, 2018) 1.Google Scholar
24 Koutrakos, P, Shuibhne, N Nic and Syrpis, P (eds), Exceptions from EU Free Movement Law: Derogation, Justification and Proportionality (Hart, Oxford, 2016).Google Scholar
29 The right to vote in European Parliament elections was confirmed by the CJEU in Case C-650/13 Delvigne ECLI:EU:C:2015:648.
31 Outhwaite, W, ‘Migration Crisis and “Brexit”’ in Menjívar, C et al. (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Migration Crises (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2019);Google Scholar Favell, A, ‘Brexit: A Requiem for the Post-National Society?’ (2019) 9 Global Discourse 157 <https://doi.10.1332/204378918X15453934506021>.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
32 C Cantat and P Rajaram, ‘The Politics of Refugee Crisis in Hungary: B/ordering the Nation and Its Others’ in Menjívar et al. (n 31).
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36 ‘Should EU Citizenship Be Duty-Free?’, Part III of Bauböck ibid.
37 Nicolaïdes, K, ‘Mutual Recognition: Promise and Denial, from Sapiens to Brexit’ (2017) 70 Current Legal Problems 1.Google Scholar
38 Shaw, J, ‘Citizenship: Contrasting Dynamics at the Interface of Integration and Constitutionalism’ in Craig, P and de Búrca, G (eds), The Evolution of EU Law (2nd edn, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011) 575;Google Scholar J Shaw, ‘EU Citizenship: Still a Fundamental Status?’ in Bauböck (n 35) 1.
39 Vasilopoulou and Talving (n 30).
41 Bellamy and Lacey ibid.
42 A tweet by former special advisor to Prime Minister Theresa May, Nick Timothy published on Twitter, 2 March 2018 (on file with author as screenshot).
44 The idea of EU citizens (or future EU citizens) as welfare or ‘poverty’ migrants is reflected in the CJEU’s judgment in Case C-333/14 Dano ECLI:EU:C:2014:2358, although the reality is that the migration picture into, across and out of the Western Balkans is rather mixed: International Organisation for Migration Report, Labour Migration Patterns, Policies and Migration Propensity in the Western Balkans (2010) available at: <https://publications.iom.int/books/labour-migration-patterns-policies-and-migration-propensity-western-balkans>..>Google Scholar
47 See Grzelczyk (n 18).
48 D Thym, ‘The Evolution of Citizens’ Rights in Light of the European Union’s Constitutional Development’ in Thym (n 19).
49 Worschech, S, ‘The “Making” of Europe in the Peripheries: Europeanization through Conflicts and Ambivalences’ Culture, Practice & Europeanization (2018) 3(3) 56.Google Scholar
51 For a practical example of the application of the insights of Europeanisation to the case of free movement (in the UK see J Shaw, ‘Between Law and Political Truth? Member State Preferences, EU Free Movement Rules and National Immigration Law’ (2015) 17 Cambridge Yearbook of European Legal Studies 247; see also D’Angelo, A and Kofman, E, ‘From Mobile Workers to Fellow Citizens and Back Again? The Future Status of EU Citizens in the UK’ (2018) 17 Social Policy and Society 331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
53 Trenz, HJ, The Saga of Europeanisation on the Narrative Construction of a European Society, ARENA Working Paper 7/2014.Google Scholar
54 Ibid 2.
58 See the case of Turkey: S Aydın-Düzgit and Kaliber, A, ‘Encounters with Europe in an Era of Domestic and International Turmoil: Is Turkey a De-Europeanising Candidate Country?’ (2016) 21 South European Society and Politics 1.Google Scholar
59 Thus far there has been relatively little scholarly attention focused on disintegration and de-Europeanisation. See Outhwaite, W, ‘De-Europeanisation after Brexit: Narrowing and Shallowing’ (2019) 9 Global Discourse 15;CrossRefGoogle Scholar Vollaard, H, ‘Explaining European Disintegration’ (2014) 52 Journal of Common Market Studies 1142;CrossRefGoogle Scholar Rosamond, B, ‘Brexit and the Problem of European Disintegration’ (2016) 12 Journal of Contemporary European Research 864.Google Scholar
60 Wiesner et al. (n 20) 1.
61 Ibid 10.
62 Krasniqi, G and Stjepanović, D, ‘Uneven Citizenship: Minorities and Migrants in the Post-Yugoslav Space’ (2015) 14 Ethnopolitics 113.Google Scholar
64 Sardelić, J, ‘The Position and Agency of the ‘‘Irregularized’’: Romani Migrants as European Semi-Citizens’ (2017) 37 Politics 332.Google Scholar
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66 Bruzelius, C, ‘Freedom of Movement, Social Rights and Residence-Based Conditionality in the European Union’ (2019) 19 Journal of European Social Policy 70;CrossRefGoogle Scholar Tervonen, M and Enache, A, ‘Coping with Everyday Bordering: Roma Migrants and Gatekeepers in Helsinki’ (2017) 40 Ethnic and Racial Studies 1114.Google Scholar
67 O’Brien, C, ‘Civis Capitalist Sum: Class as the New Guiding Principle of EU Free Movement Rights’ (2016) 53 Common Market Law Review 937.Google Scholar
68 Shaw (n 51).
70 See Shaw, ‘EU Citizenship: Still a Fundamental Status?’ in Bauböck (n 35); Oosterom-Staples, H, ‘The Triangular Relationship between Nationality, EU Citizenship and Migration in EU Law: A Tale of Competing Competences’ (2018) 65 Netherlands International Law Review 431.Google Scholar
71 Case C-369/90 ECLI:EU:C:1992:295.
72 Case C-34/09 ECLI:EU:C:2011:124.
73 Case C-135/08 ECLI:EU:C:2010:104.
74 European Commission, Investor Citizenship and Residence Schemes in the European Union, COM(2019) 12 (23 January 2019); for a brief review, see Džankić, J, ‘What’s in the EC’s Report on Investor Citizenship?’ GlobalCIT Blog (23 January 2019) available at: <http://globalcit.eu/whats-in-the-ecs-report-on-investor-citizenship/>.Google Scholar
75 Liechtenstein v Guatemala (Nottebohm)  ICJ 1.
76 Thwaites, R, ‘The Life and Times of the Genuine Link’ (2018) 49 Victoria University of Wellington Law Review 645;CrossRefGoogle Scholar Macklin, A, ‘Is It Time to Retire Nottebohm?’ (2017) 111 American Journal of International Law Unbound 492.Google Scholar Looked at purely from the perspective of citizenship competences, the Commission’s position looks rather weak (J Shaw, ‘Citizenship for Sale: Could and Should the EU Intervene?’ in Bauböck, R (ed), Debating Transformations of National Citizenship, IMISCOE Research Series (Springer International, Cham, 2018) but that is before we factor in questions related to its competences on issues such as money laundering and financial crime.Google Scholar
77 Art 4(3) third sentence TEU.
78 For the formalities to allow for signature of the Withdrawal Agreement, see Council Decision 2019/274, ECLI:http://data.europa.eu/eli/dec/2019/274/oj. The text of the Withdrawal Agreement as at 25 November 2018 is published in OJ 2019 C66 I/1. For discussion of the citizens’ rights aspects seek Garner, O, ‘Citizens’ Rights in the UK-EU Withdrawal Agreement: Ossifying EU Citizenship as a Juridical Status?’ GlobalCIT Blog (28 November 2018) available at: <http://globalcit.eu/citizens-rights-in-the-uk-eu-withdrawal-agreement-ossifying-eu-citizenship-as-a-juridical-status/>.Google Scholar
79 Political Declaration setting out the framework for the future relationship between the European Union and the United Kingdom (22 November 2018) OJ 2019 C66 I/185.
80 In her Mansion House speech in March 2018, Prime Minister May seemed to suggest there might be a special status in the UK for EU immigration after Brexit but this has yet to be translated into concrete policy. Available at <https:// www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-03-02/prime-minister-theresa-may-lays-out-her-brexit-vision-text>.
82 Details of the Swiss/EU arrangements on the Swiss Confederal Government website are available at: <https:// www.sem.admin.ch/sem/en/home/themen/fza_schweiz-eu-efta.html>.
83 A strict separation has been maintained between the Withdrawal Agreement and the future arrangements for immigration between the EU and the UK, reinforced by the deletion of an earlier Article 32 from the draft Withdrawal Agreement, concerning immigration matters, as it belonged only in the future relationship agreement. For discussion see N Nic Shuibhne, ‘Brexit Roundup: Free Movement and the Limits of EU Citizenship’ Scottish Centre on European Relations Blog (18 April 2018) available at: <https:// www.scer.scot/database/ident-5635>.
84 See Immigration and Social Security Co-ordination (EU Withdrawal) Bill, for details of passage through Parliament see <https:// www.parliament.uk/business/news/2019/parliamentary-news-2019/immigration-and-social-security-co-ordination-eu-withdrawal-bill-commons-stages/>. For further information see for details Commons Library Insight, The Immigration Bill: An End to Free Movement (15 January 2019) available at: <https://commonslibrary.parliament.uk/home-affairs/immigration/the-immigration-bill-an-end-to-free-movement/>. However, as of end June 2019, the UK Government had not published the EU (Withdrawal Agreement) Bill, needed both to enable Brexit to occur and to make good on promises to protect the rights of EU citizens, summary available at: <https:// www.gov.uk/government/news/government-confirms-detail-on-new-bill-that-will-put-withdrawal-agreement-into-law>.
85 A regularly updated overview is available at: <https://ec.europa.eu/info/brexit/brexit-preparedness_en>.
86 A regularly updated summary of the measures taken by Member States to protect citizens’ rights in the event of a no deal is available at: <https://ec.europa.eu/info/brexit/brexit-preparedness/residence-rights-uk-nationals-eu-member-states_en>.
87 McKinney, CJ, ‘Sweeping New Immigration Regulations Herald the End of Free Movement’ Free Movement Blog (13 February 2019) available at: <https://www.freemovement.org.uk/sweeping-new-immigration-regulations-herald-the-end-of-free-movement/>.Google Scholar For an analysis of the general situation before the publication of the UK’s recent materials, but after positions papers by both the UK and the European Commission, see Peers, S, ‘Staring into the Abyss: Citizens’ Rights after a No Deal Brexit, EU Law Analysis Blog (6 December 2018) available at: <eulawanalysis.blogspot.com/2018/12/staring-into-abyss-citizens-rights.html>.Google Scholar
88 Cf. Burns et al. (n 57) on the ease of dismantling centralised policy areas with few dispersed stakeholders.
89 S Dhingra et al., ‘Brexit and the Impact of Immigration on the UK’ Paper No CEPBREXIT05 (May 2016).
90 For further information see the findings of the research project Brexit Brits Abroad <https://brexitbritsabroad.com/>.
91 For an analysis, see Lis, J, ‘No, We’re Not Being Bullied by the EU over Brexit’ Prospect Magazine (2 November 2018) available at: <https://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/politics/the-myth-of-brexit-as-punishment>.Google Scholar
94 Klaassen, M, ‘The Status of UK Citizens in the EU after Brexit’ Leiden Law Blog (7 February 2019) available at: <https://leidenlawblog.nl/articles/the-status-of-uk-citizens-in-the-eu-after-brexit>.Google Scholar
95 Peers, S, ‘EU27 and UK Citizens’ Acquired Rights in the Brexit Withdrawal Agreement: Detailed Analysis and Annotation’ EU Law Analysis 1 (3 March 2018) available at: <eulawanalysis.blogspot.co.uk/2018/03/eu27-and-uk-citizens-acquired-rights-in.html>;Google Scholar Ranta, R and Nancheva, N, ‘Unsettled: Brexit and European Union Nationals’ Sense of Belonging’ (2019) 25 Population, Space and Place <https://doi.10.1002/psp.2199>; Guma and Dafydd Jones (n 21).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
96 On the options for unilateral protection or ring-fencing, see Smismans, S, ‘Six Brexit Scenarios for Citizens’ Rights’ The UK in a Changing Europe Blog (12 October 2018) available at: <https://ukandeu.ac.uk/explainers/six-brexit-scenarios-for-citizens-rights/>.Google Scholar
97 For the background see Smismans, S, Ring-Fencing Citizens’ Rights in the Brexit Negotiations: Legal Framework and Political Dynamics (28 January 2019) DCU Brexit Institute – Working Paper N.1 – 2019.Google Scholar
98 I Solanke, ‘Who Speaks for the Zambrano Families? Multi-level Abandonment in the UK and EU’ in Dustin et al. (n 63) 151.
99 Details of the UK’s Settled Status and Pre-Settled Status for EU and EEA citizens who have been in the UK for five years (or less in the case of pre-settled status): <https:// www.gov.uk/settled-status-eu-citizens-families>. The scheme (and fears that the Home Office will not cope) is discussed in Getting It Right from the Start: Securing the Future for EU Citizens in the UK, a Report for British Future by Jill Rutter and Steve Ballinger (January 2019) available at: <http://www.britishfuture.org/articles/eu-settlement-scheme/>.
100 See Sumption, M and Kone, Z, Unsettled Status: Which EU Citizens Are at Risk of Failing to Secure Their Rights after Brexit?, Migration Observatory Report, COMPAS, University of Oxford (12 April 2018) available at: <http://migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Report-Unsettled_Status.pdf>; see alsoGoogle Scholar Zawacki, S, ‘Fear Mounts as Roma Prepare to Apply for Post-Brexit Settled Status in the UK’ The Conversation (22 August 2018) available at: <https://theconversation.com/fear-mounts-as-roma-prepare-to-apply-for-post-brexit-settled-status-in-the-uk-100710> and ILPA briefing, EU Settled Status Automated Data Checks (30 January 2019) available at: <http://www.ilpa.org.uk/resources.php/35100/eu-settled-status-automated-data-checks-ilpa-research-piece-30-january-2019>.Google Scholar
101 Bulat, A, ‘The Rights of Non-UK EU Citizens Living Here Are Not a “Done Deal”. This Is Why’, LSE Brexit Blog (27 February 2018) available at: <https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/brexit/2018/02/27/the-rights-of-non-uk-eu-citizens-living-here-are-not-a-done-deal-this-is-why/>.Google Scholar In response to legal action brought by the Joint Council for the Welfare of Immigrants, changes were made in that area to the Scheme by the Home Office in March 2019. For details see: <https:// www.freemovement.org.uk/home-office-softens-eu-settled-status-requirements-after-charitys-legal-action/>.
102 C Yeo, ‘The Impact of the UK-EU Agreement on Residence Rights for EU Families’ Eurochildren Research Brief No 1; Yeo, C, ‘The Impact of the UK-EU Agreement on Residence Rights for EU Families’ (2018) Eurochildren Research Brief No 2.Google Scholar
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104 Garner, O, ‘Citizens’ Rights in the UK-EU Withdrawal Agreement: Ossifying EU Citizenship as a Juridical Status?’ Global CIT Blog (28 November 2018) available at: <http://globalcit.eu/citizens-rights-in-the-uk-eu-withdrawal-agreement-ossifying-eu-citizenship-as-a-juridical-status/>.Google Scholar
105 Smismans, S, ‘EU Citizens in the UK Are in a Particularly Weak Position and Need an Independent Authority to Monitor Their Rights’ LSE Brexit Blog (26 March 2018) available at: <https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/brexit/2018/03/26/eu-citizens-in-the-uk-need-a-independent-authority-to-monitor-their-rights/>.Google Scholar
106 See Smismans, S, ‘EU Citizens’ Rights Post Brexit: Why Direct Effect beyond the EU Is Not Enough’ (2018) 14 European Constitutional Law Review 443; andCrossRefGoogle Scholar Daly, P et al., Brexit and EU Nationals: Options for Implementation in UK Law, University of Cambridge Faculty of Law Research Paper No. 1/2018. Available at <https://ssrn.com/abstract=3077036>.Google Scholar
107 For a counterbalance, see Klaassen (n 94).
109 See European Citizens’ Initiative on Permanent European Citizenship registered by the Commission, Press Release IP/18/4566 (18 July 2018) available at: <http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-18-4566_en.htm>.
110 Yong, A, ‘Britons Shouldn’t Get Their Hopes up about Keeping EU Citizenship after Brexit’ The Conversation (21 February 2018) available at: <https://theconversation.com/britons-shouldnt-get-their-hopes-up-about-keeping-eu-citizenship-after-brexit-91501>;Google Scholar also negative is AP van der Mei, ‘EU Citizenship and Loss of Member State Nationality’ (2018) 3 European Papers 1319. Compare the argument of Garner, O, ‘The Existential Crisis of Citizenship of the European Union: The Argument for an Autonomous Status’ (2018) 20 Cambridge Yearbook of European Legal Studies 116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
111 Jablonowski, K, ‘You Don’t Have Rights, You Use Them: Brexit and European Citizenship’ Sociological Review Blog (13 July 2017) available at: <https://www.thesociologicalreview.com/blog/you-dont-have-rights-you-use-them-brexit-and-european-citizenship.html>.Google Scholar
112 Examples of the advocacy work involving the highlighting of personal narratives are available at: <http://www.ourbrexitblog.eu/blog/category/in-limbo/>.
113 ‘Net Migration from EU to UK Falls 70% since Brexit vote’ Financial Times (28 February 2019) available at: <https://www.ft.com/content/960b4672-3b3e-11e9-b72b-2c7f526ca5d0>; migration statistics for the UK are available at: <https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/internationalmigration>.
115 The Belfast Agreement (10 April 1998) available at: <https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-belfast-agreement>; see ‘UK Accused of Not Honouring Dual Citizenship Commitments’ The Irish Times (6 March 2019) available at: <https://www.irishtimes.com/news/world/europe/uk-accused-of-not-honouring-dual-citizenship-commitments-1.3816393>.
116 Cf Commission Report on Investor Citizenship (n 74).
118 Case C-434/09 McCarthy v SSHD ECLI:EU:C:2011:277.
119 Case C-165/16 Lounes v SSHD ECLI:EU:C:2017:862. For commentary see D de Groot, ‘Free Movement of Dual EU Citizens’ (2018) 3 European Papers 1075.
120 Case C-135/08 Rottmann v Freistaat Bayern ECLI:EU:C:2010:104.
121 See the judgment of Laws LJ, at para 43, in G1 v Secretary of State for the Home Department,  EWCA Civ 867.
122 For suggestions, see Schrauwen, A, ‘(Not) Losing out from Brexit’ (2017) 1 Europe and the World 1;Google Scholar Mindus, P, European Citizenship after Brexit: Freedom of Movement and Rights of Residence (Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2017);CrossRefGoogle Scholar Cambien, N, ‘Residence Rights for EU Citizens and Their Family Members: Navigating the New Normal’ (2018) 3 European Papers 1333.Google Scholar The adoption of a human rights approach would require a significant shift on the part of the CJEU, given the limitations of the approach of the European Court of Human Rights to nationality issues: Dembour, M, ‘Ramadan v. Malta: When Will the Strasbourg Court Understand That Nationality Is a Core Human Rights Issue?’ Strasbourg Observers (22 July 2016) available at: <https://strasbourgobservers.com/2016/07/22/ramadan-v-malta-when-will-the-strasbourg-court-understand-that-nationality-is-a-core-human-rights-issue/>.Google Scholar
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124 McCrea, R, ‘Brexit EU Citizenship Rights of UK Nationals and the Court of Justice’ UK Constitutional Law Blog (8 February 2018) available at: <https://ukconstitutionallaw.org/2018/02/08/ronan-mccrea-brexit-eu-citizenship-rights-of-uk-nationals-and-the-court-of-justice/>; van der Mei (n 110).Google Scholar
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126 Peers, S, ‘UK Citizens as Non-EU Citizens in the EU after Brexit: Applying the EU Directive on Non-EU Long-Term Residents’ EU Law Analysis Blog (27 December 2018) available at: <http://eulawanalysis.blogspot.com/2018/12/uk-citizens-as-non-eu-citizens-in-eu.html>.Google Scholar
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128 Kurić and Others v Slovenia, No 26828/06,  56 EHRR 20.
129 Vidmar, J, ‘Brexit, Democracy and Human Rights: The Law between Secession and Treaty Withdrawal’ (2018) 35 Wisconsin International Law Journal 426.Google Scholar
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131 Case C-221/17 Tjebbes v Minister van Buitenlandse Zaken ECLI:EU:C:2019:189.
133 For details see (n 99).
134 For details see Home Office in the Media, Factsheet: EU Settlement Scheme Fee Waiver (21 January 2019) available at: <https://homeofficemedia.blog.gov.uk/2019/01/21/factsheet-eu-settlement-scheme-fee-waiver/>.
135 Barriers include (a) obtaining an EU permanent residence card (under existing EU law), which requires a person not working to show that they have private health insurance; (b) passing the life in the UK test; (c) high fees; and (d) passing a good character test. Details are available at: <https:// www.gov.uk/apply-citizenship-eea>. In the UK, the share of citizenships granted to other EU citizens increased from 12 per cent to 24 per cent between 2016 and 2017: see ‘Naturalisation as a British Citizen: Concepts and Trends’ (3 August 2018) available at: <https://migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/resources/briefings/naturalisation-as-a-british-citizen-concepts-and-trends/>. The true scale of the Brexit related push towards the acquisition of a new citizenship is yet to emerge, but anecdotal evidence has been gathered, e.g. Paduano, S, ‘The Great British Race to Get a Second Passport’ Foreign Policy (29 January 2019) available at: <https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/01/29/britains-great-race-to-get-a-second-passport/>.Google Scholar Eurostat figures for 2017 (‘EU Member States Granted Citizenship to over 800 Thousand Persons in 2017’, Eurostat News release 41/2019, 6 March 2019) highlight that within the EU only Romanians and Poles exceeded the number of UK citizens acquiring another EU citizenship, and the number of UK citizens acquiring another citizenship more than doubled between 2016 and 2017 (6,555 to 14,911).
136 See Yeo, Eurochildren Research Brief No 2 (n 102).
137 See House of Lords European Union Committee, Brexit: Acquired Rights, 10th Report of Session 2016–17, HL Paper 82; Guma and Dafydd Jones (n 21); Ranta and Nancheva (n 95).
139 The full text of May’s speech is available at: <https:// www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/10/05/theresa-mays-conference-speech-in-full/>.
140 Dutch Nationals Taking UK Citizenship ‘‘Will Lose Netherlands Passports’’’ The Guardian (17 July 2017) available at: <https:// www.theguardian.com/politics/2017/jul/17/dutch-nationals-brexit-uk-citizenship-lose-netherlands-passports-mark-rutte>..>Google Scholar
141 See ‘Brexit: Dutch Nationals Living in Britain Will Be Allowed Dual Citizenship’ The Guardian (10 October 2017) available at: <https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/oct/10/dutch-nationals-living-britain-allowed-dual-citizenship-brexit>; ‘D66 Calls for Relaxation of Dual Nationality Rules for People Hit by Brexit’ Dutch News (28 January 2019) available at: <https:// www.dutchnews.nl/news/2019/01/d66-calls-for-relaxation-of-dual-nationality-rules-for-people-hit-by-brexit/>.
142 See ‘Brexit Transition Act’, Federal Foreign Office (1 February 2019) available at: <https:// www.auswaertiges-amt.de/en/aussenpolitik/europa/transitional-brexitact/2119778>.
145 See Shaw, J, ‘Unions and Citizens: Membership Status and Political Rights in Scotland, the UK and the EU’ in Closa (n 15) 153.Google Scholar
146 d’Oliveira, HUJ, Brexit, Nationality and Union Citizenship: Bottom Up, EUI Working Paper, RSCAS 2018/49.Google Scholar
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153 See (n 10).
154 For more on citizenship in SFRY see Štiks, I, Nations and Citizens in Yugoslavia and the Post-Yugoslav States: One Hundred Years of Citizenship (Bloomsbury Academic, London, 2015) Ch 3–5.Google Scholar
155 Dahinden, J, ‘Understanding (Post-)Yugoslav Migration through the Lenses of Current Concepts in Migration Research: Migrant Networks and Transnationalism’ in Brunnbauer, U (ed), Transnational Societies, Transterritorial Politics: Migration in the (Post-)Yugoslav Area, 19th-21st Centuries (De Gruyter, Berlin/Boston, 2009).Google Scholar
156 Štiks (n 154) Ch 6.
157 See Štiks (n 154); Shaw and Štiks (n 152); Džankić, J, Citizenship in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Montenegro: Effects of Statehood and Identity Challenges (Ashgate, Farnham, 2015).Google Scholar
158 Shaw and Štiks (n 152).
160 Ðorđević, B, ‘Whose Rights, Whose Return? The Boundary Problem and Unequal Restoration of Citizenship in the Post-Yugoslav Space’ (2015) 14 Ethnopolitics 121;CrossRefGoogle Scholar Koska, V, ‘Refugee Integration and Citizenship Policies: The Case Study of Croatian Serbs in Vojvodina’ (2015) 14 Ethnopolitics 180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
162 Krasniqi and Stjepanović (n 62) 114.
163 See Džankić (n 157).
164 Džankić, J, Country Report. Montenegro, EUDO Citizenship/GlobalCIT (November 2012) at fn 9, available at: <http://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/19627/RSCAS_EUDO_CIT_CR_2012_05.pdf>.Google Scholar
166 E Sarajlić, ‘Conceptualising Citizenship Regime(s) in Post-Dayton Bosnia and Herzegovina’ in Shaw and Štiks (n 152) 83.
167 See Shaw (n 152).
168 L Spaskovska, ‘The Fractured “We” and the Ethno-National “I” – the Macedonian Citizenship Framework’ in Shaw and Štiks (n 152) 99.
169 G Krasniqi, ‘Overlapping Jurisdictions, Disputed Territory, Unsettled State: The Perplexing Case of Citizenship in Kosovo’ in Shaw and Štiks (n 152) 69.
170 Džankić, J and Keil, S, ‘The Europeanisation of Contested States: Comparing Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Montenegro’ in Džankić, J et al. (eds), The Europeanisation of the Western Balkans: A Failure of EU Conditionality? (New Perspectives on South-East Europe) (Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2018) 181.Google Scholar
172 J Vasiljević, ‘Imagining and Managing the Nation: Tracing Citizenship Policies in Serbia’ in Shaw and Štiks (n 152) 48.
173 Kacarska (n 171).
175 J Sardelić, From Temporary Protection to Transit Migration: Responses to Refugee Crises along the Western Balkan Route, EUI Working Paper, RSCAS 2017/35; C Minca et al., ‘Managing the “Refugee Crisis” along the Balkan Route: Field Notes from Serbia’ in Menjívar et al. (n 31).
176 D Župarić-Iljić and M Valenta, ‘“Refugee Crisis” in the Southeastern European Countries: The Rise and Fall of the Balkan Corridor’ in Menjívar et al. (n 31).
177 Commission Communication, A Credible Enlargement Perspective for and Enhanced EU Engagement with the Western Balkans, COM(2018) 65 (6 February 2018).
178 E Fouéré, ‘The Greek-Macedonian Name agreement - Promoting Reconciliation in the Western Balkans’ CEPS Commentary (29 January 2019).
179 Hillion (n 14); F Bieber, ‘Conclusion: Rethinking Europeanisation’ in Džankić et al. (n 170) 237.
181 ‘EU-Western Balkans Summit: Improving Connectivity and Security in the Region’ European Commission Press Release, IP/18/3821 (17 May 2018).
182 Baker (n 9).
183 Horvat, S and Štiks, I (eds), Welcome to the Desert of Post-Socialism Radical Politics after Yugoslavia (Verso Books, London, 2015).Google Scholar
186 On attitudes to EU membership and accession see the data collected on the Balkan Public Barometer available at: <https:// www.rcc.int/seeds/results/2/balkan-opinion-barometer>.
187 Castaldo, A and Pinna, A, ‘De-Europeanization in the Balkans. Media Freedom in Post-Milošević Serbia’ (2018) 19 European Politics and Society 264.Google Scholar
188 See Fouéré (n 178).
189 M Stojić, Party Responses to the EU in the Western Balkans (Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 2018).
190 Belloni (n 22).
191 Harpaz (n 117).
192 Tóth, J, ‘The Curious Case of Hungary: Why the Naturalisation Rate Does Not Always Show How Inclusive a Country Is’ GlobalCIT Blog (3 January 2018) available at: <http://globalcit.eu/the-curious-case-of-hungary-why-the-naturalisation-rate-does-not-always-show-how-inclusive-a-country-is/>;Google Scholar Pogonyi, Sz, ‘The Passport as Means of Identity Management: Making and Unmaking Ethnic Boundaries through Citizenship’ (2018) Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 975 <https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2018.1440493>.Google Scholar
193 A recent report about numbers of migrants to Croatia contains a reminder that those coming from Bosnia are often likely to have Croatian citizenship already so will not count in those figures: ‘43,000 People Moved to Croatia in 2018, Mostly from Bosnia and Serbia’ Total Croatia News (4 February 2019) available at: <https:// www.total-croatia-news.com/politics/33961-croatia-in-2018>.
194 V Neofotistos, ‘Bulgarian Passports, Macedonian Identity’ (2009) 25 Anthropology Today 19.
195 See text at (n 74) and following.
196 Majtényi, B et al., ‘“Only Fidesz” – Minority Electoral Law in Hungary’ Verfassungsblog (31 March 2018) available at: <https://verfassungsblog.de/only-fidesz-electoral-law-in-hungary/>.Google Scholar
198 For further details see ‘Acquisition of Citizenship Statistics’, Eurostat Statistics Explained (March 2019) available at: <https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Acquisition_of_citizenship_statistics>.
199 ‘Austrian Citizenship Awarded to Nearly 10,000 Foreigners’ Vindobona (28 February 2019) <https:// www.vindobona.org/article/austrian-citizenship-awarded-to-nearly-10-000-foreigners>.
200 See Džankić (n 157).
202 Belloni, R and Brunazzo, M, ‘After “Brexit”: The Western Balkans in the European Waiting Room’ (2017) 4(1) European Review of International Studies 21.Google Scholar
203 Calhoun, C, ‘Populism, Nationalism and Brexit’ in Outhwaite, W (ed), Brexit: Sociological Responses (Anthem Press, London, 2017) 57.Google Scholar
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