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‘Shunning’ and ‘seeking’ membership: Rethinking citizenship regimes in the European constitutional space

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 July 2019

JO SHAW
Affiliation:
School of Law, University of Edinburgh, South Bridge, Edinburgh EH8 9YL
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract:

This article explores parallels between the ‘shunning’ and ‘seeking’ of membership of the EU in the context of Brexit and stalled enlargement in south-east Europe, via a focus on the partial, fragmentary and contested governance of citizenship. The case studies place Union citizenship into a wider political and socio-economic context, demonstrating its central importance as an enabler of personal freedom. At the same time, they highlight how the denial or removal of Union citizenship can engender individual strategies to recover lost or denied benefits. From the analysis, parallels emerge between Union citizenship and national citizenship; both offer a promise of equality, but a reality of differentiation and inequality. At the same time, by delving deep into the case studies, it proves possible to illuminate the complex and often ‘messy’ constitutional edifice of the European Union, involving sometimes contradictory processes of Europeanisation and de-Europeanisation affecting citizenship regimes at all levels.

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Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2019 

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Footnotes

*

Jo Shaw holds the Salvesen Chair of European Institutions at the University of Edinburgh and a part-time professorship in the New Social Research Programme at Tampere University. jo.shaw@ed.ac.uk

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39 Vasilopoulou and Talving (n 30).

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61 Ibid 10.

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74 European Commission, Investor Citizenship and Residence Schemes in the European Union, COM(2019) 12 (23 January 2019); for a brief review, see Džankić, J, ‘What’s in the EC’s Report on Investor Citizenship?GlobalCIT Blog (23 January 2019) available at: <http://globalcit.eu/whats-in-the-ecs-report-on-investor-citizenship/>.Google Scholar

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80 In her Mansion House speech in March 2018, Prime Minister May seemed to suggest there might be a special status in the UK for EU immigration after Brexit but this has yet to be translated into concrete policy. Available at <https:// www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-03-02/prime-minister-theresa-may-lays-out-her-brexit-vision-text>.

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82 Details of the Swiss/EU arrangements on the Swiss Confederal Government website are available at: <https:// www.sem.admin.ch/sem/en/home/themen/fza_schweiz-eu-efta.html>.

83 A strict separation has been maintained between the Withdrawal Agreement and the future arrangements for immigration between the EU and the UK, reinforced by the deletion of an earlier Article 32 from the draft Withdrawal Agreement, concerning immigration matters, as it belonged only in the future relationship agreement. For discussion see N Nic Shuibhne, ‘Brexit Roundup: Free Movement and the Limits of EU Citizenship’ Scottish Centre on European Relations Blog (18 April 2018) available at: <https:// www.scer.scot/database/ident-5635>.

84 See Immigration and Social Security Co-ordination (EU Withdrawal) Bill, for details of passage through Parliament see <https:// www.parliament.uk/business/news/2019/parliamentary-news-2019/immigration-and-social-security-co-ordination-eu-withdrawal-bill-commons-stages/>. For further information see for details Commons Library Insight, The Immigration Bill: An End to Free Movement (15 January 2019) available at: <https://commonslibrary.parliament.uk/home-affairs/immigration/the-immigration-bill-an-end-to-free-movement/>. However, as of end June 2019, the UK Government had not published the EU (Withdrawal Agreement) Bill, needed both to enable Brexit to occur and to make good on promises to protect the rights of EU citizens, summary available at: <https:// www.gov.uk/government/news/government-confirms-detail-on-new-bill-that-will-put-withdrawal-agreement-into-law>.

85 A regularly updated overview is available at: <https://ec.europa.eu/info/brexit/brexit-preparedness_en>.

86 A regularly updated summary of the measures taken by Member States to protect citizens’ rights in the event of a no deal is available at: <https://ec.europa.eu/info/brexit/brexit-preparedness/residence-rights-uk-nationals-eu-member-states_en>.

87 McKinney, CJ, ‘Sweeping New Immigration Regulations Herald the End of Free MovementFree Movement Blog (13 February 2019) available at: <https://www.freemovement.org.uk/sweeping-new-immigration-regulations-herald-the-end-of-free-movement/>.Google Scholar For an analysis of the general situation before the publication of the UK’s recent materials, but after positions papers by both the UK and the European Commission, see Peers, S, ‘Staring into the Abyss: Citizens’ Rights after a No Deal Brexit, EU Law Analysis Blog (6 December 2018) available at: <eulawanalysis.blogspot.com/2018/12/staring-into-abyss-citizens-rights.html>.Google Scholar

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89 S Dhingra et al., ‘Brexit and the Impact of Immigration on the UK’ Paper No CEPBREXIT05 (May 2016).

90 For further information see the findings of the research project Brexit Brits Abroad <https://brexitbritsabroad.com/>.

91 For an analysis, see Lis, J, ‘No, We’re Not Being Bullied by the EU over BrexitProspect Magazine (2 November 2018) available at: <https://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/politics/the-myth-of-brexit-as-punishment>.Google Scholar

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93 Reg (EU) 2019/592, ECLI:http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg/2019/592/oj.

94 Klaassen, M, ‘The Status of UK Citizens in the EU after BrexitLeiden Law Blog (7 February 2019) available at: <https://leidenlawblog.nl/articles/the-status-of-uk-citizens-in-the-eu-after-brexit>.Google Scholar

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99 Details of the UK’s Settled Status and Pre-Settled Status for EU and EEA citizens who have been in the UK for five years (or less in the case of pre-settled status): <https:// www.gov.uk/settled-status-eu-citizens-families>. The scheme (and fears that the Home Office will not cope) is discussed in Getting It Right from the Start: Securing the Future for EU Citizens in the UK, a Report for British Future by Jill Rutter and Steve Ballinger (January 2019) available at: <http://www.britishfuture.org/articles/eu-settlement-scheme/>.

100 See Sumption, M and Kone, Z, Unsettled Status: Which EU Citizens Are at Risk of Failing to Secure Their Rights after Brexit?, Migration Observatory Report, COMPAS, University of Oxford (12 April 2018) available at: <http://migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Report-Unsettled_Status.pdf>; see alsoGoogle Scholar Zawacki, S, ‘Fear Mounts as Roma Prepare to Apply for Post-Brexit Settled Status in the UKThe Conversation (22 August 2018) available at: <https://theconversation.com/fear-mounts-as-roma-prepare-to-apply-for-post-brexit-settled-status-in-the-uk-100710> and ILPA briefing, EU Settled Status Automated Data Checks (30 January 2019) available at: <http://www.ilpa.org.uk/resources.php/35100/eu-settled-status-automated-data-checks-ilpa-research-piece-30-january-2019>.Google Scholar

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102 C Yeo, ‘The Impact of the UK-EU Agreement on Residence Rights for EU Families’ Eurochildren Research Brief No 1; Yeo, C, ‘The Impact of the UK-EU Agreement on Residence Rights for EU Families’ (2018) Eurochildren Research Brief No 2.Google Scholar

103 Warwick, B, ‘A Windrush in Waiting: Post-Brexit Categories of Citizen in Northern IrelandLSE Brexit Blog (11 September 2018) available at: <https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/brexit/2018/09/11/a-windrush-in-waiting-post-brexit-categories-of-citizen-in-northern-ireland/>.Google Scholar

104 Garner, O, ‘Citizens’ Rights in the UK-EU Withdrawal Agreement: Ossifying EU Citizenship as a Juridical Status?Global CIT Blog (28 November 2018) available at: <http://globalcit.eu/citizens-rights-in-the-uk-eu-withdrawal-agreement-ossifying-eu-citizenship-as-a-juridical-status/>.Google Scholar

105 Smismans, S, ‘EU Citizens in the UK Are in a Particularly Weak Position and Need an Independent Authority to Monitor Their RightsLSE Brexit Blog (26 March 2018) available at: <https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/brexit/2018/03/26/eu-citizens-in-the-uk-need-a-independent-authority-to-monitor-their-rights/>.Google Scholar

106 See Smismans, S, ‘EU Citizens’ Rights Post Brexit: Why Direct Effect beyond the EU Is Not Enough’ (2018) 14 European Constitutional Law Review 443; andCrossRefGoogle Scholar Daly, P et al., Brexit and EU Nationals: Options for Implementation in UK Law, University of Cambridge Faculty of Law Research Paper No. 1/2018. Available at <https://ssrn.com/abstract=3077036>.Google Scholar

107 For a counterbalance, see Klaassen (n 94).

108 Brändle, V, Galpin, C and Trenz, HJ, ‘Marching for Europe? Enacting European Citizenship as Justice during Brexit’ (2018) 22 Citizenship Studies 810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

109 See European Citizens’ Initiative on Permanent European Citizenship registered by the Commission, Press Release IP/18/4566 (18 July 2018) available at: <http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-18-4566_en.htm>.

110 Yong, A, ‘Britons Shouldn’t Get Their Hopes up about Keeping EU Citizenship after Brexit’ The Conversation (21 February 2018) available at: <https://theconversation.com/britons-shouldnt-get-their-hopes-up-about-keeping-eu-citizenship-after-brexit-91501>;Google Scholar also negative is AP van der Mei, ‘EU Citizenship and Loss of Member State Nationality’ (2018) 3 European Papers 1319. Compare the argument of Garner, O, ‘The Existential Crisis of Citizenship of the European Union: The Argument for an Autonomous Status’ (2018) 20 Cambridge Yearbook of European Legal Studies 116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

111 Jablonowski, K, ‘You Don’t Have Rights, You Use Them: Brexit and European CitizenshipSociological Review Blog (13 July 2017) available at: <https://www.thesociologicalreview.com/blog/you-dont-have-rights-you-use-them-brexit-and-european-citizenship.html>.Google Scholar

112 Examples of the advocacy work involving the highlighting of personal narratives are available at: <http://www.ourbrexitblog.eu/blog/category/in-limbo/>.

113 ‘Net Migration from EU to UK Falls 70% since Brexit vote’ Financial Times (28 February 2019) available at: <https://www.ft.com/content/960b4672-3b3e-11e9-b72b-2c7f526ca5d0>; migration statistics for the UK are available at: <https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/internationalmigration>.

114 On the common case of Irish ancestry for UK citizens, see Wood, P Burke and Gilmartin, M, ‘Irish Enough: Changing Narratives of Citizenship and National Identity in the Context of Brexit’ (2018) 22 Space and Polity 224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

115 The Belfast Agreement (10 April 1998) available at: <https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-belfast-agreement>; see ‘UK Accused of Not Honouring Dual Citizenship Commitments’ The Irish Times (6 March 2019) available at: <https://www.irishtimes.com/news/world/europe/uk-accused-of-not-honouring-dual-citizenship-commitments-1.3816393>.

116 Cf Commission Report on Investor Citizenship (n 74).

117 Harpaz, Y, ‘Compensatory Citizenship: Dual Nationality as a Strategy of Global Upward Mobility’ (2018) Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies <https://doi.10.1080/1369183X.2018.1440486>.Google Scholar

118 Case C-434/09 McCarthy v SSHD ECLI:EU:C:2011:277.

119 Case C-165/16 Lounes v SSHD ECLI:EU:C:2017:862. For commentary see D de Groot, ‘Free Movement of Dual EU Citizens’ (2018) 3 European Papers 1075.

120 Case C-135/08 Rottmann v Freistaat Bayern ECLI:EU:C:2010:104.

121 See the judgment of Laws LJ, at para 43, in G1 v Secretary of State for the Home Department, [2012] EWCA Civ 867.

122 For suggestions, see Schrauwen, A, ‘(Not) Losing out from Brexit’ (2017) 1 Europe and the World 1;Google Scholar Mindus, P, European Citizenship after Brexit: Freedom of Movement and Rights of Residence (Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2017);CrossRefGoogle Scholar Cambien, N, ‘Residence Rights for EU Citizens and Their Family Members: Navigating the New Normal’ (2018) 3 European Papers 1333.Google Scholar The adoption of a human rights approach would require a significant shift on the part of the CJEU, given the limitations of the approach of the European Court of Human Rights to nationality issues: Dembour, M, ‘Ramadan v. Malta: When Will the Strasbourg Court Understand That Nationality Is a Core Human Rights Issue?’ Strasbourg Observers (22 July 2016) available at: <https://strasbourgobservers.com/2016/07/22/ramadan-v-malta-when-will-the-strasbourg-court-understand-that-nationality-is-a-core-human-rights-issue/>.Google Scholar

123 ‘Appeal Judges Reject British EU Citizenship Claim, Won’t Refer to EU court’ Dutch News (21 June 2018) available at: <https://www.dutchnews.nl/news/2018/06/appeal-judges-reject-british-eu-citizenship-claim-wont-refer-to-eu-court/>.

124 McCrea, R, ‘Brexit EU Citizenship Rights of UK Nationals and the Court of JusticeUK Constitutional Law Blog (8 February 2018) available at: <https://ukconstitutionallaw.org/2018/02/08/ronan-mccrea-brexit-eu-citizenship-rights-of-uk-nationals-and-the-court-of-justice/>; van der Mei (n 110).Google Scholar

125 See Wightman (n 1) at para 64. The CJEU made this statement to buttress the argument that the decision to leave the EU must be a voluntary sovereign act, so that it followed that a Member State is in a position to withdraw its art 50 TEU notification unilaterally, subject to the condition that this notice should be unequivocal and unconditional.

126 Peers, S, ‘UK Citizens as Non-EU Citizens in the EU after Brexit: Applying the EU Directive on Non-EU Long-Term ResidentsEU Law Analysis Blog (27 December 2018) available at: <http://eulawanalysis.blogspot.com/2018/12/uk-citizens-as-non-eu-citizens-in-eu.html>.Google Scholar

127 See Peers (n 87).

128 Kurić and Others v Slovenia, No 26828/06, [2013] 56 EHRR 20.

129 Vidmar, J, ‘Brexit, Democracy and Human Rights: The Law between Secession and Treaty Withdrawal’ (2018) 35 Wisconsin International Law Journal 426.Google Scholar

130 Mindus (n 122); and Schrauwen (n 122).

131 Case C-221/17 Tjebbes v Minister van Buitenlandse Zaken ECLI:EU:C:2019:189.

132 ECLI:EU:C:2018:572.

133 For details see (n 99).

134 For details see Home Office in the Media, Factsheet: EU Settlement Scheme Fee Waiver (21 January 2019) available at: <https://homeofficemedia.blog.gov.uk/2019/01/21/factsheet-eu-settlement-scheme-fee-waiver/>.

135 Barriers include (a) obtaining an EU permanent residence card (under existing EU law), which requires a person not working to show that they have private health insurance; (b) passing the life in the UK test; (c) high fees; and (d) passing a good character test. Details are available at: <https:// www.gov.uk/apply-citizenship-eea>. In the UK, the share of citizenships granted to other EU citizens increased from 12 per cent to 24 per cent between 2016 and 2017: see ‘Naturalisation as a British Citizen: Concepts and Trends’ (3 August 2018) available at: <https://migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/resources/briefings/naturalisation-as-a-british-citizen-concepts-and-trends/>. The true scale of the Brexit related push towards the acquisition of a new citizenship is yet to emerge, but anecdotal evidence has been gathered, e.g. Paduano, S, ‘The Great British Race to Get a Second PassportForeign Policy (29 January 2019) available at: <https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/01/29/britains-great-race-to-get-a-second-passport/>.Google Scholar Eurostat figures for 2017 (‘EU Member States Granted Citizenship to over 800 Thousand Persons in 2017’, Eurostat News release 41/2019, 6 March 2019) highlight that within the EU only Romanians and Poles exceeded the number of UK citizens acquiring another EU citizenship, and the number of UK citizens acquiring another citizenship more than doubled between 2016 and 2017 (6,555 to 14,911).

136 See Yeo, Eurochildren Research Brief No 2 (n 102).

137 See House of Lords European Union Committee, Brexit: Acquired Rights, 10th Report of Session 2016–17, HL Paper 82; Guma and Dafydd Jones (n 21); Ranta and Nancheva (n 95).

138 Heald, A et al., ‘The LEAVE Vote and Racial Abuse towards Black and Minority Ethnic Communities across the UK: The Impact on Mental Health’ (2018) 111 Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 158.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

139 The full text of May’s speech is available at: <https:// www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/10/05/theresa-mays-conference-speech-in-full/>.

140 Dutch Nationals Taking UK Citizenship ‘‘Will Lose Netherlands Passports’’’ The Guardian (17 July 2017) available at: <https:// www.theguardian.com/politics/2017/jul/17/dutch-nationals-brexit-uk-citizenship-lose-netherlands-passports-mark-rutte>..>Google Scholar

141 See ‘Brexit: Dutch Nationals Living in Britain Will Be Allowed Dual Citizenship’ The Guardian (10 October 2017) available at: <https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/oct/10/dutch-nationals-living-britain-allowed-dual-citizenship-brexit>; ‘D66 Calls for Relaxation of Dual Nationality Rules for People Hit by Brexit’ Dutch News (28 January 2019) available at: <https:// www.dutchnews.nl/news/2019/01/d66-calls-for-relaxation-of-dual-nationality-rules-for-people-hit-by-brexit/>.

142 See ‘Brexit Transition Act’, Federal Foreign Office (1 February 2019) available at: <https:// www.auswaertiges-amt.de/en/aussenpolitik/europa/transitional-brexitact/2119778>.

143 Gonzales, R and Sigona, N, ‘Mapping the Soft Borders of Citizenship: An Introduction’ in Gonzales, R and Sigona, N (eds), Within and Beyond Citizenship: Borders, Membership and Belonging (Taylor and Francis, London, 2017) 1, 2 (original emphasis).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

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145 See Shaw, J, ‘Unions and Citizens: Membership Status and Political Rights in Scotland, the UK and the EU’ in Closa (n 15) 153.Google Scholar

146 d’Oliveira, HUJ, Brexit, Nationality and Union Citizenship: Bottom Up, EUI Working Paper, RSCAS 2018/49.Google Scholar

147 See Börzel (n 2); and Börzel, T and Risse, T, ‘From Europeanisation to Diffusion: Introduction’ (2012) 35 West European Politics 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

148 Hillion, C, ‘Accession and Withdrawal in the Law of the European Union’ in Chalmers, D and Arnull, A, The Oxford Handbook of European Union Law (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2015).Google Scholar

149 Keil, S, ‘Europeanization, State-Building and Democratization in the Western Balkans’ (2013) 41 Nationalities Papers 343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

150 O’Brennan, J, ‘“On the Slow Train to Nowhere?” The European Union, “Enlargement Fatigue” and the Western Balkans’ (2014) 19 European Foreign Affairs Review 221.Google Scholar

151 Dembour (n 122).

152 Shaw, J, ‘The Constitutional Mosaic across the Boundaries of the European Union: Citizenship Regimes in the New States of South Eastern Europe’ in Walker, N et al. (eds), Europe’s Constitutional Mosaic (Hart, Oxford, 2011) 137;Google Scholar Shaw, J and Štiks, I, ‘Introduction: Citizenship in the New States of South Eastern Europe’ in Shaw, J and Štiks, I (eds), Citizenship after Yugoslavia (Routledge, London, 2013) 1, 610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

153 See (n 10).

154 For more on citizenship in SFRY see Štiks, I, Nations and Citizens in Yugoslavia and the Post-Yugoslav States: One Hundred Years of Citizenship (Bloomsbury Academic, London, 2015) Ch 35.Google Scholar

155 Dahinden, J, ‘Understanding (Post-)Yugoslav Migration through the Lenses of Current Concepts in Migration Research: Migrant Networks and Transnationalism’ in Brunnbauer, U (ed), Transnational Societies, Transterritorial Politics: Migration in the (Post-)Yugoslav Area, 19th-21st Centuries (De Gruyter, Berlin/Boston, 2009).Google Scholar

156 Štiks (n 154) Ch 6.

157 See Štiks (n 154); Shaw and Štiks (n 152); Džankić, J, Citizenship in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Montenegro: Effects of Statehood and Identity Challenges (Ashgate, Farnham, 2015).Google Scholar

158 Shaw and Štiks (n 152).

159 Hayden, R, ‘Constitutional Nationalism in the Formerly Yugoslav Republics’ (1992) 51 Slavic Review 654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

160 Ðorđević, B, ‘Whose Rights, Whose Return? The Boundary Problem and Unequal Restoration of Citizenship in the Post-Yugoslav Space’ (2015) 14 Ethnopolitics 121;CrossRefGoogle Scholar Koska, V, ‘Refugee Integration and Citizenship Policies: The Case Study of Croatian Serbs in Vojvodina’ (2015) 14 Ethnopolitics 180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

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162 Krasniqi and Stjepanović (n 62) 114.

163 See Džankić (n 157).

164 Džankić, J, Country Report. Montenegro, EUDO Citizenship/GlobalCIT (November 2012) at fn 9, available at: <http://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/19627/RSCAS_EUDO_CIT_CR_2012_05.pdf>.Google Scholar

165 Sardelić, J, ‘Romani Minorities and Uneven Citizenship Access in the Post-Yugoslav Space’ (2015) 14 Ethnopolitics 159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

166 E Sarajlić, ‘Conceptualising Citizenship Regime(s) in Post-Dayton Bosnia and Herzegovina’ in Shaw and Štiks (n 152) 83.

167 See Shaw (n 152).

168 L Spaskovska, ‘The Fractured “We” and the Ethno-National “I” – the Macedonian Citizenship Framework’ in Shaw and Štiks (n 152) 99.

169 G Krasniqi, ‘Overlapping Jurisdictions, Disputed Territory, Unsettled State: The Perplexing Case of Citizenship in Kosovo’ in Shaw and Štiks (n 152) 69.

170 Džankić, J and Keil, S, ‘The Europeanisation of Contested States: Comparing Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Montenegro’ in Džankić, J et al. (eds), The Europeanisation of the Western Balkans: A Failure of EU Conditionality? (New Perspectives on South-East Europe) (Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2018) 181.Google Scholar

171 Kacarska, S, ‘Losing the Rights along the Way: The EU-Western Balkans Visa Liberalisation’ (2015) 16 European Politics and Society 363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

172 J Vasiljević, ‘Imagining and Managing the Nation: Tracing Citizenship Policies in Serbia’ in Shaw and Štiks (n 152) 48.

173 Kacarska (n 171).

174 Sardelić, J, ‘The Position and Agency of the ‘‘Irregularized’’: Romani Migrants as European Semi-Citizens’ (2017) 37 Politics 332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

175 J Sardelić, From Temporary Protection to Transit Migration: Responses to Refugee Crises along the Western Balkan Route, EUI Working Paper, RSCAS 2017/35; C Minca et al., ‘Managing the “Refugee Crisis” along the Balkan Route: Field Notes from Serbia’ in Menjívar et al. (n 31).

176 D Župarić-Iljić and M Valenta, ‘“Refugee Crisis” in the Southeastern European Countries: The Rise and Fall of the Balkan Corridor’ in Menjívar et al. (n 31).

177 Commission Communication, A Credible Enlargement Perspective for and Enhanced EU Engagement with the Western Balkans, COM(2018) 65 (6 February 2018).

178 E Fouéré, ‘The Greek-Macedonian Name agreement - Promoting Reconciliation in the Western Balkans’ CEPS Commentary (29 January 2019).

179 Hillion (n 14); F Bieber, ‘Conclusion: Rethinking Europeanisation’ in Džankić et al. (n 170) 237.

180 Dwyer, P et al., ‘The Impact of Conditionality on the Welfare Rights of EU Migrants in the UK’ (2019) 47 Policy and Politics 133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

181 ‘EU-Western Balkans Summit: Improving Connectivity and Security in the Region’ European Commission Press Release, IP/18/3821 (17 May 2018).

182 Baker (n 9).

183 Horvat, S and Štiks, I (eds), Welcome to the Desert of Post-Socialism Radical Politics after Yugoslavia (Verso Books, London, 2015).Google Scholar

184 Greenberg, J and Spasić, I, ‘Beyond East and West: Solidarity Politics and the Absent/Present State in the Balkans’ (2017) 76 Slavic Review 315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

185 Ibid.

186 On attitudes to EU membership and accession see the data collected on the Balkan Public Barometer available at: <https:// www.rcc.int/seeds/results/2/balkan-opinion-barometer>.

187 Castaldo, A and Pinna, A, ‘De-Europeanization in the Balkans. Media Freedom in Post-Milošević Serbia’ (2018) 19 European Politics and Society 264.Google Scholar

188 See Fouéré (n 178).

189 M Stojić, Party Responses to the EU in the Western Balkans (Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 2018).

190 Belloni (n 22).

191 Harpaz (n 117).

192 Tóth, J, ‘The Curious Case of Hungary: Why the Naturalisation Rate Does Not Always Show How Inclusive a Country Is’ GlobalCIT Blog (3 January 2018) available at: <http://globalcit.eu/the-curious-case-of-hungary-why-the-naturalisation-rate-does-not-always-show-how-inclusive-a-country-is/>;Google Scholar Pogonyi, Sz, ‘The Passport as Means of Identity Management: Making and Unmaking Ethnic Boundaries through Citizenship’ (2018) Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 975 <https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2018.1440493>.Google Scholar

193 A recent report about numbers of migrants to Croatia contains a reminder that those coming from Bosnia are often likely to have Croatian citizenship already so will not count in those figures: ‘43,000 People Moved to Croatia in 2018, Mostly from Bosnia and Serbia’ Total Croatia News (4 February 2019) available at: <https:// www.total-croatia-news.com/politics/33961-croatia-in-2018>.

194 V Neofotistos, ‘Bulgarian Passports, Macedonian Identity’ (2009) 25 Anthropology Today 19.

195 See text at (n 74) and following.

196 Majtényi, B et al., ‘“Only Fidesz” – Minority Electoral Law in HungaryVerfassungsblog (31 March 2018) available at: <https://verfassungsblog.de/only-fidesz-electoral-law-in-hungary/>.Google Scholar

197 Shachar, A, The Birthright Lottery: Citizenship and Global Inequality (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

198 For further details see ‘Acquisition of Citizenship Statistics’, Eurostat Statistics Explained (March 2019) available at: <https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Acquisition_of_citizenship_statistics>.

199 ‘Austrian Citizenship Awarded to Nearly 10,000 Foreigners’ Vindobona (28 February 2019) <https:// www.vindobona.org/article/austrian-citizenship-awarded-to-nearly-10-000-foreigners>.

200 See Džankić (n 157).

201 Woelk, J, ‘From Enlargement Perspective to “Waiting for Godot”? Has the EU Lost Its Transformative Power in the Balkans?’ in Antoniolli, L et al. (eds), Highs and Lows of European Integration (Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2019) 27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

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