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The New Populism, Presidentialism and Market‐Orientated Reform in Spanish South America

  • George Philip
Extract

A SIGNIFICANT DEVELOPMENT IN RECENT SOUTH AMERICAN POLITICS has been the re-emergence of populism. More interesting still has been the unexpected combination – in some countries – of traditional populist appeals (successfully made), the determined application of free market policies, and the successful re-election of the market-reforming populists. This does not mean that populist politicians can succeed to order. Many populist candidates have sought election and only a few have secured it. Of those elected as (essentially) independent candidates, only some have succeeded. Presidents Bucaram in Ecuador and Collor in Brazil were removed from office by Congress and subjected to legal proceedings for corruption. However, where populists have succeeded, they have done so on a far more impressive scale than most people originally predicted.

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References
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1 Inter‐American Development Bank, Economic and Social Progress in Latin America: 1996 Report, Washington, IDB, 1996, p. 33.

2 On Argentinian privatization, see Calvert, P., ‘Privatisation in Argentina’, Bulletin of Latin American Research, 15: 2 . On Peru, see Kay, B., ‘“Fujipopulism” and the Liberal State in Peru’, Journal of Inter‐American Studies, 38: 4 (Winter 199697).

3 Norden, D., Military Rebellion in Argentina: Between Coups and Consolidation, Lincoln, Nebr., University of Nebraska Press, 1996.

4 Mauceri, P., ‘State Reform Coalitions and the Neoliberal Autogolpe in Peru’, Latin American Research Review 30: 1 (Winter 1995).

5 Costa, E. Ferrero, ‘Peru’s Presidential Coup’, Journal of Democracy, 4 (01 1993).

6 Dornbusch, R. and Edwards, S. (eds), The Macroeconomics of Populism in Latin America, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1991.

7 Przeworski, A., Democracy and the Market: Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1991 .

8 Ibid., p. 189.

9 Ibid., pp. 147–51.

10 Starr, P., ‘Government Coalitions and the Viability of Currency Boards: Argentina under the Carvallo Plan’, Journal of Inter‐American Studies and World Affairs, 39: 2 (Summer 1997).

11 Przeworski, op. cit., p. 156.

12 Kay, op. cit., (n. 2).

13 Datanalisis, Indicadores del Cambao: De qwe depende el exito de la Agenda Venezuela, November 1996, p. 53.

14 Alesina, A., ‘Political Models of Macroeconomic Policy and Fiscal Reforms’, in Haggard, S. and Webb, S. (eds), Voting for Reform: Democracy, Political Liberalization and Economic Adjustment, Oxford, Oxford University Press for the World Bank, 1994.

15 North, D., Structure and Change in Economic History, New York, Norton, 1981, pp. 201–2.

16 North, D., Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1990, p. 2.

17 Haggard, S. and Kaufman, R., ‘Economic Adjustment and the Prospects for Democracy’, in Haggard, and Kaufman, (eds), The Politics of Economic Adjustment, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1992 .

18 Ibid., p. 313.

19 W. Little and Herrera, Populism and Reform in Contemporary Venezuela, ILAS Occasional Paper 11, London, 1994.

20 Philip, G., ‘The Venezuelan Coup Attempt of February 1992’, Government and Opposition, 26: 4 (Autumn 1992).

21 Romero, A., ‘Rearranging the Deckchairs on the Titanic: The Agony of Democracy in Venezuela’, Latin American Research Review, 32: 1 (1997).

22 Fundacién Pensamiento y Accién, Cultura Democratica en Venezuela: informe analitico de los resultudos dc una encuesta de opinion publica, Caracas, January 1996, p. 5.

23 Ibid., p. 47.

24 Little, W. and Herrera, A., ‘Political Corruption in Venezuela’, in Little, W. and Posada‐Carbo, E. (eds), Political Corruption in Latin America, London, Macmillan, 1996, pp. 267–87.

25 M. Vargas Llosa, ‘A Fish out of Water’, in Granta special issue Vargas Llosa for President, 1991.

26 Linz, J., ‘Presidential or Parliamentary Democracy: Does it Make a Difference?’, in Linz, J. and Valenzuela, A., The Failure of Presidential Democracy, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, pp. 391.

27 Pereira, L. Bresser, Maravall, J. and Przeworski, A., Economic Reforms in New Democracies, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1993, pp. 910.

28 F. Panizza, ‘Human Rights in the Processes of Transition and Consolidation of Democracy in Latin America’, Political Studies, Special Issue 1995: Politics and Human Rights.

29 O’Donnell, G., ‘Delegative Dernocracy’, Journal of Democracy, 5: 1 (1994).

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Government and Opposition
  • ISSN: 0017-257X
  • EISSN: 1477-7053
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