The values are quoted for an isotopic correction to −25‰ for δ13C, which indicates the value of the stable-isotope ratio of 13C/12C deviation from a known standard, in parts per mil (‰). The calibrated ages are based on cross-referencing the radiocarbon ages with known-age tree ring radiocarbon measurements, using the most recent calibration data set (INTCAL13). The calibration plots are shown on the next page.
The δ13C value of AA-101794 is lower than is typical for other radiocarbon-dated papyri and requires explanation. It might indicate the presence of a contaminant or have some other explanation. The presence of a contaminant with a different radiocarbon content than the papyrus would alter the bulk radiocarbon content. Consequently the low δ13C value sheds doubt upon the validity of the radiocarbon date. A discussion of the δ13C measurement is presented in a separate document.
1. botanical specimen
OxA and VERA data graciously provided by Michael Dee, University of Oxford, and Ezra Marcus, University of Haifa, previously published in Christopher Bronk Ramsey et al., “Radiocarbon-Based Chronology for Dynastic Egypt,” Science 328 (2010) 1554–57; and Michael Dee et al., “Investigating the Likelihood of a Reservoir Offset in the Radiocarbon Record for Ancient Egypt,” Journal of Archaeological Science 37 (2010) 687–93.
LABEC/CIRCE data courtesy Marialena Fedi, dates previously published in Marialena Fedi et al., “The Artemidorus Papyrus: Solving an Ancient Puzzle with Radiocarbon and Ion Beam Analysis Measurements,” Radiocarbon 52 (2010) 356–63.
AA85363 data courtesy Paul O’Rourke and Edward Bleiberg, Brooklyn Museum. AA99528 data courtesy Jason BeDuhn,
Northern Arizona University. Other AA data courtesy Greg Hodgins and Tim Jull, University of Arizona.