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Religion and the Collapse of Gladstone's First Government, 1870–1874*

  • J. P. Parry (a1)
Extract

Gladstone has not been well served by the historiographical tradition dominant for much of this century. It has disseminated an image of him that emphasizes little more than an undefined ‘reformism’ and a moralizing populism; this is as unhelpful and distorted as is the interpretation, emanating from the same source, of much of the rest of nineteenth-century politics. It is no longer enough to judge public figures of this period by the degree of their commitment to nebulous platitudes like ‘social reform’ or ‘progress’: historians have recently exposed the flimsy foundations that sustain the reputations of even those most frequently celebrated in these spheres. It is misleading to concentrate attention on the development of institutional reform, centralized government, trade union legislation, or welfare statutes for the poor; franchise extension apart, advances here were often provoked solely by bureaucratic agency or by the concern of philanthropic backbenchers, and contributed only occasionally to the major disputes of Victorian political society. If we are to shed light on the domestic issues of vital importance to contemporary politicians, we need a far more coherent account than is now available of financial, taxation and land policy on the one hand, and, on the other, of the main subject of this article, the role of religion in politics.

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1 See Smith, P., Disraelian Conservatism and social reform (London, 1967), and Beales, D., ‘Peel, Russell and reform’, H[istorical] J[ournal], xvii (1974), 873–82.

2 See Hilton, A. J. B., Corn, cash, commerce: the economic policies of the tory governments 1815–1830 (Oxford, 1977), and Matthew, H. C. G., ‘Disraeli, Gladstone, and the politics of mid-Victorian budgets 1852–1874’, H.J. xxii (1979), 615–43, for interesting advances here.

3 Shannon, R. T., Gladstone and the Bulgarian agitation 1876 (2nd edn, Hassocks, 1975).

4 Hamer, D. A., Liberal politics in the age of Gladstone and Rosebery: a study in leadership and policy (Oxford, 1972).

5 Hammond, J. L., in his massive panegyric on Gladstone's Irish policy, allotted the bill under sixty lines: Gladstone and the Irish nation (new edn, London, 1964), pp. 124–5.

6 E.g. Hamer, Liberal politics, pp. 36–7.

7 Jones, A., ‘Where “governing is the use of words”‘, H.J. xix (1976), 256. Contrast this with the awareness of the role of religious antipathy in political dispute in, for example, Cowling, M., 1867: Disraeli, Gladstone and revolution: the passing of the second Reform Bill (Cambridge, 1967), pp. 296300.

8 Gladstone to Max Müller, 25 Nov. 1872. Müller papers, Bodleian Library, d 170, fo. 183.

9 Morley, J., The life of William Ewart Gladstone (3 vols. London, 1903), i, 155.

10 Hirst, F. W., Early life and letters of John Morley (2 vols. London, 1927), i, 305.

11 See Best, G. F. A., ‘The religious difficulties of national education in England, 1800–70’, Cambridge Historical Journal, xii (1956), 155–73.

12 See Norman, E. R., Anti-catholicism in Victorian England (London, 1968), pp. 8090.

13 For the ritualist controversy see Chadwick, W. O., The Victorian Church, part II (London, 1970), 309–24. For tractarians’ attitude to ritualism, see Perry, W., Alexander Penrose Forbes bishop of Brechin: the Scottish Pusey (London, 1939), p. 155, and Gladstone, W. E., ‘Ritual and ritualism’, The Church of England and ritualism (London, 1875).

14 See e.g. Hughes, T., The old Church; what shall we do with it? (London, 1878); Gardiner, A. G., The life of Sir William Harcourt (2 vols. London, 1923), I, 291.

15 See Jones, A., The politics of reform 1884 (Cambridge, 1972), p. 38. For this whole paragraph see Vincent, J. R., The formation of the Liberal party 1857–1868 (London, 1966).

16 Russell, G. W. E., Social silhouettes (London, 1906), p. 154.

17 Bouverie, E. P., The province of government: an address delivered before the liberty and property defence league (London, 1884), pp. 45: W. R. G[reg], the celebrated whig essayist, Pall Mall Gazette, 14 Sept. 1868, pp. 3–4.

18 Adolphus, Edward, duke of Somerset, Christian theology and modern scepticism (London, 1872), pp. 110–11, 171, 175.

19 E.g. Mallet, B., Thomas George, earl of Northbrook: a memoir (London, 1908), pp. 298–9.

20 Earl Grey to Halifax, 19 Oct. 1867, Hickleton papers, Cambridge University Library, A 4 55; Grey to Charles Grey, 1 Mar. 1869, Earl Grey papers. Department of palaeography and diplomatic, Durham university; Halifax to Charles Grey, 13 Jan. 1868, Charles Grey papers, Ibid.; Walpole, S., The life of Lord John Russell (2 vols. London, 1889), II, 419–20.

21 Halifax to Gladstone, 27 June 1868, Gladstone papers, British Library, Add. MSS 44184, fo. 200; Gladstone to his son, 16 Apr. 1865, Lathbury, D. C., Correspondence on Church and religion of William Ewart Gladstone (2 vols. London, 1910), II, 169. See Anderson, O., ‘Gladstone's abolition of compulsory church rates: a minor political myth and its historiographical career’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, xxv (1974), 185–98.

22 For Lowe, whose religion cannot be easily categorized, see Sylvester, D. W., Robert Lowe and education (Cambridge, 1974); for some of the younger Balliol men see Harvie, C., The lights of liberalism: university liberals and the challenge of democracy 1860–1886 (London, 1976).

23 Globe, 27 Feb. 1873, p. 4.

24 H. Allon to Gladstone, 5 May 1868, Gladstone papers, 44095, fo. 310.

25 To quote Morley himself: ‘Perhaps, Mr. Brereton, if there had been a Cavendish College when I was a youth, Samuel Morley might have been able to do more for his country than he has done’, Hodder, E., The life of Samuel Morley (3rd edn, London, 1887), pp. 401–3. See also de, J. R.Honey, S., Tom Brown's universe: the development of the Victorian public school (London, 1977), ch. ii, for Fortescue's involvement with Brereton.

26 Brodrick, G. C., Political studies (London, 1879), pp. 236–40. Perhaps unsurprisingly, the paragraph on disestablishment was omitted from the pamphlet version of this article published by the Liberal central association in 1877. For similar sentiments see Hughes, The old Church, passim.

27 A. H. Layard to W. H. Gregory, 8 May 1875, Layard papers, British Library, Add. MSS 38949, fo. 141; Greg, W. R., ‘Ireland once more’, Quarterly Review, cxxv (July 1868), 263–72.

28 Greg, Ibid. pp. 274–6, 285–6.

29 Clarendon to Odo Russell, 13 Dec. 1869, Clarendon papers, Bodleian Library c 475, fo. 262; Earl Russell to Clarendon, 25 Mar. 1869, Ibid., c 523; Hansard [‘s Parliamentary Debates, 3rd series], cxcvii, 1635–8 (Somerset, 12 July 1869); Halifax to Gladstone, 28 July 1869, Gladstone papers, 44184, fo. 257.

30 , John, Russell, Earl, Recollections and suggestions 1813–1873 (London, 1875), pp. 335–6, 396–7.

31 Russell to Gladstone, 9, 16 Sept. 1868, Gladstone papers, 44294, fos. 104, 112.

32 Holland, B., The life of Spencer Compton eighth duke of Devonshire (2 vols. London, 1911), i, 113. E.g. also Earl Grey, in memorandum on ministerial crisis, 14–15 Mar. 1873, Earl Grey papers (Ponsonby file), and in Hansard, ccxv, 1851–67.

33 Whately, E. J., Life and correspondence of Richard Whately, late archbishop of Dublin {2 vols. London, 1866), ii, 243–5; Hansard, ccx, 712 (Gray).

34 Clarendon to Granville, 25 Aug. [1868], Granville papers, Public Record Office, 30/29/29.

35 Manchester Guardian, 3 Jan. 1867, p. 4; Holland, Devonshire, 1, 98–103.

36 See Chadwick, Victorian Church, ii, 430.

37 Reeve to Clarendon, 9 Aug. 1868, Clarendon papers, c 496, fo. 252.

38 Fortescue to Halifax, 30 Jan. 1872, 1 Feb. 1872, Hickleton papers, A 4 181.

39 Reeve, H. (ed.), The Greville memoirs: a journal of the reigns of King George IV, King William IV, and Queen Victoria (new edn, 8 vols. London, 1903), viii, 297.

40 Bouverie to E. Ellice, 4 Apr. 1866, Ellice papers, National Library of Scotland, 15005, fo. 23.

41 See Foot, M. R. D. and Matthew, H. C. G. (eds.), The Gladstone diaries III: 1840–1847 (Oxford, 1974), xxiii–xxxiv.

42 See Saintsbury, G., The earl of Derby (London, 1892), p. 216.

43 Marindin, G. E., Letters of Frederic Lord Blachford (London, 1896), pp. 312–14.

44 Gladstone to the bishop of Colombo, 5 May 1870, Lathbury, Correspondence, I, 168; Gladstone to Döllinger, 29 Apr. 1872, Gladstone papers, 44140, fo. 286.

45 Gladstone to Northcote, 28 July 1865, Ibid. 44217, fo. 98; to Manning, 22 Jan. 1874, Ibid. 44250, fo. 145.

46 Speeches of the right honourable William Ewart Gladstone, M.P., in south-west Lancashire, October 1868 (Liverpool, 1868), p. 52; Gladstone to Northcote, 28 July 1865, Gladstone papers, 44217, fo. 98.

47 Gladstone to Northcote, Ibid.; Hamilton to Gladstone, 25 Aug. 1868, Ibid. 44181, fo. 369.

48 Memorandum on the Athanasian creed, 8 June 1873, Ibid. 44761, fo. 144; Gladstone, ‘Is the Church of England worth preserving?’, Church of England, pp. 80, 52.

49 Gladstone to Northcote, 22 July 1865, Gladstone papers, 44217, fo. 92.

50 Halifax journal, 9 Dec. 1868, Garrowby papers, Borthwick Institute, York.

51 Steele, E. D., ‘Gladstone and Ireland’, Irish Historical Studies, xvii (1982–1982), 6371.

52 Gladstone to Palmer, 10 Apr. 1868, , Lathbury, Correspondence, 1, 157.

53 ‘Mr Gladstone and the nonconformists’, The Nineteenth Century, xliv (1898), 37.

54 W. P. Wood to Palmer, 6 Apr. 1868, Selborne papers, Lambeth Palace Library, 1863, fo. 52.

55 Both were thus worried that the ritualists, by using mere ceremony to attract congregations, did not stress the former: ‘Ritual and ritualism’, pp. 34–5; Dale, R. W., The evangelical revival and other sermons (London, 1880), p. 10. Dale, A. W. W., The life of R. W. Dale of Birmingham (London, 1898), pp. 314–15, 330.

56 Maclaren, A., Week-day evening addresses delivered in Manchester (new edn, London, 1879): copy in St Deiniol's Library, Hawarden.

57 Maclaren, A., Religious equality, in its connection with national and religious life: a lecture (Manchester, 1871), pp. 1819.

58 Dale, Dale, pp. 102, 173–4, 366.

59 Ibid. pp. 108, 163–4, 169, 215.

60 Ibid. pp. 355–67; Dale, R. W., ‘Anglicanism and romanism’, British Quarterly Review, xliii (1866), 281338.

61 Gladstone to the bishop of Chester, 1 Apr. 1870, Gladstone papers, 44218, fo. 198; Russell, G. W. E., The right honourable William Ewart Gladstone (London, 1891), p. 136 (2 Nov. 1857); Palmer to Canon Melville, 1870, Palmer, R., earl of Selborne, Memorials part II: personal and political 1865–1895 (2 vols. London, 1898), I, 168; Gladstone to Bright, 27 Jan. 1874, Bright papers, British Library, Add. MSS 43385, fo. 247.

62 Address, in Speeches in south-west Lancashire, p. iv; Lathbury, Correspondence, II, 141–4; Gladstone to Bright, 25 Nov. 1871, Bright papers, 43385, fos. 165, 171.

63 Gladstone to Bright, 21 Aug. 1873, Gladstone papers, 44113, fo. 63.

64 Lathbury, Correspondence, II, 141–4; Gladstone memorandum, 25 Nov. 1871, Bright papers, 43385, fo. 171; Miall, C. S., Henry Richard, M.P.: a biography (London, 1889), p. 179.

65 Hamilton to Gladstone, 27 June 1867, Gladstone papers, 44181, fo. 367; Honey, Tom Brown's universe, ch. 11.

66 Failing to see this bond of religious understanding, many were later puzzled by Morley's intimacy with Gladstone: The personal papers of Lord Rendel (London, 1931), p. 79. See also Hamer, D. A., John Morley: Liberal intellectual in politics (Oxford, 1968).

67 Dale, Dale, pp. 271–2.

68 Hansard, clxxxvii, 1462, 31 May 1867.

69 See Speeches in south-west Lancashire, pp. iv-v, 23–7.

70 Matthew, H. C. G., ‘Gladstone, Vaticanism, and the question of the east’, Studies in Church History, xv (1978), 417–42.

71 Stephens, W. R. W. (ed.), A memoir of the right honourable William Page Wood, Baron Hatherley (2 vols. London, 1883), I, 306, II, 95–6, 153–4.

72 See Speeches in south-west Lancashire, pp. 60–2.

73 See Altholz, J. L., The liberal catholic movement in England: the ‘Rambler’ and its contributors 1848–1864 (London, 1962), pp. 199243.

74 See Hansard, clxxx, 567–8, 20 June 1865.

75 Briggs, A. (ed.), History of the elementary school contest in England: Francis Adams: together with: The struggle for national education: John Morley (Brighton, 1972), p. xx.

76 Reid, T. Wemyss, Life of the right honourable William Edward Forster (2 vols. London, 1888), I, 463–70; Gladstone to de Grey, 4 Nov. 1869, Lathbury, Correspondence, II, 137–8; Hansard, cxcix, 457–8, 17 Feb. 1870.

77 Matthew, ‘Gladstone, Vaticanism’; Lathbury, Correspondence, II, 49–54.

78 See Norman, Anti-catholicism, pp. 80–90; anon., Mr Gladstone and the Birmingham protestant association (Birmingham, 1871); Hansard, ccviii, 752–3, ccx, 327–8; Bright to Gladstone, 28 Nov. 1871, Gladstone papers, 44112, fo. 199.

79 Hansard, cxcix, 1963–80, 15 Mar. 1870.

80 For this, and a detailed examination of these and other extra-parliamentary pressures on the government, see pp. 370–416 of an important thesis, which supports the conclusions of practically this whole paragraph: D. Roland, ‘The struggle for the Elementary Education Act and its implementation 1870–73’ (unpublished Oxford B.Litt., 1957). See also Gladstone's memorandum, 28 May 1870, Gladstone papers, 44759, fo. 104.

81 Reid, Forster, I, 502–3; George Grey to Gladstone, 7 June 1870, Gladstone papers, 44162, fo. 320; Brand to Gladstone, 24 May 1870, Ibid. 44194, fo. 124; Gardiner, Harcourt, I, 215–16.

82 Reid, Forster, I,497–8; Lathbury, Correspondence, II, 128; Roland, ‘Elementary Education Act’, pp. 426, 432–4.

83 Gladstone to Brand, 24 May 1870, Gladstone papers, 44194, fo. 129.

84 Cardwell to Gladstone, 14 June 1870, Ibid. 44119, fo. 116; Lowe to Gladstone, 15 June 1870, Ibid. 44301, fo. 146; Gladstone to Manning, 22 June 1870, Ibid. 44249, fo. 161; Roland, ‘Elementary Education Act’, pp. 435–41; Sylvester, Lowe and education, pp. 129–30; Gardiner, Harcourt, I, 217.

85 The figures are Roland's, ‘Elementary Education Act’, pp. 546–8.

86 Gladstone to Manning, 16 Apr. 1870, Lathbury, Correspondence, II, 52.

87 H. Lloyd to Cairns, 31 Dec. 1869, Cairns papers, Public Record Office, 30/51/16, fo. 6; Derby diary, 16 Mar. 1870, Derby papers, Liverpool Record Office.

88 See Cardwell to Gladstone, 15 Jan. 1868, Gladstone papers, 44118, fo. 251. Gladstone had been forced to interject, in response to questions on the committee stage of the 1869 bill, that by taking a limited view of its scope he was finally able to support it: Hansard, cxcvii, 796–8.

89 Hansard, cc, 1090, 1 Apr. 1870; Clarendon to Gladstone, 21 Apr. 1870, Gladstone papers, 44134, fo. 188; Gladstone to Clarendon, 22 Apr. 1870, Clarendon papers, c 498, fo. 314.

90 Hansard, cciv, 779.

91 Ibid., ccviii, 722–8, 745–52.

92 Gladstone to Granville, 3 Sept. 1873, Ramm, A. (ed.), The political correspondence of Mr Gladstone and Lord Granville 1868–1876 (2 vols. London, 1952), ii, 405.

93 See Norman, E. R., The catholic Church and Ireland in the age of rebellion 1859–1873 (London, 1965). pp. 430–6.

94 ‘Germany, France and England’, published (anonymously, but to no avail) in Edinburgh Review, cxxxii (Oct. 1870), 554–93; reprinted in Gladstone, W. E., Gleanings of past years 1843–1878: IV: foreign (London, 1879), 197257.

95 Dease to Gladstone, 15 Nov. 1870, Gladstone papers, 44428, fo. 205; Gladstone's reply was published in The Times, 8 Dec. 1870; Gladstone to Guthrie, 11 Dec. 1870, Lathbury, Correspondence, II. 54–5.

96 Kimberley to Gladstone, 26 Nov. 1870, Gladstone papers, 44224, fo. 98; Ramm, Correspondence, I, 191, 192, 197; anon., Birmingham protestant association.

97 George Grey to Halifax, 26 Dec. 1871, Hickleton papers, A 4 58; Russell to Granville, 4 Nov. 1871, Granville papers, 30/29/79.

98 Earl Grey to Halifax, 19 Nov. 1872, 13 Dec. 1872, Hickleton papers, A 4 55; Grey memorandum, 14–15 Mar. 1873, Earl Grey papers (Ponsonby file).

99 Hartington memorandum, 9 Nov. 1871, Gladstone papers, 44143, fo. 114.

100 See Butt, I., The problem of Irish education: an attempt at its solution (London, 1875).

101 Martin to Daunt, 11 June 1870, O’Neill Daunt papers, National Library of Ireland, 8047.

102 Hansard, ccx, 359, 362, 369–71, 373, 376–7, 703–6, 711–15, 723–6: Synan, O’Conor Don, Butt, Nolan, Smyth, O’Donoghue, Digby, Gray, Maguire. Many of the staunch Liberals were pleading with the government that a massive agitation for home rule was the alternative.

103 Gladstone to Hartington, 28 Sept. 1871, Devonshire papers, Chatsworth, 2nd series, 340, fo. 469.

104 Hansard, ccx, 343–59, 602–3, 723.

105 Stansfeld to Halifax, 23 Apr. 1872, Hickleton papers, A 4 51.

106 See the speeches of Playfair, Bouverie and Morrison: Hansard, ccx, 1822–30, 1841–3.

107 Gladstone to Hartington, 16 Jan. 1873, Gladstone papers, 44144, fo. 25.

108 Rogers, J. G., Why ought not the state to give religious education? An argument addressed to nonconformists (London, 1872), 13, 15.

109 Briggs, History of the elementary school contest, p. xxxvi.

110 Urwick, W., The nonconformists and the Education Act, a protest and a plea (London, 1872), p. 25; Conder, E. R., Education and nonconformity (London, 1872), p. 15.

111 Hansard, ccxiv, 386–90,401–2, 1459–65; Gladstone to Hartington, 14 Dec. 1872, Gladstone papers, 44542, fo. 108. For Hartington and the bill, see Holland, Devonshire, I, 108–10.

112 Hartington memorandum, 25 Nov. 1872, Granville papers, 30/29/69, fo. 212; Hartington to Spencer, 29 Nov. 1872, Holland, Devonshire, I, 108–9; Hartington to Gladstone, 27 Nov. 1872, 15 Dec. 1872, Gladstone papers, 44143, fos. 204, 213; Torrens, W. McCullagh, Twenty years in parliament (London, 1893), p. 175.

113 Harrington memoranda, 21, 25 Nov. 1872, Granville papers, 30/29/69, fos. 210, 212; Halifax to Gladstone, 25 Dec. 1872, Gladstone papers, 44185, fo. 319, 9 Mar. 1873, Ibid. 44186, fo. 6; cabinet notes, 28 Nov. 1872, Ibid. 44640, fos. 211, 213; Brand to Halifax, 3 Mar. 1873, Hickleton papers, A 4 94; Hansard, ccxiv, 424. Given that each college would also have a teaching staff, it is not clear that Gladstone intended the central teaching function to be any more than a symbol to appease Liberal critics.

114 Dublin column, The Times, 18, 24, 26 Feb., 3 Mar. 1873.

115 Hansard, ccxiv, 1824–6, 11 Mar. 1873.

116 The whips had accurately computed two days before that only sixteen Irish Liberal M.P.s of any sect would support the bill. One very moderate Irishman, O’Reilly, said that he would have voted for the second reading but for Cardwell's speech. Hartington to Spencer, 8 Mar. 1873, Holland, Devonshire, I, 116; Hansard, ccxiv, 1754.

117 For example in his Address to the electors of Greenwich, 24 January 1874; see E. R. Norman, Catholic Church and Ireland, p. 451.

118 Other secularists who opposed the bill were Horsman and Whalley; Fitzmaurice and the nonconformist Taylor abstained. However, these six were also notorious party dissidents probably motivated in large part by dislike of Gladstone (as were a couple of the whiggish rebels). For Fitzmaurice and Horsman on the academic question, see Hansard, ccxiv, 1209, 1419. For the whips, see Holland, Devonshire, I, 116.

119 Hansard, ccxiv, 1773; for Harcourt, see Ibid. 1618–30.

120 Ibid. 1855.

121 Ibid. 1618–9. Bouverie, Torrens, Akroyd and Peel were the most celebrated of the whiggish rebels; others had been undistinguished.

122 Fortescue to Northbrook, 9 Mar. 1873, Northbrook papers, India Office Library, Eur. c 144, 21 (1); Minto to W. Wilson, 24 Feb. 1874, Minto papers, National Library of Scotland, 12360, fo. 88.

123 Hansard, ccxiv, 1683–7.

124 Ibid. 1226–30.

125 Harcourt to Rathbone, Jan. 1874, Rathbone papers, Liverpool University Library, IX 7, fo. 144; Gardiner, Harcourt, I, 263–6, 279.

126 Russell to Halifax, 11 Mar. 1874, Hickleton papers, A 4 56. Whigs could complain not merely about religious policy, but about indecision abroad and extremist tendencies on local government and taxation, which must be explained elsewhere.

127 Grey to Halifax, 25 Jan. 1874, Ibid. A 4 55; Somerset, in Hansard, ccxviii, 39–43, 19 Mar. 1874; Halifax to Northbrook, 26 Mar. 1874, Northbrook papers, 22.

128 For example Harrington to Gladstone, 11 May 1872, Gladstone papers, 44143, fo. 166.

129 Holland, Devonshire, I, 136.

130 Hansard, ccxix, 56–8, 952–3; Bentley, J., Ritualism and politics in Victorian Britain: the attempt to legislate for belief (Oxford, 1978), p. 68; , Hughes, The old Church, pp. 98100.

131 Hansard, ccxxi, 1341–54; Gardiner, Harcourt, I, 274–9; Harcourt, Sir W. V., A speech addressed to his constituents, in the Corn exchange, at Oxford, on December 21, 1874 (London, 1875), pp. 22, 27.

132 Gladstone to Granville, 7 Aug. 1874, Ramm, Correspondence, II, 457.

133 , Bentley, Ritualism and politics, pp. 70, 77—9; MacColl, M., Lawlessness, sacerdotalism, and ritualism (3rd edn, London, 1875), pp. 470–1.

134 Potter to Gladstone, 20 Aug. 1874, Gladstone papers, 44282, fo. 45.

135 Bentley, Ritualism and politics, p. 70.

136 ‘Ritual and ritualism’; The Vatican decrees in their bearing on civil allegiance: a political expostulation (London, 1874).

137 Vatican decrees, pp. 6, 30.

138 Ibid. p. 19.

139 Potter to Gladstone, 14 Oct. 1874, Gladstone papers, 44282, fo. 53; E. H. Browne to Gladstone, 12 Nov. 1874, Ibid. 44115, fo. 103; Harcourt to Dilke, 20 Jan. 1875, Dilke papers, British Library, Add. MSS 43890, fo. 62.

140 Harcourt, Speech to his constituents, pp. 19–20; Spencer to Hartington, 23 [Dec] 1870, Devonshire papers, 354, fo. 2; Lowe to Ellice, 13 Dec. 1874, Ellice papers, 15036, fo. 86.

141 Lowe to Ellice, Ibid.; Argyll to Selborne, 21 Dec. 1874, Selborne to Gordon, 6 Sept. 1874, Selborne, Memorials II, I, 360, 333–6.

142 Chamberlain, J., ‘The next page of the Liberal programme’, Fortnightly Review, xvi (Oct. 1874), 405–29; Hirst, Morley, II, 11–12. This belief was powerfully reinforced by developments in Scottish ecclesiastical politics, which must be investigated separately.

143 Morley, Gladstone, II, 498, 503.

144 Gladstone to Bright, 27 Jan. 1874, Bright papers, 43385, fo. 247.

145 Bouverie to Ellice, 3 Sept. 1873, Ellice papers, 15005, fo. 130; Halifax to Northbrook, 12. Aug. 1874, Kimberley to Northbrook, 9 Aug. 1874, Northbrook to Kimberley, 8 Sept. 1874, all Northbrook papers, 22; Halifax to Northbrook, 21 Jan. 1875, Ibid., 23; Brand diary, summary of 1874 session, Brand papers, House of Lords Record Office.

146 Holland, Devonshire, I, 139–47. Bouverie was strongly against reuniting the party, to Ellice, 3 Nov. 1874, Ellice papers, 15005, fo. 151.

147 Selborne, Memorials II, I, 470.

148 Gladstone to Granvillc, 7 Dec. 1874, Ramm, Correspondence, II, 461.

149 Shannon, Bulgarian agitation, passim.

150 See Arnstein, W. L., The Bradlaugh case: a study in late Victorian opinion and politics (Oxford, 1965), p. 135: , Torrens, Twenty years, pp. 309–16.

151 Simon, A., ‘Church disestablishment as a factor in the general election of 1885’, H.J. xviii (1975), 791820; Argyll to Grey, 27 Oct. 1885, Earl Grey papers; Grey letter to The Times, 9 Nov. 1885, Ibid. There was also controversy over the implications for religious teaching of the New Code on education, which will be discussed elsewhere.

152 See Cooke, A. B. and Vincent, J., The governing passion: cabinet government and party politics in Britain 1885–86 (Brighton, 1974).

153 Shannon, Bulgarian agitation, pp. 274–81.

154 Russell, G. W. E. (ed.), Malcolm MacColl: memoirs and correspondence (London, 1914), pp. 226–8. Some nonconformists, like Dale, also supported the idea of substantial Irish self-government, but desired to uphold the abstract emotional appeal of empire more emphatically than they felt Gladstone did. Dale therefore withdrew from political activity on either side: Dale, Dale, pp. 448–74.

155 Personal papers of Lord Rendel, pp. 57–8, 65.

156 Hansard, ccciv, 1064.

157 See e.g. C. Harvie, ‘Ideology and home rule: Bryce, James, Dicey, A. V. and Ireland, 1880–1887’, English Historical Review, xci (1976), 298314, and Roach, J., ‘Liberalism and the Victorian intelligentsia’, Cambridge Historical Journal, xiii (1957), 5881.

158 Roach, Ibid.; Fitzmaurice, E., The life of Granville George Leveson Gower second Earl Granville K.G. 1815–1891 (2 vols. London, 1905), II, 3.

* The author is greatly indebted to Professor Derek Beales and Mr Maurice Cowling for their unfailingly helpful comments on various drafts of this article, to Mr D. Cooper and Mr J. Plowright for useful criticisms, and to the earl of Clarendon and Sir William Gladstone for permission to quote from manuscript collections in which they hold the copyright.

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