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An Outbreak of Legionnaires Disease Associated with a Decorative Water Wall Fountain in a Hospital

  • Thomas E. Haupt (a1), Richard T. Heffernan (a1), James J. Kazmierczak (a1), Henry Nehls-Lowe (a1), Bruce Rheineck (a1), Christine Powell (a2), Kathryn K. Leonhardt (a3), Amit S. Chitnis (a1) and Jeffrey P. Davis (a1)...

To detect an outbreak-related source of Legionella, control the outbreak, and prevent additional Legionella infections from occurring.

Design and Setting.

Epidemiologic investigation of an acute outbreak of hospital-associated Legionnaires disease among outpatients and visitors to a Wisconsin hospital.


Patients with laboratory-confirmed Legionnaires disease who resided in southeastern Wisconsin and had illness onsets during February and March 2010.


Patients with Legionnaires disease were interviewed using a hypothesis-generating questionnaire. On-site investigation included sampling of water and other potential environmental sources for Legionella testing. Case-finding measures included extensive notification of individuals potentially exposed at the hospital and alerts to area healthcare and laboratory personnel.


Laboratory-confirmed Legionnaires disease was diagnosed in 8 patients, all of whom were present at the same hospital during the 10 days prior to their illness onsets. Six patients had known exposure to a water wall-type decorative fountain near the main hospital entrance. Although the decorative fountain underwent routine cleaning and maintenance, high counts of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 were isolated from cultures of a foam material found above the fountain trough.


This outbreak of Legionnaires disease was associated with exposure to a decorative fountain located in a hospital public area. Routine cleaning and maintenance of fountains does not eliminate the risk of bacterial contamination. Our findings highlight the need to evaluate the safety of water fountains installed in any area of a healthcare facility.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2012;33(2):185-191

Corresponding author
Wisconsin Division of Public Health, 1 West Wilson Street, Madison, WI 53701 (
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1. JE Stout , C Brennen , RR Muder . Legionnaires' disease in a newly constructed long-term care facility. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000;48(12):15891592.

8. T Singh , MM Coogan . Isolation of pathogenic Legionella species and legionella-laden amoebae in dental unit waterlines. J Hosp Infect 2005;61(3):257262.

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Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology
  • ISSN: 0899-823X
  • EISSN: 1559-6834
  • URL: /core/journals/infection-control-and-hospital-epidemiology
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