1.Kollef MH. Inadequate antimicrobial treatment: an important determinant of outcome for hospitalized patients. Clin Infect Dis 2000;31 (suppl 4):S131–S138.
2.Kollef MH, Sherman G, Ward S, Fraser VJ. Inadequate antimicrobial treatment of infections: a risk factor for hospital mortality among critically ill patients. Chest 1999;115:462–474.
3.Leibovici L, Shraga I, Drucker M, Konigsberger H, Samra Z, Pitlik SD. The benefit of appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment in patients with bloodstream infection. J Intern Med 1998;244:379–386.
4.Weinstein MP, Towns ML, Quartey SM, et al.The clinical significance of positive blood cultures in the 1990s: a prospective comprehensive evaluation of the microbiology, epidemiology, and outcome of bacteremia and fungemia in adults. Clin Infect Dis 1997;24:584–602.
5.Vidal F, Mensa J, Almela M, et al.Epidemiology and outcome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia, with special emphasis on the influence of antibiotic treatment: analysis of 189 episodes. Arch Intern Med 1996;156:2121–2126.
6.Chow JW, Fine MJ, Shlaes DM, et al. Enterobacter bacteremia: clinical features and emergence of antibiotic resistance during therapy. Ann Intern Med 1991;115:585–590.
7.Richards MJ, Edwards JR, Culver DH, Gaynes RP. Nosocomial infections in medical intensive care units in the United States. Crit Care Med 1999;27:887–892.
8.Ibrahim EH, Sherman G, Ward S, Fraser VJ, Kollef MH. The influence of inadequate antimicrobial treatment of bloodstream infections on patient outcomes in the ICU setting. Chest 2000;118:146–155.
9.Richardson DK, Phibbs CS, Gray JE, McCormick MC, Workman-Daniels K, Goldmann DA. Birth weight and illness severity: independent predictors of neonatal mortality. Pediatrics 1993;91:969–975.
10.Richardson DK, Gray JE, McCormick MC, Workman K, Goldmann DA. Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology: a physiologic severity index for neonatal intensive care. Pediatrics 1993;91:617–623.
11.Garner JS, Jarvis WR, Emori TG, Horan TC, Hughes JM. CDC definitions for nosocomial infections, 1988. Am J Infect Control 1988;16:128–140.
12.National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System report: data summary from January 1992-April 2000, issued June 2000. Am J Infect Control 2000;28:429–448.
13.Baltimore RS. Neonatal nosocomial infections. Semin Perinatol 1998; 22:25–32.
14.Beck-Sague CM, Azimi P, Fonseca SN, et al.Bloodstream infections in neonatal intensive care unit patients: results of a multicenter study. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1994;13:1110–1116.
15.Gaynes RP, Edwards JR, Jarvis WR, Culver DH, Toison JS, Martone WJ. Nosocomial infections among neonates in high-risk nurseries in the United States. Pediatrics 1996;98(part 1):357–361.
16.Freeman J, Goldmann DA, Smith NE, Sidebottom DG, Epstein MF, Platt R. Association of intravenous lipid emulsion and coagulase-nega-tive staphylococcal bacteremia in neonatal intensive care units. N Engl J Med 1990;323:301–308.
17.Stoll BJ, Gordon T, Korones SB, et al.Late-onset sepsis in very low birth weight neonates: a report from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. J Pediatr 1996;129:63–71.
18.Stoll BJ, Hansen N, Fanaroff AA, et al.Changes in pathogens causing early-onset sepsis in very-low-birth-weight infants. N Engl J Med 2002; 347:240–247.
19.Nambiar S, Singh N. Change in epidemiology of health care-associated infections in a neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002; 21:839–842.
20.Leibovici L, Samra Z, Konigsberger H, Drucker M, Ashkenazi S, Pitlik SD. Long-term survival following bacteremia or fungemia. JAMA 1995;274:807–812.
21.Jones GR, Lowes JA. The systemic inflammatory response syndrome as a predictor of bacteraemia and outcome from sepsis. QJM 1996; 89:515–522.
22.Meyers BR, Sherman E, Mendelson MH, et al.Bloodstream infections in the elderly. Am J Med 1989;86:379–384.
23.Gransden WR, Eykyn SJ, Phillips I, Rowe B. Bacteremia due to Escherichia coli: a study of 861 episodes. Rev Infect Dis 1990;12:1008–1018.
24.Bryan CS, Reynolds KL, Brenner ER. Analysis of 1,186 episodes of gram-negative bacteremia in non-university hospitals: the effects of antimicrobial therapy. Rev Infect Dis 1983;5:629–638.
25.Ispahani P, Pearson NJ, Greenwood D. An analysis of community and hospital-acquired bacteraemia in a large teaching hospital in the United Kingdom. QJM 1987;63:427–440.
26.McCue JD. Improved mortality in gram negative bacillary bacteremia. Arch Intern Med 1985;145:1212–1216.
27.Watanakunakorn C, Jura J. Klebsiella bacteremia: a review of 196 episodes during a decade (1980-89). Scand J Infect Dis 1991;23:399–405.
28.Kaufman D, Boyle R, Hazen KC, Patrie JT, Robinson M, Donowitz LG. Fluconazole prophylaxis against fungal colonization and infection in preterm infants. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1660–1666.