Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Effect of Intrapartum Antibiotic Prophylaxis Against Group B Streptococcal Infection on Comparisons of Rates of Endometritis and Urinary Tract Infection in Multicenter Surveillance


To establish whether antibiotic prophylaxis against group B streptococcal infection may be a confounding factor in comparisons of rates of endometritis and urinary tract infection after vaginal delivery.


Prospective study.


Maternity units at 48 hospitals in a regional surveillance network in France during 2001-2004.


The maternity units used a common protocol to establish whether antibiotic prophylaxis was indicated. Risk factors for endometritis and urinary tract infections were evaluated using multiple logistic regression.


We analyzed 49,786 vaginal deliveries. The percentage of women receiving antibiotic prophylaxis varied widely and significantly among the maternity units (range, 4.4%-26.0%; median, 15.8%; 25th percentile, 12.1%; 75th percentile, 19.0%) (P < .001, by Mantel-Haenszel χ2 test). The incidence rate of endometritis was significantly reduced from 0.25% to 0.11% by antibiotic prophylaxis (P = .001). There was a decrease in the incidence of urinary tract infection from 0.37% to 0.32%, but it was not statistically significant (P = .251).


A reduction in the incidence of endometritis was observed when intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis against group B streptococcal infection was used. However, the proportion of women considered to be at risk of infection varied widely among institutions. Comparisons of rates of endometritis among maternity units, but not urinary tract infection rates, should take into account antibiotic prophylaxis as a significant confounding factor.

Corresponding author
Centre Hospitaller Lyon Sud, Service de Gynécologie Obstétrique, Bâtiment 3B, Pierre Bénite Cedex, 69495 Pierre Bénite, France (
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

2.A Vincent-Boulétreau , E Caillat-Vallet , AM Dumas , et al.Changing medical practices and nosocomial infection rates in French maternity units from 1997 to 2000 [in French]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris) 2005;34:128136.

5.KF Holbrook , VF Nottebart , SR Hameed , R Platt . Automated postdischarge surveillance for postpartum and neonatal nosocomial infections. Am J Med 1991;91:125S130S.

6.M Schwartz , C Wang , L Eckert , C Critchlow . Risk factors for urinary tract infection in the postpartum period. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;181:547553.

9.HM DuPlessis , R Bell , T Richards . Adolescent pregnancy: understanding the impact of age and race on outcomes. J Adolesc Health 1997;20:187197.

26.GJ Locksmith , P Clark , P Duff . Maternal and neonatal infection rates with three different protocols for prevention of group B streptococcal disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;180(2 pt l):416422.

31.J Garner , W Jarvis , T Emori , T Hogan , J Hughes . CDC definitions for nosocomial infections. Am J Infect Control 1988;16:128140.

32.C Baker , J Luce , C Chenoweth , C Friedman . Comparison of case-finding methodologies for endometritis after cesarean section. Am J Infect Control 1995;23:2733.

36.MA Krohn , SL Hillier , CJ Baker . Maternal peripartum complications associated with vaginal group B streptococci colonization. J infect Dis 1999;179:14101415.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology
  • ISSN: 0899-823X
  • EISSN: 1559-6834
  • URL: /core/journals/infection-control-and-hospital-epidemiology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *