1.Richards MJ, Edwards JR, Culver DH, Gaynes RP. Nosocomial infections in combined medical-surgical intensive care units in the United States. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2000;21:510–515.
2.Safdar N, Dezfulian C, Collard HR, Saint S. Clinical and economic consequences of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a systematic review. Crit Care Med 2005;33:2184–2193.
3.Tablan OC, Anderson LJ, Besser R, Bridges C, Hajjeh R. Guidelines for preventing health-care-associated pneumonia, 2003: recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. MMWR Recomm Rep 2004;53(RR-3):1–36.
4.Dodek P, Keenan S, Cook D, et al.Evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Ann Intern Med 2004;141:305–313.
5.Guidelines for the management of adults with hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, and healthcare-associated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005;171:388–416.
6.Collard HR, Saint S, Matthay MA. Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia: an evidence-based systematic review. Ann Intern Med 2003;138:494–501.
7.Berwick DM, Calkins DR, McCannon CJ, Hackbarth AD. The 100,000 Lives Campaign: setting a goal and a deadline for improving health care quality. JAMA 2006;295:324–327.
8.Resar R, Pronovost P, Haraden C, Simmonds T, Rainey T, Nolan T. Using a bundle approach to improve ventilator care processes and reduce ventilator-associated pneumonia. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2005;31:243–248.
9.Youngquist P, Carroll M, Farber M, et al.Implementing a ventilator bundle in a community hospital. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2007;33:219–225.
10.Krein SL, Olmsted RN, Hofer TP, et al.Translating infection prevention evidence into practice using quantitative and qualitative research. Am J Infect Control 2006;34:507–512.
11.Krein S, Hofer T, Kowalski C, et al.Use of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection prevention practices by US hospitals. Mayo Clin Proc 2007;82:672–678.
12.Saint S, Kowalski CP, Kaufman SR, et al.Preventing hospital-acquired urinary tract infection in the United States: a national study. Clin Infect Dis 2008;46:243–250.
13.Sandelowski M. Combining qualitative and quantitative sampling, data collection, and analysis techniques in mixed-method studies. Res Nurs Health 2000;23:246–255.
14.Ivankova NV, Creswell JW, Stick SL. Using mixed-methods sequential explanatory design: from theory to practice. Field Methods 2006;18:3–20.
15.National Center for Health Workforce Analysis Bureau of Health Professions, Health Resources and Services Administration, Department of Health and Human Services. Area Resource File (ARF). Fairfax, VA: Quality Resource Systems (QRS), Inc.; 2003.
16.Needleman J, Buerhaus P, Mattke S, Stewart M, Zelevinsky K. Nurse-staffing levels and quality of care in hospitals. N Engl J Med 2002;346:1715–1722.
17.Putnam W, Twohig PL, Burge FI, Jackson LA, Cox JL. A qualitative study of evidence in primary care: what the practitioners are saying. CMAJ 2002;166:1525–1530.
18.Kane RL, Shamliyan T, Mueller C, Duval S, Wilt TJ. Nurse staffing and quality of patient care. Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep) 2007; (151):1–115.
19.Mason J. Qualitative researching. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 2002.
20.Sandelowski M, Barroso J. Writing the proposal for a qualitative research methodology project. Qual Health Res 2003;13:781–820.
21.Forman J, Damschroder LJ. Qualitative content analysis. In: Jacoby L, Siminoff L, eds. Empirical Research for Bioethics: A Primer. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Publishing; 2008:39–62.
22.Ovretveit J, Bate P, Cleary P, et al.Quality collaboratives: lessons from research. Qual Saf Health Care 2002;11:345–351.
23.Wilson T, Berwick DM, Cleary PD. What do collaborative improvement projects do? Experience from seven countries. Jt Comm J Qual Saf 2003;29:85–93.
24.Pronovost P, Needham D, Berenholtz S, et al.An intervention to decrease catheter-related bloodstream infections in the ICU. N Engl J Med 2006;355:2725–2732.
25.Wachter RM, Pronovost PJ. The 100,000 Lives Campaign: a scientific and policy review. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2006;32:621–627.
26.Ricart M, Lorente C, Diaz E, Kollef MH, Rello J. Nursing adherence with evidence-based guidelines for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia. Crit Care Med 2003;31:2693–2696.
27.Cason CL, Tyner T, Saunders S, Broome L. Nurses' implementation of guidelines for ventilator-associated pneumonia from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Am J Crit Care 2007;16:28–36.
28.Grap MJ, Munro CL, Bryant S, Ashtiani B. Predictors of backrest elevation in critical care. Intensive Crit Care Nurs 2003;19:68–74.
30.Rello J, Lorente C, Bodi M, Diaz E, Ricart M, Kollef MH. Why do physicians not follow evidence-based guidelines for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia? A survey based on the opinions of an international panel of intensivists. Chest 2002;122:656–661.
31.Kaynar AM, Mathew JJ, Hudlin MM, et al.Attitudes of respiratory therapists and nurses about measures to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia: a multicenter, cross-sectional survey study. Respir Care 2007;52:1687–1694.
32.Dezfulian C, Shojania K, Collard HR, Kim HM, Matthay MA, Saint S. Subglottic secretion drainage for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia: a meta-analysis. Am J Med 2005;118:11–18.
33.van Nieuwenhoven CA, Vandenbroucke-Grauls C, van Tiel FH, et al.Feasibility and effects of the semirecumbent position to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia: a randomized study. Crit Care Med 2006;34:396–402.
34.Drakulovic MB, Torres A, Bauer TT, Nicolas JM, Nogue S, Ferrer N. Supine body position as a risk factor for nosocomial pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients: a randomised trial. Lancet 1999;354:1851–1858.
35.Forman J, Creswell JW, Damschroder L, Kowalski CP, Krein SL. Qualitative research methods: key features and insights gained by their use in infection prevention research. Am J Infect Control 2008. In press.