Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Strategies to Prevent Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Transmission and Infection in Acute Care Hospitals: 2014 Update

  • David P. Calfee (a1) (a2), Cassandra D. Salgado (a3) (a2), Aaron M. Milstone (a4), Anthony D. Harris (a5), David T. Kuhar (a6), Julia Moody (a7), Kathy Aureden (a8), Susan S. Huang (a9), Lisa L. Maragakis (a4) and Deborah S. Yokoe (a10)...
Abstract
Copyright
Corresponding author
Weill Cornell Medical College, 525 East 68th Street, Box 265, New York, NY 10065 (dpc9003@med.cornell.edu).
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1.DP Calfee , CD Salgado , D Classen , et al. Strategies to prevent transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in acute care hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29(suppl 1):S62S80.

2.DS Yokoe , DJ Anderson , SM Berenholtz , et al. Introduction to “A Compendium of Strategies to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections in Acute Care Hospitals: 2014 Updates.” Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35(5):455459.

3.DM Sievert , P Ricks , JR Edwards , et al. Antimicrobial-resistant pathogens associated with healthcare-associated infections: summary of data reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009–2010. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2013;34:114.

4.AI Hidron , JR Edwards , J Patel , et al. NHSN annual update: antimicrobial-resistant pathogens associated with healthcare-associated infections: annual summary of data reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006–2007. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29:9961011.

5.AJ Kallen , Y Mu , S Bulens , et al. Health care–associated invasive MRSA infections, 2005–2008. JAMA 2010;304:641648.

7.M Iwamoto , Y Mu , R Lynfield , et al. Trends in invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. Pediatrics 2013;132:e817e824.

8.SE Cosgrove , G Sakoulas , EN Perencevich , MJ Schwaber , AW Karchmer , Y Carmeli . Comparison of mortality associated with methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 2003;36:5359.

9.JJ Engemann , Y Carmeli , SE Cosgrove , et al. Adverse clinical and economic outcomes attributable to methicillin resistance among patients with Staphylococcus aureus surgical site infection. Clin Infect Dis 2003;36:592598.

10.MA Abramson , DJ Sexton . Nosocomial methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus primary bacteremia: at what costs? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999;20:408411.

11.CG McHugh , LW Riley . Risk factors and costs associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2004;25:425430.

12.S Harbarth , O Rutschmann , P Sudre , D Pittet . Impact of methicillin resistance on the outcome of patients with bacteremia caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Arch Intern Med 1998;158:182189.

13.SE Cosgrove , Y Qi , KS Kaye , S Harbarth , AW Karchmer , Y Carmeli . The impact of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia on patient outcomes: mortality, length of stay, and hospital charges. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2005;26:166174.

14.SS Huang , R Platt . Risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection after previous infection or colonization. Clin Infect Dis 2003;36:281285.

15.M Garrouste-Orgeas , JF Timsit , H Kallel , et al. Colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in ICU patients: morbidity, mortality, and glycopeptide use. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2001;22:687692.

16.EA Freitas , RM Harris , RK Blake , CD Salgado . Prevalence of USA300 strain type of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among patients with nasal colonization identified with active surveillance. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010;31:469475.

18.R Datta , SS Huang . Risk of infection and death due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in long-term carriers. Clin Infect Dis 2008;47:176181.

19.AM Milstone , BW Goldner , T Ross , JW Shepard , KC Carroll , TM Perl . Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization and risk of subsequent infection in critically ill children: importance of preventing nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission. Clin Infect Dis 2011;53:853859.

20.J Merrer , F Santoli , C Appere de Vecchi , B Tran , B De Jonghe , H Outin . “Colonization pressure” and risk of acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a medical intensive care unit. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2000;21:718723.

21.GJ Moran , A Krishnadasan , RJ Gorwitz , et al. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections among patients in the emergency department. N Engl J Med 2006;355:666674.

22.MD King , BJ Humphrey , YF Wang , EV Kourbatova , SM Ray , HM Blumberg . Emergence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA 300 clone as the predominant cause of skin and soft-tissue infections. Ann Intern Med 2006;144:309317.

23.CL Maree , RS Daum , S Boyle-Vavra , K Matayoshi , LG Miller . Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing healthcare-associated infections. Emerg Infect Dis 2007;13:236242.

24.RM Klevens , MA Morrison , J Nadle , et al. Invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in the United States. JAMA 2007;298:17631771.

25.KJ Popovich , RA Weinstein , B Hota . Are community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains replacing traditional nosocomial MRSA strains? Clin Infect Dis 2008;46:787794.

26.TC Jenkins , BD McCollister , R Sharma , et al. Epidemiology of healthcare-associated bloodstream infection caused by USA300 strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in 3 affiliated hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2009;30:233241.

27.SH Park , C Park , JH Yoo , et al. Emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains as a cause of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections in Korea. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2009;30:146155.

28.AJ Carey , P Della-Latta , R Huard , et al. Changes in the molecular epidemiological characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a neonatal intensive care unit. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010;31:613619.

29.AM Milstone , KC Carroll , T Ross , KA Shangraw , TM Perl . Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in pediatric intensive care unit. Emerg Infect Dis 2010;16:647655.

30.FC Lessa , Y Mu , SM Ray , et al. Impact of USA300 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on clinical outcomes of patients with pneumonia or central line–associated bloodstream infections. Clin Infect Dis 2012;55:232241.

31.A Bhalla , NJ Pultz , DM Gries , et al. Acquisition of nosocomial pathogens on hands after contact with environmental surfaces near hospitalized patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2004;25:164167.

32.MA Smith , JJ Mathewson , IA Ulert , EG Scerpella , CD Ericsson . Contaminated stethoscopes revisited. Arch Intern Med 1996;156:8284.

33.HA Cohen , H Liora , G Paret . Aurioscope earpieces—a potential vector of infection? Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 1998;45:4750.

35.JM Embil , JA McLeod , AM Al-Barrak , et al. An outbreak of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus on a burn unit: potential role of contaminated hydrotherapy equipment. Burns 2001;27:681688.

36.AS Breathnach , DR Jenkins , SJ Pedler . Stethoscopes as possible vectors of infection by staphylococci. BMJ 1992;305:15731574.

37.JM Boyce , G Potter-Bynoe , C Chenevert , T King . Environmental contamination due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: possible infection control implications. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1997;18:622627.

38.T Sexton , P Clarke , E O’Neill , T Dillane , H Humphreys . Environmental reservoirs of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in isolation rooms: correlation with patient isolates and implications for hospital hygiene. J Hosp Infect 2006;62:187194.

39.DJ Weber , D Anderson , WA Rutala . The role of the surface environment in healthcare-associated infections. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2013;26:338344.

40.DJ Weber , WA Rutala . Understanding and preventing transmission of healthcare-associated pathogens due to the contaminated hospital environment. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2013;34:449452.

41.SS Huang , R Datta , R Platt . Risk of acquiring antibiotic-resistant bacteria from prior room occupants. Arch Intern Med 2006;166:19451951.

44.AL Cohen , D Calfee , SK Fridkin , et al. Recommendations for metrics for multidrug-resistant organisms in healthcare settings: SHEA/HICPAC position paper. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29:901913.

45.JD Siegel , E Rhinehart , M Jackson , L Chiarello . Management of multidrug-resistant organisms in health care settings, 2006. Am J Infect Control 2007;35:S165S193.

46.JE Coia , GJ Duckworth , DI Edwards , et al. Guidelines for the control and prevention of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in healthcare facilities. J Hosp Infect 2006;63(suppl 1):S1S44.

52.G Gopal Rao , A Jeanes , M Osman , C Aylott , J Green . Marketing hand hygiene in hospitals—a case study. J Hosp Infect 2002;50:4247.

53.DJ Morgan , E Rogawski , KA Thom , et al. Transfer of multidrug-resistant bacteria to healthcare workers’ gloves and gowns after patient contact increases with environmental contamination. Crit Care Med 2012;40:10451051.

54.S Chang , AK Sethi , U Stiefel , JL Cadnum , CJ Donskey . Occurrence of skin and environmental contamination with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus before results of polymerase chain reaction at hospital admission become available. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010;31:607612.

55.JD Siegel , E Rhinehart , M Jackson , L Chiarello . 2007 Guideline for isolation precautions: preventing transmission of infectious agents in health care settings. Am J Infect Control. 2007;35:S65S164.

56.A Scanvic , L Denic , S Gaillon , P Giry , A Andremont , JC Lucet . Duration of colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus after hospital discharge and risk factors for prolonged carriage. Clin Infect Dis 2001;32:13931398.

57.MD Sanford , AF Widmer , MJ Bale , RN Jones , RP Wenzel . Efficient detection and long-term persistence of the carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Infect Dis 1994;19:11231128.

58.KB Kirkland , JM Weinstein . Adverse effects of contact isolation. Lancet 1999;354:11771178.

59.S Saint , LA Higgins , BK Nallamothu , C Chenoweth . Do physicians examine patients in contact isolation less frequently? a brief report. Am J Infect Control 2003;31:354356.

60.HL Evans , MM Shaffer , MG Hughes , et al. Contact isolation in surgical patients: a barrier to care? Surgery 2003;134:180188.

61.G Catalano , SH Houston , MC Catalano , et al. Anxiety and depression in hospitalized patients in resistant organism isolation. South Med J 2003;96:141145.

62.HR Day , EN Perencevich , AD Harris , et al. Do contact precautions cause depression? a two-year study at a tertiary care medical centre. J Hosp Infect 2011;79:103107.

63.HT Stelfox , DW Bates , DA Redelmeier . Safety of patients isolated for infection control. JAMA 2003;290:18991905.

66.KJ Hardy , BA Oppenheim , S Gossain , F Gao , PM Hawkey . A study of the relationship between environmental contamination with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and patients’ acquisition of MRSA. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006;27:127132.

67.GL French , JA Otter , KP Shannon , NM Adams , D Watling , MJ Parks . Tackling contamination of the hospital environment by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): a comparison between conventional terminal cleaning and hydrogen peroxide vapour decontamination. J Hosp Infect 2004;57:3137.

68.S Oie , I Hosokawa , A Kamiya . Contamination of room door handles by methicillin-sensitive/methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Hosp Infect 2002;51:140143.

69.A Rampling , S Wiseman , L Davis , et al. Evidence that hospital hygiene is important in the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Hosp Infect 2001;49:109116.

70.RK Vajravelu , DM Guerrero , LA Jury , CJ Donskey . Evaluation of stethoscopes as vectors of Clostridium difficile and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2012;33:9698.

71.P Carling . Methods for assessing the adequacy of practice and improving room disinfection. Am J Infect Control 2013;41:S20S25.

72.SJ Dancer . Importance of the environment in meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus acquisition: the case for hospital cleaning. Lancet Infect Dis 2008;8:101113.

73.PC Carling , MF Parry , LA Bruno-Murtha , B Dick . Improving environmental hygiene in 27 intensive care units to decrease multidrug-resistant bacterial transmission. Crit Care Med 2010;38:10541059.

74.C Abad , A Fearday , N Safdar . Adverse effects of isolation in hospitalised patients: a systematic review. J Hosp Infect 2010;76:97102.

75.CD Salgado , BM Farr . What proportion of hospital patients colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are identified by clinical microbiological cultures? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006;27:116121.

76.SS Huang , SL Rifas-Shiman , DK Warren , et al. Improving methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus surveillance and reporting in intensive care units. J Infect Dis 2007;195:330338.

77.R Jain , SM Kralovic , ME Evans , et al. Veterans Affairs initiative to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. N Engl J Med 2011;364:14191430.

78.TE West , C Guerry , M Hiott , N Morrow , K Ward , CD Salgado . Effect of targeted surveillance for control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a community hospital system. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006;27:233238.

79.SS Huang , DS Yokoe , VL Hinrichsen , et al. Impact of routine intensive care unit surveillance cultures and resultant barrier precautions on hospital-wide methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Clin Infect Dis 2006;43:971978.

80.JC Lucet , X Paoletti , I Lolom , et al. Successful long-term program for controlling methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in intensive care units. Intensive Care Med 2005;31:10511057.

81.C Marshall , M Richards , E McBryde . Do active surveillance and contact precautions reduce MRSA acquisition? a prospective interrupted time series. PLoS ONE 2013;8:e58112.

82.JB Perlin , JD Hickok , EJ Septimus , JA Moody , JD Englebright , RM Bracken . A bundled approach to reduce methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in a system of community hospitals. J Healthc Qual 2013;35:5768.

83.S Harbarth , C Fankhauser , J Schrenzel , et al. Universal screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at hospital admission and nosocomial infection in surgical patients. JAMA 2008;299:11491157.

84.WC Huskins , CM Huckabee , NP O’Grady , et al. Intervention to reduce transmission of resistant bacteria in intensive care. N Engl J Med 2011;364:14071418.

86.TV Gurieva , MC Bootsma , MJ Bonten . Decolonization of patients and health care workers to control nosocomial spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a simulation study. BMC Infect Dis 2012;12:302.

87.MA Miller , A Dascal , J Portnoy , J Mendelson . Development of mupirocin resistance among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus after widespread use of nasal mupirocin ointment. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17:811813.

88.M Lepainteur , G Royer , AS Bourrel , et al. Prevalence of resistance to antiseptics and mupirocin among invasive coagulase-negative staphylococci from very preterm neonates in NICU: the creeping threat? J Hosp Infect 2013;83:333336.

89.BW Teo , SJ Low , Y Ding , TH Koh , LY Hsu . High prevalence of mupirocin-resistant staphylococci in a dialysis unit where mupirocin and chlorhexidine are routinely used for prevention of catheter-related infections. J Med Microbiol 2011;60:865867.

90.G Ridenour , R Lampen , J Federspiel , S Kritchevsky , E Wong , M Climo . Selective use of intranasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine bathing and the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection among intensive care unit patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007;28:11551161.

91.L Saiman , A Cronquist , F Wu , et al. An outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a neonatal intensive care unit. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003;24:317321.

92.S Nambiar , LA Herwaldt , N Singh . Outbreak of invasive disease caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in neonates and prevalence in the neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2003;4:220226.

93.S Hitomi , M Kubota , N Mori , et al. Control of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit by unselective use of nasal mupirocin ointment. J Hosp Infect 2000;46:123129.

94.LA Herwaldt . Reduction of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage and infection in dialysis patients. J Hosp Infect 1998;40(suppl B):S13S23.

95.LG Miller , SJ Eells , AR Taylor , et al. Staphylococcus aureus colonization among household contacts of patients with skin infections: risk factors, strain discordance, and complex ecology. Clin Infect Dis 2012;54:15231535.

96.JA Kluytmans , JW Mouton , MF VandenBergh , et al. Reduction of surgical-site infections in cardiothoracic surgery by elimination of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17:780785.

97.WE Pofahl , CE Goettler , KM Ramsey , MK Cochran , DL Nobles , MF Rotondo . Active surveillance screening of MRSA and eradication of the carrier state decreases surgical-site infections caused by MRSA. J Am Coll Surg 2009;208:981986.

98.MH Wilcox , J Hall , H Pike , et al. Use of perioperative mupirocin to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) orthopaedic surgical site infections. J Hosp Infect 2003;54:196201.

99.M Schweizer , E Perencevich , J McDanel , et al. Effectiveness of a bundled intervention of decolonization and prophylaxis to decrease gram positive surgical site infections after cardiac or orthopedic surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2013;346:f2743.

100.DJ Anderson , K Podgorny , SI Berríos-Torres , et al. Strategies to prevent surgical site infections in acute care hospitals: 2014 update. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35(6):605627.

101.MO Vernon , MK Hayden , WE Trick , RA Hayes , DW Blom , RA Weinstein . Chlorhexidine gluconate to cleanse patients in a medical intensive care unit: the effectiveness of source control to reduce the bioburden of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Arch Intern Med 2006;166:306312.

102.LS Munoz-Price , B Hota , A Stemer , RA Weinstein . Prevention of bloodstream infections by use of daily chlorhexidine baths for patients at a long-term acute care hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2009;30:10311035.

103.HL Evans , TH Dellit , J Chan , AB Nathens , RV Maier , J Cuschieri . Effect of chlorhexidine whole-body bathing on hospital-acquired infections among trauma patients. Arch Surg 2010;145:240246.

104.KJ Popovich , B Hota , R Hayes , RA Weinstein , MK Hayden . Effectiveness of routine patient cleansing with chlorhexidine gluconate for infection prevention in the medical intensive care unit. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2009;30:959963.

105.MW Climo , DS Yokoe , DK Warren , et al. Effect of daily chlorhexidine bathing on hospital-acquired infection. N Engl J Med 2013;368:533542.

106.SS Huang , E Septimus , K Kleinman , et al. Targeted versus universal decolonization to prevent ICU infection. N Engl J Med 2013;368:22552265.

107.AM Milstone , A Elward , X Song , et al. Daily chlorhexidine bathing to reduce bacteraemia in critically ill children: a multicentre, cluster-randomised, crossover trial. Lancet 2013;381:10991106.

108.MW Climo , KA Sepkowitz , G Zuccotti , et al. The effect of daily bathing with chlorhexidine on the acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, and healthcare-associated bloodstream infections: results of a quasi-experimental multicenter trial. Crit Care Med 2009;37:18581865.

109.J Marschall , LA Mermel , M Fakih , et al. Strategies to prevent central line–associated bloodstream infections in acute care hospitals: 2014 update. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35(7):753771 (in this issue).

110.S Karki , AC Cheng . Impact of non-rinse skin cleansing with chlorhexidine gluconate on prevention of healthcare-associated infections and colonization with multi-resistant organisms: a systematic review. J Hosp Infect 2012;82:7184.

111.LP Derde , BS Cooper , H Goossens , et al. Interventions to reduce colonisation and transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in intensive care units: an interrupted time series study and cluster randomised trial. Lancet Infect Dis 2013;14(1):319.

112.ME Rupp , RJ Cavalieri , E Lyden , et al. Effect of hospital-wide chlorhexidine patient bathing on healthcare-associated infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2012;33:10941100.

113.HM Delaney , E Wang , M Melish . Comprehensive strategy including prophylactic mupirocin to reduce Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection in high-risk neonates. J Perinatol 2013;33:313318.

114.SA Fritz , PG Hogan , G Hayek , et al. Staphylococcus aureus colonization in children with community-associated Staphylococcus aureus skin infections and their household contacts. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2012;166:551557.

119.K Ellingson , JP Hass , AE Aiello , et al. Strategies to prevent healthcare-associated infections through hand hygiene. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014 (forthcoming).

120.WH Seto . Training the work force—models for effective education in infection control. J Hosp Infect 1995;30(suppl):241247.

123.JA Otter , S Yezli , TM Perl , F Barbut , GL French . The role of “no-touch” automated room disinfection systems in infection prevention and control. J Hosp Infect 2013;83:113.

124.CL Passaretti , JA Otter , NG Reich , et al. An evaluation of environmental decontamination with hydrogen peroxide vapor for reducing the risk of patient acquisition of multidrug-resistant organisms. Clin Infect Dis 2013;56:2735.

125.CD Salgado , KA Sepkowitz , JF John , et al. Copper surfaces reduce the rate of healthcare-acquired infections in the intensive care unit. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2013;34:479486.

126.G Kac , P Grohs , P Durieux , et al. Impact of electronic alerts on isolation precautions for patients with multidrug-resistant bacteria. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:20862090.

127.H Halpin , SM Shortell , A Milstein , M Vanneman . Hospital adoption of automated surveillance technology and the implementation of infection prevention and control programs. Am J Infect Control 2011;39:270276.

128.MO Wright . Automated surveillance and infection control: toward a better tomorrow. Am J Infect Control 2008;36:S1S6.

129.KL Mozzillo , N Ortiz , LG Miller . Patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection: twenty-first century lepers. J Hosp Infect 2010;75:132134.

130.JJ Briggs , AM Milstone . Changes over time in caregivers’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Pediatr 2011;158:1039.

131.JT Wang , SC Chang , WJ Ko , et al. A hospital-acquired outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection initiated by a surgeon carrier. J Hosp Infect 2001;47:104109.

132.F Faibis , C Laporte , A Fiacre , et al. An outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus surgical-site infections initiated by a healthcare worker with chronic sinusitis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2005;26:213215.

133.GW Coombs , H Van Gessel , JC Pearson , MR Godsell , FG O’Brien , KJ Christiansen . Controlling a multicenter outbreak involving the New York/Japan methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007;28:845852.

134.D Pittet , B Allegranzi , H Sax , S Dharan , CL Pessoa-Silva , L Donaldson , JM Boyce . Evidence-based model for hand transmission during patient care and the role of improved practices. Lancet Infect Dis 2006;6:641652.

135.RL Thompson , I Cabezudo , RP Wenzel . Epidemiology of nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Ann Intern Med 1982;97:309317.

136.RA Cox , C Conquest . Strategies for the management of healthcare staff colonized with epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Hosp Infect 1997;35:117127.

137.WC Albrich , S Harbarth . Health-care workers: source, vector, or victim of MRSA? Lancet Infect Dis 2008;8:289301.

139.ML Bertin , J Vinski , S Schmitt , et al. Outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection in a neonatal intensive care unit epidemiologically linked to a healthcare worker with chronic otitis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006;27:581585.

140.M Stein , S Navon-Venezia , I Chmelnitsky , et al. An outbreak of new, nonmultidrug-resistant, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain (SCCmec type IIIA variant-1) in the neonatal intensive care unit transmitted by a staff member. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2006;25:557559.

141.PA Meier , CD Carter , SE Wallace , RJ Hollis , MA Pfaller , LA Herwaldt . A prolonged outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the burn unit of a tertiary medical center. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17:798802.

142.HE Blok , A Troelstra , TE Kamp-Hopmans , et al. Role of healthcare workers in outbreaks of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a 10-year evaluation from a Dutch university hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003;24:679685.

143.C Wendt , S Schinke , M Wurttemberger , K Oberdorfer , O Bock-Hensley , H von Baum . Value of whole-body washing with chlorhexidine for the eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007;28:10361043.

144.KJ Popovich , R Lyles , R Hayes , et al. Relationship between chlorhexidine gluconate skin concentration and microbial density on the skin of critically ill patients bathed daily with chlorhexidine gluconate. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2012;33:889896.

145.PD Tamma , SW Aucott , AM Milstone . Chlorhexidine use in the neonatal intensive care unit: results from a national survey. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010;31:846849.

146.AK Chapman , SW Aucott , AM Milstone . Safety of chlorhexidine gluconate used for skin antisepsis in the preterm infant. J Perinatol 2012;32:49.

147.B Sitzlar , A Deshpande , D Fertelli , S Kundrapu , AK Sethi , CJ Donskey . An environmental disinfection odyssey: evaluation of sequential interventions to improve disinfection of Clostridium difficile isolation rooms. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2013;34:459465.

148.PC Carling , MF Parry , SM Von Beheren . Identifying opportunities to enhance environmental cleaning in 23 acute care hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29:17.

149.DJ Morgan , HR Day , JP Furuno , et al. Improving efficiency in active surveillance for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus at hospital admission. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010;31:12301235.

150.JS Reilly , S Stewart , P Christie , et al. Universal screening for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in acute care: risk factors and outcome from a multicentre study. J Hosp Infect 2012;80:3135.

151.CC Haley , D Mittal , A Laviolette , S Jannapureddy , N Parvez , RW Haley . Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection or colonization present at hospital admission: multivariable risk factor screening to increase efficiency of surveillance culturing. J Clin Microbiol 2007;45:30313038.

152.S Riedel , D Von Stein , K Richardson , et al. Development of a prediction rule for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus carriage in a Veterans Affairs medical center population. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29:969971.

153.S Harbarth , H Sax , C Fankhauser-Rodriguez , J Schrenzel , A Agostinho , D Pittet . Evaluating the probability of previously unknown carriage of MRSA at hospital admission. Am J Med 2006;119:275.e215–275.e223.

154.E Lautenbach , I Nachamkin , B Hu , et al. Surveillance cultures for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: diagnostic yield of anatomic sites and comparison of provider- and patient-collected samples. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2009;30:380382.

155.JP Furuno , AD Harris , MO Wright , et al. Value of performing active surveillance cultures on intensive care unit discharge for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007;28:666670.

156.L Senn , P Basset , I Nahimana , G Zanetti , DS Blanc . Which anatomical sites should be sampled for screening of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage by culture or by rapid PCR test? Clin Micro Infect 2012;18:E31–E33.

157.JA McKinnell , SS Huang , SJ Eells , E Cui , LG Miller . Quantifying the impact of extranasal testing of body sites for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization at the time of hospital or intensive care unit admission. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2013;34:161170.

158.SM Shurland , OC Stine , RA Venezia , et al. Colonization sites of USA300 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in residents of extended care facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2009;30:313318.

159.A Matheson , P Christie , T Stari , et al. Nasal swab screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus—how well does it perform? a cross-sectional study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2012;33:803808.

160.M Eveillard , A de Lassence , E Lancien , G Barnaud , JD Ricard , ML Joly-Guillou . Evaluation of a strategy of screening multiple anatomical sites for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at admission to a teaching hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006;27:181184.

161.KJ Popovich , B Hota , A Aroutcheva , et al. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization burden in HIV-infected patients. Clin Infect Dis 2013;56:10671074.

162.SI Gerber , RC Jones , MV Scott , et al. Management of outbreaks of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in the neonatal intensive care unit: a consensus statement. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006;27:139145.

163.A Rosenthal , D White , S Churilla , S Brodie , KC Katz . Optimal surveillance culture sites for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in newborns. J Clin Microbiol 2006;44:42344236.

164.EJ Bishop , EA Grabsch , SA Ballard , et al. Concurrent analysis of nose and groin swab specimens by the IDI-MRSA PCR assay is comparable to analysis by individual-specimen PCR and routine culture assays for detection of colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol 2006;44:29042908.

165.B Diederen , I van Duijn , A van Belkum , P Willemse , P van Keulen , J Kluytmans . Performance of CHROMagar MRSA medium for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol 2005;43:19251927.

166.BM Diederen , ML van Leest , I van Duijn , P Willemse , PH van Keulen , JA Kluytmans . Performance of MRSA ID, a new chromogenic medium for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol 2006;44:586588.

167.D Flayhart , JF Hindler , DA Bruckner , et al. Multicenter evaluation of BBL CHROMagar MRSA medium for direct detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from surveillance cultures of the anterior nares. J Clin Microbiol 2005;43:55365540.

168.L Stoakes , R Reyes , J Daniel , et al. Prospective comparison of a new chromogenic medium, MRSAselect, to CHROMagar MRSA and mannitol-salt medium supplemented with oxacillin or cefoxitin for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol 2006;44:637639.

170.MW Wassenberg , JA Kluytmans , AT Box , et al. Rapid screening of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using PCR and chromogenic agar: a prospective study to evaluate costs and effects. Clin Micro Infect 2010;16:17541761.

171.GA Denys , PB Renzi , KM Koch , CM Wissel . Three-way comparison of BBL CHROMagar MRSAII, MRSAselect, and Spectra MRSA for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in nasal surveillance cultures. J Clin Microbiol 2013;51:202205.

172.N Safdar , L Narans , B Gordon , DG Maki . Comparison of culture screening methods for detection of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a prospective study comparing 32 methods. J Clin Microbiol 2003;41:31633166.

173.DM Wolk , JL Marx , L Dominguez , D Driscoll , RB Schifman . Comparison of MRSASelect agar, CHROMagar methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) medium, and Xpert MRSA PCR for detection of MRSA in nares: diagnostic accuracy for surveillance samples with various bacterial densities. J Clin Microbiol 2009;47:39333936.

174.C Nonhoff , O Denis , A Brenner , et al. Comparison of three chromogenic media and enrichment broth media for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from mucocutaneous screening specimens: comparison of MRSA chromogenic media. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2009;28:363369.

175.A Huletsky , P Lebel , FJ Picard , et al. Identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage in less than 1 hour during a hospital surveillance program. Clin Infect Dis 2005;40:976981.

176.DK Warren , RS Liao , LR Merz , M Eveland , WM Dunne Jr. Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus directly from nasal swab specimens by a real-time PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol 2004;42:55785581.

177.SJ Drews , BM Willey , N Kreiswirth , et al. Verification of the IDI-MRSA assay for detecting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in diverse specimen types in a core clinical laboratory setting. J Clin Microbiol 2006;44:37943796.

178.H Wong , L Louie , RY Lo , AE Simor . Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates with a partial or complete absence of staphylococcal cassette chromosome elements. J Clin Microbiol 2010;48:35253531.

179.DS Blanc , P Basset , I Nahimana-Tessemo , K Jaton , G Greub , G Zanetti . High proportion of wrongly identified methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriers by use of a rapid commercial PCR assay due to presence of staphylococcal cassette chromosome element lacking the mecA gene. J Clin Microbiol 2011;49:722724.

180.MD Bartels , K Boye , SM Rohde , et al. A common variant of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IVa in isolates from Copenhagen, Denmark, is not detected by the BD GeneOhm methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus assay. J Clin Microbiol 2009;47:15241527.

181.C Laurent , P Bogaerts , D Schoevaerdts , et al. Evaluation of the Xpert MRSA assay for rapid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from nares swabs of geriatric hospitalized patients and failure to detect a specific SCCmec type IV variant. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2010;29:9951002.

182.R Cunningham , P Jenks , J Northwood , M Wallis , S Ferguson , S Hunt . Effect on MRSA transmission of rapid PCR testing of patients admitted to critical care. J Hosp Infect 2007;65:2428.

183.MC Bootsma , O Diekmann , MJ Bonten . Controlling methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: quantifying the effects of interventions and rapid diagnostic testing. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006;103:56205625.

184.N Olchanski , C Mathews , L Fusfeld , W Jarvis . Assessment of the influence of test characteristics on the clinical and cost impacts of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus screening programs in US hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2011;32:250257.

185.J Li , K Ulvin , H Biboh , IS Kristiansen . Cost-effectiveness of supplementing a broth-enriched culture test with the Xpert meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) assay for screening inpatients at high risk of MRSA. J Hosp Infect 2012;82:227233.

186.D Jeyaratnam , CJ Whitty , K Phillips , et al. Impact of rapid screening tests on acquisition of meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: cluster randomised crossover trial. BMJ 2008;336:927930.

187.N Safdar , J Marx , NA Meyer , DG Maki . Effectiveness of preemptive barrier precautions in controlling nosocomial colonization and infection by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a burn unit. Am J Infect Control 2006;34:476483.

188.GH Guyatt , AD Oxman , GE Vist , et al. GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ 2008;336(7650):924926.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology
  • ISSN: 0899-823X
  • EISSN: 1559-6834
  • URL: /core/journals/infection-control-and-hospital-epidemiology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score