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The Effectiveness of Influenza Vaccine Against Influenza A (H3N2) Virus Infections in Nursing Homes in Niigata, Japan, During the 1998-1999 and 1999-2000 Seasons

  • Reiko Saito (a1), Hiroshi Suzuki (a1), Hitoshi Oshitani (a1), Takatsugu Sakai (a1), Nao Seki (a1) and Naohito Tanabe (a1)...

To evaluate the effectiveness of influenza vaccines against influenza-like illness (ILI) among nursing home residents.


Prospective, nonrandomized, cohort study.


Nine nursing homes during the 1998-1999 influenza season and 11 nursing homes during the 1999-2000 influenza season in Niigata Prefecture, Japan.


Six hundred ninety-nine residents and 440 healthcare workers (HCWs) during the first season, and 930 residents and 517 HCWs during the second season, with vaccination rates ranging from 0% to 97.7%.


Overall, ILI decreased from 24.3% during the 1998-1999 season to 8.8% during the 1999-2000 season. Multivariate analysis adjusted for several factors, including gender, age, underlying diseases, and resident and HCW vaccination rates, failed to demonstrate clear individual protection of residents (relative risk [RR], 1.42; P = .2 for the first season; RR, 0.95; P = .9 for the second season). However, vaccination rates of 60% or greater for residents and HCWs reduced the risk of ILI, and also could prevent outbreaks during the 2 seasons. Highly impaired activities of daily living and chronic respiratory diseases were significantly associated with increased ILI.


A high vaccination rate for both residents and HCWs may reduce the risk of ILI and institutional outbreaks in nursing homes

Corresponding author
Department of Public Health, Niigata University School of Medicine, 1-757 Asahimachi-dori Niigata City, Niigata 951-8510, Japan
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Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology
  • ISSN: 0899-823X
  • EISSN: 1559-6834
  • URL: /core/journals/infection-control-and-hospital-epidemiology
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