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Global Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile Infection in 2010

  • Dale N. Gerding (a1)

The past decade has been characterized by an epidemic of Clostridium difficile infection in North America and Europe that threatens to extend to the rest of the world. The epidemic is due in part to the emergence of a previously rare and now more lethal C. difficile strain variously named group BI, ribotype 027, and North American pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type 1.

Corresponding author
Research Service (151), Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital, Building 1, Room C344, Hines, IL 60611 (
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1. LC McDonald , GE Killgore , A Thompson , et al.An epidemic, toxin gene-variant strain of Clostridium difficile. N Engl J Med 2005;353(23):24332441.

2. VG Loo , L Poirier , MA Miller , et al.A predominantly clonal multi-institutional outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality. N Engl J Med 2005;353(23):24422449.

3. J Pepin , L Valiquette , ME Alary , et al.Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in a region of Quebec from 1991 to 2003: a changing pattern of disease severity. CMAJ 2004;171(5):466472.

4. M Warny , J Pepin , A Fang , et al.Toxin production by an emerging strain of Clostridium difficile associated with outbreaks of severe disease in North America and Europe. Lancet 2005;366(9491):10791084.

, , , . ;():–.5. AK Cheknis SP Sambol DM Davidson et al.Distribution of strains from a North American, European and Australian trial of treatment for infections: 2005–2007Clostridium difficileC. difficile Anaerobe 2009 15 6 230233

6. SB Debast , N Vaessen , A Choudry , EA Wiegers-Ligtvoet , RJ van den Berg , EJ Kuijper . Successful combat of an outbreak due to Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 027 and recognition of specific risk factors. Clin Microbiol Infect 2009;15(5):427434.

9. A Goorhuis , D Bakker , J Corver , et al.Emergence of Clostridium difficile infection due to a new hypervirulent strain, polymerase chain reaction ribotype 078. Clin Infect Dis 2008;47(9):11621170.

10. J Belmares , S Johnson , JP Parada , et al.Molecular epidemiology of Clostridium difficile over the course of 10 years in a tertiary care hospital. Clin Infect Dis 2009;49(8):11411147.

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Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology
  • ISSN: 0899-823X
  • EISSN: 1559-6834
  • URL: /core/journals/infection-control-and-hospital-epidemiology
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