1.Patel N, Smith CE, Pinchak AC, Hagen JF. Comparison of esophageal, tympanic, and forehead skin temperatures in adult patients. J Clin Anesth 1996;8:462–468.
2.Shann F, Mackenzie A. Comparison of rectal, axillary, and forehead temperatures. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1996;150:74–78.
3.World Health Organization. Consensus Document on the Epidemiology of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003:3.
4.Craig JV, Lancaster GA, Taylor S, Williamson PR, Smyth RL. Infrared ear thermometry compared with rectal thermometry in children: a systematic review. Lancet 2002;360:603–609.
5.Jensen BN, Jensen FS, Madsen SN, Lossl K. Accuracy of digital tympanic, oral, axillary, and rectal thermometers compared with standard rectal mercury thermometers. Eur J Surg 2000;166:848–851.
6.Giuliano KK, Giuliano AJ, Scott SS, et al.Temperature measurement in critically ill adults: a comparison of tympanic and oral methods. Am J Crit Care 2000;9:254–261.
7.Manian FA, Griesenauer S. Lack of agreement between tympanic and oral temperature measurement in adult hospitalized patients. Am J Infect Control 1998;26:428–430.
8.Kocoglu H, Goksu S, Isik M, Akturk Z, Bayazit YA. Infrared tympanic thermometer can accurately measure the body temperature in children in an emergency room setting. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2002;65:39–43.
9.Gilbert M, Barton AJ, Counsell CM. Comparison of oral and tympanic temperatures in adult surgical patients. Appl Nurs Res 2002;15:42–47.
10.Fritz U, Rohrberg M, Lange C, Weyland W, Brauer A, Braun U. Infrared thermometry in the auditory canal: evaluation on the Diatek 9000 Instatemp and Diatek 9000 Thermoguide. Anaesthesist 1996;45:1059–1066.
11.Chamberlain JM, Terndrup TE, Alexander DT, et al.Determination of normal ear temperature with an infrared emission detection thermometer. Ann Emerg Med 1995;25:15–20.
12.Sloan RE. SARS: screening, disease associations, and response. Lancet 2003;361:1905.