Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

THE HYAKUMANTŌ DARANI AND THE ORIGINS OF PRINTING IN EIGHTH-CENTURY JAPAN

  • Peter Kornicki (a1)
Abstract

The origins of printing in East Asia have been the subject of lively debate over the last twenty years, and a constant point of reference has been the first recorded act of printing in Japan, which took place in the 760s. The term Hyakumantō Darani 百万塔陀羅尼 (hereafter HD) is commonly used in Japan to refer to this episode, and it denotes the Buddhist dhāraṇī or spells which are thought to have been printed in Nara and then inserted into wooden miniature pagodas, and which have for a century been regarded as the oldest printed texts in the world.1 They were printed, so the evidence suggests, in the closing years of the reign of Shōtoku 稱德 (718–770, r. 764–770), who was the last woman on the Japanese throne for nearly one thousand years and who had had an earlier reign under the name Kōken 孝謙 (r. 749–758).2

In this article I shall first examine the evidence relating to the HD and the origins of printing, since the whole question has long been clouded by hypotheses masquerading as fact. Second, I shall explore the origins of the practice of producing miniature pagodas and its transmission to Japan. Third, I shall argue that the established views on the motivation for the HD are inadequate, and shall identify the factors that demand a new explanation, particularly the pagodas themselves. Finally, I turn to the ideological and political factors underlying these events and suggest a new explanation. This new explanation focuses on the politics of Shōtoku's situation and the connection with empress Wu (Wu Zetian 武則天; 624–705, r. 690–705), and it goes some way towards explaining why printing was not resorted to again in Japan for several centuries.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Arakawa 1993 Arakawa Hirokazu, 荒川浩和. “Rokuro” 轆轤. In Kokushi daijiten 14, pp. 813–84. Tokyo: Yoshikawa Kōbunkan, 1993.
Atobe 1970 Atobe Naoharu, 跡部直治. “Hōkyōin tō” 宝篋印塔. In Bukkyō kōkogaku kōza 仏教考古学講座, vol. 2 (Yūsankaku, 1970), pp. 4778.
Barrett 1997 Barrett, T. H.The Feng-tao k‘o and Printing on Paper in Seventh-Century China.” BSOAS 60:3 (1997), pp. 538–40.
Barrett 1998a Barrett, T. H.Images of Printing in Seventh Century Chinese Religious Literature.” Chinese Science 15 (1998), pp. 8193.
Barrett 1998b Barrett, T. H.Did I-Ching Go to India? Problems in Using I-Ching as a Source for South Asian Buddhism.” Buddhist Studies Review 15:1 (1998), pp. 142–56.
Barrett 2001 Barrett, T. H.Stūpa, Sūtra and Śarīra in China, c. 656–706 ce.” Buddhist Studies Review 18:1 (2001), pp. 164.
Barrett 2008a Barrett, T. H.The Rise and Spread of Printing: A New Account of Religious Factors. Np: Minnow Press, 2008.
Barrett 2008b Barrett, T. H.The Woman Who Discovered Printing. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008.
Beal 1906 Beal, Samuel.Si-yu-ki. Buddhist Records of the Western World. 2 vols. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., 1906.
Bender 2009 Bender, Ross.Performative Loci of the Imperial Edicts in Nara Japan, 749–70.” Oral Traditions 24:1 (2009), pp. 249–68.
Bender 2010 Bender, Ross.Changing the Calendar: Royal Political Theology and the Suppression of the Tachibana Naramaro Conspiracy of 757.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 37:2 (2010), pp. 223–45.
Bentor 1995 Bentor, Yael.On the Indian Origins of the Tibetan Practice of Depositing Relics and Dhâraṇîs in Stūpas and Images.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 115 (1995), pp. 248–61.
Bhattacharya 1977 Bhattacharya, Chhaya.Art of Central Asia (with special reference to wooden objects from the Northern Silk Route). Delhi: Agam Prakashan, 1977.
Boucher 1991 Boucher, Daniel.The Pratītyasamutpādagāthā and Its Role in the Medieval Cult of Relics.” Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 14:1 (1991), pp. 127.
Boucher 1995 Boucher, Daniel. “Sutra on the Merit of Bathing the Buddha.” In Buddhism in Practice, ed. Lopez, Donald S. Jr.Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995.
Cao 1986a Cao Jiongzhen, 曹烱鎭. Zhonghan liangguo gu huozi yinshua jishu zhi bijue yanjiu 中韓両国古活字印刷技術之比較研究. Taibei: Xuehai chubanshe, 1986.
Cao 1986b Jiongzhen, Cao. “Wugou jingguang ta tuoluoni jing zhi diaoyin shiqi kaozheng” 無垢浄光大陀羅尼經之雕印時期考證. Shufu 書府 (國立臺灣大學圖書館學系) 7 (1986), pp. 123–28.
Chandra 1988 Chandra, Lokesh. “Introduction.” In Tucci, Giuseppe, Stupa: Art, Architectonics and Symbolism. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan, 1988.
Chen 2007 Jinhua, Chen. Philosopher, Practitioner, Politician: The Many Lives of Fazang. Leiden: Brill, 2007.
Ch’ŏn 1982 Ch’ŏn Hyebong, 千惠鳳. Naryŏ inswaesul ŭi yŏn'gu 羅麗印刷術의研究. Seoul: Kyŏng'in munhwasa, 1982.
Ch’ŏn 1997 Hyebong, Ch’ŏn. Han'guk sŏjihak 韓國書誌學, revised edition. Seoul: Min’ŭmsa, 1997.
Copp 2008a Copp, Paul.Altar, Amulet, Icon: Transformations in Dhāraṇī Amulet Culture, 740–980.” Cahiers d'Extrême-Asie 17 (2008), pp. 239–64.
Copp 2008b Copp, Paul. “Notes on the Term ‘Dhāraṇī’ in Medieval Chinese Buddhist Thought.” BSOAS 71 (2008), pp. 493508.
DBZDainihon bukkyō zensho 大日本佛教全書. 122 vols. Tokyo: Bussho kankōkai, 1912–1931.
Diemberger 2007 Diemberger, Hildegard.When a Woman Becomes a Religious Dynasty: The Samding Dorje Phagmo of Tibet. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.
DKDainihon komonjo 大日本古文書, vols. 1–25 (Shōsōin monjo 正倉院文書). Tokyo: Tōkyō Teikoku Daigaku, 1901–1939.
Drège 1984 Drège, Jean-Pierre.Les caractères de l'impératrice Wu Zetian dans les manuscrits de Dunhuang et de Turfan.” Bulletin de l’École Française d'Extrême-Orient 73 (1984), pp. 339–54.
Drège 1999 Drège, Jean-Pierre.Les premiers impressions des dhāraṇī des Mahāpratisarā.” Cahiers d'Extrême-Asie 11 (1999), pp. 2544.
Dresser 1882 Dresser, Christopher.Japan: Its Architecture, Art, and Art Manufactures. London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1882.
Durt et al. 1985 Durt, Hubert, Riboud, Krishnâ and Tung-Hung, Lai. “A propos de ‘stûpa miniatures’ votifs du Ve siècle découverts à Tourfan et au Gansu.” Arts Asiatiques 40 (1985), pp. 92106.
Forte 1983 Forte, Antonino. “Daiji (Chine).” In Hōbō Girin: Dictionnaire encyclopédique du Bouddhisme d'après les sources chinoises et japonaises, vol. 6, pp. 682704. Tokyo: Maison Franco-Japonais, 1983.
Forte 1988 Forte, Antonino.Mingtang and Buddhist Utopias in the History of the Astronomical Clock: The Tower, Statue and Armillary Sphere constructed by Empress Wu. Rome: Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, 1988.
Forte 2004 Forte, Antonino. “Remarks on Chinese Sources Concerning Divākara (613–688).” http://repository.kulib.kyoto-u.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2433/65875/20/07Forte.pdf (accessed 29 Jan. 2011).
Gardner 1993 Gardner, Kenneth B.Descriptive Catalogue of Japanese Books in the British Library Printed before 1700. London: The British Library, 1993.
Gernet 1995 Gernet, Jacques.Buddhism in Chinese Society: An Economic History from the Fifth to the Tenth Centuries. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995.
Guisso 1978 Guisso, Richard W. L.Wu Tse-T‘ien and the Politics of Legitimation in T‘ang China. Bellingham, Wash.: Western Washington University, 1978.
Harrell 1995 Harrell, Mark.Sokkuram: Buddhist Monument and Political Statement in Korea.” World Archaeology 27 (1995), pp. 318–35.
Hasuike 2008 Hasuike Toshikata, 蓮池利隆. “Tokarasō Midasan to hyakumantō” 覩貨邏僧弥陀山と百万塔. Bukkyōgaku kenkyū 64 (2008), pp. 120.
Hayashi and Kornicki 1991 Hayashi, Nozomu, and Kornicki, P. F.. Early Japanese Books in Cambridge University Library: A Catalogue of the Aston, Satow and von Siebold Collections. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
Hickman 1975 Hickman, Brian.A Note on the Hyakumantō Dhāranī.” Monumenta Nipponica 30:1 (1975), pp. 8793.
Hirako 1908 Hirako Takurei, 平子鐸嶺. Hyakuman shōtō shikō 百万小塔肆攷. Np.: Hirako Nao, 1908.
Horiike 1982 Horiike Shunpō, . Nanto bukkyōshi no kenkyū 南都仏教史の研究. 2 vols. Kyoto: Hōzōkan, 1982.
Horiike 1988a Horiike Shunpō, , ed. Ryōsenji to Bodai sōjō kinen ronbunshū 靈山寺と菩提僧正記念論文集. Nara: Ryōsenji, 1988.
Horiike 1988b Horiike Shunpō, . “Bodai sōjō kankei shiryōshū.” In Horiike, 1988a, pp. 111–31.
Hōryūji 1991 Hōryūji no shihō: Shōwa shizaichō 法隆寺の至寶: 昭和資財帳, vol. 5. Tokyo: Shōgakukan, 1991.
Hōryūji 1996 Hōryūji kennō hōmotsu 法隆寺献納宝物. Tokyo: Tōkyō Kokuritsu Hakubutsukan, 1996.
Inoue 1988 Inoue Kaoru, 井上薫. “Rusa o watari raitō rainichi shita Bodaisenna” 流沙を渉り来唐・来日した菩提僊那. In Horiike Shunpō, 1988a, pp. 718.
Ishigami-Iagolnitzer 1986 Ishigami-Iagolnitzer, Mitchiko. “Les Hyakumantô-dhâranî et les débuts de la xylographie au Japon (VIIIe–XIIe siècle).” In Drège, Jean-Pierre, Ishigami-Iagolnitzer, Mitchiko and Cohen, Monique, eds., Le livre et l'imprimerie en Extrême-Orient et en Asie du Sud, pp. 163–85. Bordeaux: Société des Bibliophiles de Guyenne, 1986.
Kanda 1976 Kanda Kiichirō, 神田喜一郎. “Chūgoku ni okeru insatsujutsu no kigen ni tsuite” 中国における印刷術の起源について. Nihon gakushiin kiyō 34 (1976), pp. 89102.
Kaplan 1963 Kaplan, David.Men, Monuments, and Political Systems.” Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 19 (1963), pp. 397410.
Katsuura 1997 Katsuura Noriko, 勝浦令子. “Shōtoku tennō no ‘Bukkyō to ōken’ – hasseiki no ‘hōō’ kan to Shōtoku taishi shinkō no tokushitsu” 称徳天皇の「仏教と王権」––– 8世紀の「法王」観と聖徳太子信仰の特質. Shigaku zasshi 106:4 (1997), pp. 86108.
Katsuura 2006 Noriko, Katsuura. “Higashi-ajia no Muku jōkō dai darani kyō juyō to hyakumantō” 東アジアの『無垢浄光大陀羅尼経』受容と百万塔. In Nara Heian bukkyō no tenkai 奈良・平安仏教の展開, ed. Tasuku, Hayami 速水侑, pp. 231. Tokyo: Yoshikawa Kōbunkan, 2006.
Kawase 1952 Kawase Kazuma, 川瀬一馬, ed. Ryūmon Bunko zenpon mokuroku 龍門善本目録. Nara Prefecture, Yoshino-chō: Ryūmon Bunko, 1952.
Kawase 1984 Kazuma, Kawase. “Shiragi Bukkokuji Shakatō-shutsu no Muku jōkō dai daranikyō ni tsuite” 新羅佛國寺釋迦塔出の無垢浄光大陀羅尼經について. Shoshigaku, 2nd series, 33/34 (1984), pp. 19.
Kim 1950 Chewon, Kim. “The Stone Pagoda of Koo Huang Li in South Korea.” Artibus Asiae 13:1–2 (1950), pp. 2538.
Kim 2000 Kim Sŏngsu, 金聖洙. Mugu chŏngguang tae t'arani kyŏng ŭi yŏn'gu 無垢浄光大陀羅尼經의研究. Ch’ŏngju: Ch’ŏngju Koinswae Pangmulgwan, 2000.
Kim 2007 Sŏngsu, Kim. “Mugu chŏngguang tae tarani kyŏng ŭi kanhaeng sigi e kwanhan chaegŏmjŭng yŏn'gu.” Sŏjihak yŏn'gu 36 (2007), pp. 3979.
Kimoto 1989 Kimoto Yoshinobu, 木本好信. Narachō tenseki shosai bussho kaisetsu sakuin 奈良朝典籍所載仏書解説索引. Tokyo: Kokusho Kankōkai, 1989.
Kraft 1982–1994 Kraft, Eva.Japanische Handschriften und traditionelle Drucke aus der Zeit vor 1868. 5 vols. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1982–1994.
Kuraku and Kaneko 1983 Kuraku Yoshiyuki, 工楽善通 and Kaneko Hiroyuki, 金子裕之. Ikaruga – Hōryūji Shōwa shizaichō chōsa gaihō 伊珂留我–––法隆寺昭和資財帳調査概報, vol. 1. Tokyo: Shōgakukan, 1983.
Lai et al. 1990 Lai Xinxia, 来新夏 et al. Zhongguo gudai tushu shi ye shi gai yao 中国古代图书事业史概要. Shanghai: Shanghai renmin chubanshe, 1990.
Lancaster and Park 1979 Lancaster, Lewis R., with Park, Sung-bae. The Korean Buddhist Canon: A Descriptive Catalogue. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979.
Lawson 1982 Lawson, Simon D. “A Catalogue of Indian Buddhist Clay Sealings in British Museums.” Unpublished D.Phil. dissertation, University of Oxford, 1982.
Ledderose 1980 Ledderose, Lothar. “Chinese Prototypes of the Pagoda.” In The Stūpa: Its Religious, Historical and Architectural Significance, eds. Dallapiccola, Anna Libera and Zingel-Avé Lallemant, Stephanie, pp. 238–48. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1980.
Liebenthal 1947 Liebenthal, Walter.Sanskrit Inscriptions from Yunnan, I.” Monumenta Serica 12 (1947), pp. 140.
Litvinskii and Zeimal' 1982 Litvinskii, B. A. and Zeimal', T. I.. “Nekotorye aspekty ierarkhii i semantiki stūpa b srednei Azii i Indii.” In Drevniaia Indiia: istoriko-kul'turnye sviazy, pp. 164–86. Moscow: Nauka, 1982.
Losty 1982 Losty, Jeremiah P.The Art of the Book in India. London: British Library, 1982.
McBride 2005 McBride, Richard D.Dhāraṇī and Spells in Medieval Sinitic Buddhism.” Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 28:1 (2005), pp. 85114.
McMullen 1989 McMullen, David L. “The Death of Chou Li-chen: Imperially-ordered Suicide or Natural Causes?” Asia Major, 3rd series 2.2 (1989), pp. 2382.
McMullen 1996 McMullen, I. J. “The Worship of Confucius in Ancient Japan.” In Religion in Japan: Arrows to Heaven and Earth, eds. Kornicki, P. F. and McMullen, I. J., pp. 3977. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Masuda 2007a Masuda Harumi, 増田晴美, ed. Hyakumantō darani no kenkyū – Seikadō Bunko shozōbon o chūshin ni 百万塔陀羅尼の研究–––静嘉堂文庫所蔵本を中心に. Tokyo: Kyūko shoin, 2007.
Masuda 2007b Masuda Harumi, , “Seikadō Bunko shozō no hyakumantō oyobi darani” 静嘉堂文庫所蔵の百万塔及び陀羅尼. In Masuda, 2007a, pp. 96107.
Matsumoto 1934 Matsumoto Bunzaburō, 松本文三郎. “Sokuten bukō no Hakushibahan daizō ni tsuite” 則天武后の白司馬坂大像に就いて. Tōhō Gakuhō (Kyoto) 5 (1934), pp. 1349.
Matsunaga 1969 Matsunaga Yūkei, 松長有慶. Mikkyō no rekishi 密教の歴史 (“The history of esoteric Buddhism”). Kyoto: Heirakuji shoten, 1969.
Matsunaga 1980 Yūkei, Matsunaga. Mikkkyō keiten seiritsushi ron 密教経典成立史論. Kyoto: Hōzōkan, 1980.
Miura 2007 Miura Shōshi, 三浦彰士. “Hyakumantō darani no tameshizuri” 百万塔陀羅尼の試し摺り. In Masuda, 2007a, pp. 152–66.
Miyasaka 1977 Miyasaka Yūshō, 宮坂宥勝. “Hyakumantō darani no kaidoku” 百万塔陀羅尼の解読. In Takai Ryūshū kyōju kanreki kinen ronshū: Mikkyō shisō (高井隆秀教授還暦記念論集)密教思想, pp. 1533. Kyoto: Shuchiin daigaku mikkyō gakkai, 1977.
Nagasawa 1976 Nagasawa Kikuya, 長沢規矩也. Zukai wakan insatsushi 図解和漢印刷史. Kyoto: Kyūko shoin, 1976.
Nakai 1991 Nakai Shinkō, 中井真孝. Nihon kodai bukkyō seidoshi no kenkyū 日本古代仏教制度史の研究. Kyoto: Hōzōkan, 1991.
Nakamura 1973 Nakamura, Kyoko Motomichi.Miraculous Stories from the Japanese Buddhist Tradition: the Nihon Ryōiki of the Monk Kyōkai. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1973.
Nakamura 2007 Nakamura Kazunori, 中村一紀. “Hyakumantō Darani no insatsu ni tsuite.” In Masuda, 2007a, pp. 125–30.
Nakane 1987 Nakane Katsu, 中根勝. Hyakumantō darani no kenkyū 百万塔陀羅尼の研究. Osaka: Hyakumantō darani no kenkyū kankō iinkai, 1987.
Nakane 1999 Katsu, Nakane. Nihon insatsu gijutsu shi 日本印刷技術史. Tokyo: Yagi Shoten, 1999.
Nakata 1981 Nakata Sukeo, 中田祐夫. “Hōryūji hyakumantō darani no insatsu” 法隆寺百万塔陀羅尼の印刷. Bungaku 49:12 (1981), pp. 7285.
NaraNara Kokuritsu Bunkazai kenkyūsho nenpō 奈良国立文化財研究所年報.
Narita 1980–81 Narita Jūichirō, 成田寿一郎. “Hyakumantō seisaku gijutsu no jikkenteki kenkyū” 百万塔製作技術の実験的研究. Nihon Kenchiku Gakkai ronbun hōkokushū 295 (1980), pp. 115–24, and 300 (1981), pp. 125–32.
Nelson 1986 Nelson, Janet L.Politics and Ritual in Early Medieval Europe. London: The Hambledon Press, 1986.
Ogata 2007 Ogata Kōdai, 緒方宏大 “Hyakumantō darani suitei dōban juzō jikken” 百万塔陀羅尼推定寿造実験. In Masuda, 2007a, pp. 145–51.
Ooms 2009 Ooms, Herman.Imperial Politics and Symbolics in Ancient Japan: The Tenmu Dynasty, 650–800. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2009.
Ōsawa 1978 Ōsawa Shinobu, 大沢忍. “Hyakumantō darani ni kansuru kenkyū 5 – Hyakumantō darani kugan no jijō” 百万塔陀羅尼弘願の事情. Kōbe joshi daigaku kiyō 7 (1978), pp. 1326.
Ōya 1933 Ōya Tokujō, 大谷徳城. “Hyakumantō darani inzō no shisōjō no haikei” 百万塔陀羅尼印造の思想上の背景. In Tōba no kenkyū 塔婆之研究, pp. 283–91. Hōryūji-mura: Ikaruga kokyōsha, 1933.
Pan 1997 Pan Jixing, 潘吉星. “On the Origin of Printing in the Light of New Archaeological Discoveries.” Chinese Science Bulletin 42:12 (1997), pp. 976–81.
Pan 2000 Jixing, Pan. “Wugoujing: Zhong, Han xueshu lunzheng de jiaodian” 無垢経:中、韓学術論争的焦点. Chuban kexue (2000, part 4) (accessed at http://www.cbkx.com/2000-4/36.shtml on 2 February 2011).
Pan 2009 Jizing, Pan. Zhongguo zaozi shi 中国造纸史. Shanghai: Shanghai renmin chubanshe, 2009.
Piggott 2003 Piggott, Joan R. “The Last Classical Female Sovereign: Kōken-Shōtoku Tennō.” In Women and Confucian Cultures in Premodern China, Korea, and Japan, eds. Ko, Dorothy, Haboush, JaHyun Kim, and Piggott, Joan R., pp. 4774. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003.
Pulguksa 2009 Pulguksa sŏkkat'ap yumul 불국사 석가탑 유물, vol. 2. Seoul: Kungnip Chung'ang Pangmulgwan, 2009.
Rajapatirana 1974 Rajapatirana, Tissa.Suvarṇavarṇāvadāna, trans. and ed. together with its Tibetan translation and the Lakṣacaityasamntpatti.” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Australian National University, 1974.
Samguk YusaSamguk Yusa, Legends and History of the Three Kingdoms of Ancient Korea, trans. Taehung, Ha and Mintz, G. K.. Seoul: Yonsei University Press, 1972.
Sasayama 1989 Sasayama Haruo, 笹山晴生. “Shoku Nihongi to kodai no shisho” 続日本紀と古代の史書. In Shoku Nihongi, vol. 1, pp. 475533.
Satow 1882 Satow, Ernest. “On the Early History of Printing in Japan.” Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan 10 (1882): 4883.
Séguy 1979 Séguy, Marie-Rose. “Images xylographiques conservées dans les collections de Touen-houang de la Bibliothèque nationale.” In Contributions aux études sur Touen-houang, ed. Soymié, Michel, pp. 119–34. Geneva: Librairie Droz, 1979.
Shen 2001 Shen, Hsueh-Man.Realizing the Buddha's ‘Dharma Body’ during the Mofa period: A Study of Liao Buddhist Relic Deposits.” Artibus Asiae 61 (2001), pp. 263303.
SNShoku nihongi. 5 vols., Shin Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei, vols. 12–16 (Iwanami Shoten, 1989–1998).
Snellgrove 1987 Snellgrove, David L.Indo-Tibetan Buddhism: Indian Buddhists and Their Tibetan Successors. London: Serindia, 1987.
Stein 1921 Stein, Aurel.Serindia; Detailed Report of Explorations in Central Asia and Westernmost China. 5 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1921.
Strickmann 1993 Strickmann, Michel. “The Seal of the Law: a Ritual Implement and the Origins of Printing.” Asia Major, 3rd series, 6.2 (1993), pp. 183.
Strickmann 2002 Strickmann, Michel.Chinese Magical Medicine, edited by Faure, Bernard. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2002.
Strong 1983 Strong, John S.The Legend of King Aśoka: A Study and Translation of the Aśokāvadāna. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983.
Suda 1978 Suda Haruko, 須田春子. Ritsuryōsei joseishi kenkyū 律令制女性史研究. Tokyo: Chiyoda Shobō, 1978.
TTaishō shinshū daizōkyō 大正新脩大蔵經. 85 vols. Tokyo: Taishō Issaikyō Kankōkai, 1922–34.
Takakusu 1896 Takakusu, Junjiro.A Record of the Buddhist Religion as Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago (A.D. 671–695). Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1896.
Takamure 1966 Takamure Itsue zenshū 高群逸枝全集, vol. 4. Tokyo: Rironsha, 1966.
Takinami 1998 Takinami Sadako, 瀧浪貞子. Saigo no jotei Kōken tennō 最後の女帝孝謙天皇. Tokyo: Yoshikawa Kōbunkan, 1998.
Tanaka 1962 Tanaka Kaidō, 田中塊堂. “Hyakumantō darani moji kō” 百万塔陀羅尼文字考. In (Tominaga sensei kakō kinen) Kohan shoshi ronsō 富永先生華甲記念古版書誌論叢, pp. 2534. Tenri: Tenri toshokan, 1962.
Tanaka 1973 Tanaka Kaidō, 田中塊堂. Nihon koshakyō genzon mokuroku 日本古写経現存目録 (“Extant sutra manuscripts in Japan”). Kyoto: Shibunkaku, 1973.
Tenri 1965Hyakumantō darani no insatsu saikō” 百万塔陀羅尼の印刷再攷. Biblia 31 (1965): 1351.
Tōdaiji yōrokuTōdaiji yōroku 東大寺要録., ed. Eishun, Tsutsui 筒井英俊. Kokusho Kankōkai, 1971.
Tokiwa 1936 Tokiwa Daijō, 常盤大定. “Bushū shinji no ichi kenkyū” 武周新字の一研究. Tōhō Gakuhō (Tokyo) 6 (1936), pp. 542.
Tonami 1986 Tonami Mamoru, 礪波護. Tōdai seiji shakaishi kenkyū 唐代政治社会史研究. Kyoto: Dōhōsha, 1986.
Trigger 1990 Trigger, Bruce G.Monumental Architecture: A Thermodynamic Explanation of Symbolic Behaviour.” World Archaeology 22:2 (1990), pp. 119–32.
Tsiang 2010 Tsiang, Katherine R. “Buddhist Printed Images and Texts of the Eighth–Tenth Centuries: Typologies of Replication and Representation.” In Esoteric Buddhism at Dunhuang: Rites and Teachings for this Life and Beyond, eds. Kapstein, Matthew T. and van Schaik, Sam, pp. 201–52. Leiden: Brill, 2010.
Tsien 1985 Tsuen-hsuin, Tsien. Paper and Printing (Joseph Needham, Science and Civilisation in China, Volume 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 1). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Twitchett 1983 Twitchett, Denis.Printing and Publishing in Medieval China. London: The Wynkyn de Worde Society, 1983.
Twitchett 1992 Twitchett, Denis.The Writing of Official History under the Tang. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
Uebach 2005 Uebach, Helga. “Ladies of the Tibetan Empire (Seventh to Ninth Centuries ce).” In Women in Tibet, eds. Havnevik, H. and Gyatso, J., pp. 2948. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005.
Umehara 1950 Umehara Sueji, 梅原末治. “Kankoku Keishū Kōfukuji tō hakken no shari yōki” 韓国慶州皇福寺塔発見の舎利容器. Bijutsu kenkyū 156 (1950), pp. 3247.
Varley 1980 Varley, H. Paul.A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns: Jinnō Shōtōki of Kitabatake Chikafusa. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980.
Welch 1981 Welch, Michael W. “Fa-tsang, Pure Light and Printing: An Enquiry into the Origins of Textual Xylography.” Master of Arts in Library Science dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1981.
Wood and Barnard 2010 Wood, Frances, and Barnard, Mark. The Diamond Sutra: The Story of the World's Earliest Dated Printed Book. London: The British Library, 2010.
Wu 1995 Hung, Wu. Monumentality in Early Chinese Art and Architecture. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995.
Xu 2002 Xu Xingzhu, 許興洙. “Guan yu Hanguo Qingzhou faxian de Wugou jingguang ta tuoluoni jing de diaoyin niandai he didian de kaocha” 關于韓國慶州發現的『無垢凈光大陀羅尼經』的雕印年代和地點的考察. Chungguksa yŏn'gu 中國史研究 21 (2002), pp. 79109.
Yagi 2007 Yagi Sōichi, 八木壯一. “Hyakumantō oyobi darani no denshō” 百万塔及び陀羅尼の伝承. In Masuda, 2007a, pp. 167–85.
Yajima 1971 Yajima Genryō, 矢島玄亮. “Insatsu no hajimari – hyakumantō darani o meguru shomondai” 印刷のはじまり ––– 百万塔陀羅尼をめぐる諸問題. In Fuyō Ryōjun hakushi koki kinen mikkyō bunka ronshū 芙蓉良順博士古稀記念密教文化論集, pp. 291302. Tokyo: Chizan Kangakkai, 1971.
Yajima 1984 Genryō, Yajima. Nihonkoku genzaisho mokuroku. Tokyo: Kyūko Shoin, 1984.
Yang 2004 Yang Kyebong, 양계봉. “Pulguksa Sŏkkat'ap esŏ palgyŏn toen Mugu chŏngguang tae tarani kyŏng ŭi kannyŏn kwa kanji e taehan sogo” 佛國寺 釋迦塔에서 발견된 「無垢淨光大陁羅尼經」의 刊年과 刊地에 대한 小考. Sŏjihak yŏn'gu 29 (2004), pp. 499510.
Yi 1968a Yi Hŭngjik, 李弘稙. “Kyŏngju Pulguksa Sŏkkat'ap palgyŏn ŭi Mugu chŏngguang tae tarani kyŏng” 慶州佛國寺釈迦塔發見의無垢浄光大陀羅尼經. Paeksan hakbo 4 (1968), pp. 167–98.
Yi 1968b Yi Hŭngjik, . “Keishū bukkokuji shakatō hakken no Muku jōkō dai daranikyō” 慶州佛國寺釈迦塔發見の無垢浄光大陀羅尼經. Chōsen gakuhō 49 (1968), pp. 457–82.
Yiengpruksawan 1986–87 Yiengpruksawan, Mimi Hall.One Millionth of a Buddha: The Hyakumantō Darani in the Scheide Library.” Princeton University Library Chronicle 48 (1986–87), pp. 225–38.
Yokota 1959 Yokota Ken'ichi, 横田健一. Dōkyō 道鏡. Tokyo: Yoshikawa Kōbunkan, 1959.
Yŏnse 1999 Segye inswae munhwa ŭi kiwŏn e kwanhan kukje haksul simp'ojiŏm. Seoul: Yŏnse Taehakkyo Kukhak Yŏn'guwŏn, 1999.
Zhang 1988 Zhang Xiumin, 张秀民. Zhang Xiumin Yinshuashi lunwen ji 张秀民印刷史论文集. Beijing: Yinshua gongye chubanshe, 1988.
Zwalf 1985 Zwalf, W., ed. Buddhism: Art and Faith. London: British Museum Publications, 1985.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Journal of Asian Studies
  • ISSN: 1479-5914
  • EISSN: 1479-5922
  • URL: /core/journals/international-journal-of-asian-studies
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed