Skip to main content Accessibility help

Compact antenna array receiver for robust satellite navigation systems

  • S. Irteza (a1), E. Schäfer (a2), R. Stephan (a1), A. Hornbostel (a3) and M. A. Hein (a1)...


A compact navigation receiver comprising a decoupled and matched four-element L1-band antenna array with an inter-element separation of a quarter of the free-space wavelength is presented in this paper. We investigate the impact of the decoupling and matching network on the robustness of the navigation receiver. It is observed that in order to achieve high robustness with a compact antenna array, it is necessary to employ a decoupling and matching network, particularly in case of three spatially separated interferers. Furthermore, we study the influence of the polarization impurity of the compact planar antenna array on the equivalent carrier-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (CINR) of the receiver when impinged with different numbers of diametrically polarized interference signals. It is shown that the higher-order modes possess strong polarization impurity, which may halve the available degrees-of-freedom for nulling in the presence of linear-polarized interferers, using a conventional null-steering algorithm. We verify the robustness of the designed compact receiver by means of a complete global-navigation-satellite-system demonstrator. It is shown that the maximum jammer power that is allowed us to maintain the CINR above 38 dBHz with three interferers can be improved by more than 10 dB if a decoupling and matching network is employed.


Corresponding author

Corresponding author: S. Irteza Email:


Hide All
[1]Heckler, M.V.T.; Cuntz, M.; Konovaltsev, A.; Greda, L.A.; Meurer, M.: Development of robust safety-of-life navigation receivers at the German Aerospace Center (DLR), IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symp. Digest, May (2010), pp. 85–88.
[2]Ly, H. et al. : Design, simulation, and testing of a miniaturized GPS dual-frequency (L1/L2) antenna array, in ION GPS 2002, Portland, OR, September 2002.
[3]Brown, A.; Tseng, H.-W.: Miniaturized GPS antenna array and test results, in GNSS 2000, Edinburgh, Scotland, May 2000.
[4]De Lorenzo, D.S.; Rife, J.; Enge, P.; Akos, D.M.: Navigation accuracy and interference rejection for an adaptive GPS antenna array, in Proc. ION GNSS 2006, 2006, 763–773.
[5]Irteza, S.; Murtaza, N.; Caizzone, S.; Stephan, R.; Hein, M.A.: Compact planar L-band antenna arrays with optimal diversity performance, in IEEE Topical Conf. Antennas and Propagation in Wireless Communications, Torino, Italy, September 2011.
[6]Dissertation: Volmer, C.: Compact antenna arrays in mobile communications: a quantitative analysis of radiator coupling, ISBN: 978-3-939473-71-8, Ilmenau: Universitätsverlag Ilmenau, 2010.
[7]Basta, N. et al. : System concept of a compact multi-antenna GNSS receiver, in 7th German Microwave Conf., Ilmenau, Germany, March 2012.
[8]Balanis, C.A.: Antenna theory: Analysis and Design, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1997.
[9]Volmer, C.; Weber, J.; Stephan, R.; Blau, K.; Hein, M.A.: An eigen-analysis of compact antenna arrays and its application to port decoupling. IEEE Trans. Antenna Propag, 56 (2), (2008), 360370.
[10]Chaloupka, H.J., Wang, X.; Coetzee, J.C.: Performance enhancement of smart antennas with reduced element spacing, in Proc. IEEE Wireless Communication and Networking Conf. (WCNC 2004), New Orleans, LA, March 2003, vol. 1, 425–430.
[12]Engberg, J.; Larsen, T.: Noise Theory of Linear and Nonlinear Circuits, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1995.
[13]Irteza, S. et al. : Noise characterization of a multi-channel receiver using a small antenna array with full diversity for robust satellite navigation, in IEEE Int. Conf. Wireless Information Technology and Systems, Maui (HI), USA, November 2012.
[14]Irteza, S. et al. : Four-element compact planar antenna array for robust satellite navigation systems, in IEEE 7th European Conf. Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP 2013), Gothenburg, Sweden, April 2013.
[15]Irteza, S. et al. : Impact of polarization impurity on compact antenna array receiver for satellite navigation systems, in IEEE European Microwave Conf., Nuremberg, Germany, October 2013.
[16]Van Trees, H.L.: Optimum Array Processing – Part IV of Detection, Estimation and Modulation Theory, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2002.
[17]CST Microwave Studio 2011,
[18]Galileo test range Berchtesgaden,
[19]Pullen, S.; Gao, G.: GNSS jamming in the name of privacy, Inside GNSS, March/April 2012, 34–43, Heidi.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies
  • ISSN: 1759-0787
  • EISSN: 1759-0795
  • URL: /core/journals/international-journal-of-microwave-and-wireless-technologies
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed