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The Evolution of the Formal Educational System and its Relation to Economic Growth Policies in the First Turkish Republic

  • M. T. Ozelli (a1)

During the last decade or so, educational institutions of developing countries have attracted the attention of social scientists as the prime movers of structural changes in such societies. Some of those who are concerned with economic development and growth have argued that a major barrier to economic development is not so much the scarcity of natural resources and capital, but rather the lack of trained manpower resulting from insufficient or mismanaged investment in training the ‘necessary manpower’.

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page 77 note 1 For a review of literature see Ozelli Tunc, ‘Costs and Benefits of Educational Investments in the First Turkish Republic’ (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, New York, 1968).

page 77 note 2 Harbison F. and Myers C. A., Education, Manpower and Economic Growth (New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1964).

page 77 note 3 For summary of traditional explanation of economic growth see Higgins Bengamin, Economic Development (New York: W. W. Norton and Company Inc., 1959), pp. 85213.

page 78 note 1 Vekâleti Milli Eğitim (The Ministry of National Education), Milli Eğitim ile Ilgiil Kanunlar (Legal Acts Concerning National Education) (Ankara: Milli Eğitim Basimevi, 1953).

page 78 note 2 Tunc Ozelli, op. cit. chapter IV.

page 78 note 3 Ozelli Tunc, op. cit. pp. 287–9.

page 78 note 4 Maurois André, The Edwardian Era (New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1933), p. 286.

page 78 note 5 For the main currents of political thought see Robinson R. D., The First Turkish Republic: A Case Study in National Development (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1965), p. 16.

page 79 note 1 Berkes N. (ed.), Turkish Nationalism and Western Civilization: Selected Essays of Ziya Gökalp (New York: Columbia University Press, 1959) p. 137.

page 79 note 2 Kinross Lord, Ataturk: A Biography of Mustafa Kemal, Father of Modern Turkey (New York: William Morrow and Company, 1965), pp. 501–5, 526–36.

page 79 note 3 Atatürk Mustafa Kemal, Ataturkün Söylev ye Demecleri (Speeches of Ataturk) (Ankara: Turk Tarih Kurumu Basimevi, 1959).

page 79 note 4 Ergin Osman, Türkiye Maarif Tarihi (History of Turkish Education) (Istanbul: Osmanbey Matbaasi, 1939).

page 79 note 5 Kansu N. A., Türkiye Maarif Tarihi (History of Turkish Education) (Istanbul: Muallim Ahmet Halit Kitaphanesi, 1932).

page 79 note 6 Karpat K. H., Turkey's Politics: The Transition to a Multi-Party System (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1959), pp. 3133.

page 80 note 1 Kazamias A. M., Education and Quest for Modernity in Turkey, (Chicago: The University Chicago Press, 1967), p. III.

page 81 note 1 Kansu A. N., Kazamias A. M., Education and Quest for Modernity in Turkey, (Chicago: The University Chicago Press, 1967), p. III.ibid. vol. II, pp. 62–7.

page 82 note 1 Berkes N. (ed.), op. cit. p. 240.Ibid. p. 243.

page 83 note 1 Vekâleti Milli Eğitim, op. cit. pp. 935–6.

page 84 note 1 Vekâleti Milli Eğitim, op. cit.Ibid. pp. 3–51.

page 85 note 2 Hanson A. H., Public Enterprise and Economic Development (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd., 1959), p.118.

page 86 note 1 For the definition of underdeveloped see Clark C., The Conditions of Economic Program (London: McMillan and Company Ltd., 1960), pp. 1874.

page 86 note 2 Hershlag Z. Y., Turkey: An Economy in Transition (The Hague: Vitgeverij Van Keulen N.V., 1959), p. 91.

page 86 note 3 Maynard R. E., ‘The Lise and Its Curriculum in the Turkish Education System’, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Education, University of Chicago, 1961, p. 120.

page 88 note 1 Robinson R. D., op. cit. p. 124.

page 89 note 1 Ibid. p. 143.

page 89 note 3 Wilson C. H., A Settlement Plan for Turkey (Ankara: Economic Cooperation Administration, 1951).

page 89 note 4 Stirling Paul, Turkish Village, (London: Weidenfeld, 1965).

page 90 note 1 Esenis A., personal correspondence.

page 91 note 1 Frey Frederick W., ‘Turkey’, in Ward and Rustow (eds.), Political Modernization in Japan and Turkey (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1964), p. 222.

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International Journal of Middle East Studies
  • ISSN: 0020-7438
  • EISSN: 1471-6380
  • URL: /core/journals/international-journal-of-middle-east-studies
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