Thomson, S, Foubister, T, Mossialos, E. Financing health care in the European Union: Challenges and policy responses. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009.
Banta, D. The development of health technology assessment. Health Policy (New York). 2003;63:121–132. doi:10.1016/S0168-8510(02)00059-3.
Elshaug, AG, Hiller, JE, Moss, JR. Exploring policy-makers’ perspectives on disinvestment from ineffective healthcare practices. Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2008;24:1–9.
Elshaug, AG, Hiller, JE, Tunis, SR, Moss, JR. Challenges in Australian policy processes for disinvestment from existing, ineffective health care practices. Aust New Zealand Health Policy. 2007;4:23. doi:10.1186/1743-8462-4-23.
Aguiar-Ibáñez, R, Nixon, J, Glanville, J, et al.
Economic evaluation databases as an aid to healthcare decision makers and researchers. Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2005;5:721–732. doi:10.1586/14737220.127.116.111.
Buxton, MJ. Economic evaluation and decision making in the UK. Pharmacoeconomics. 2006;24:1133–1142. doi:10.2165/00019053-200624110-00009.
Murray, CJL, Vos, T, Lozano, R, et al.
Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990–2010: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study
2010. Lancet. 2012;380:2197–2223. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61689-4.
Karyotaki, E, Tordrup, D, Buntrock, C, et al.
Economic evidence for the clinical management of major depressive disorder: A systematic review and quality appraisal of economic evaluations alongside randomised controlled trials. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. 2016. [Epub ahead of print]. doi:10.1017/S2045796016000421.
Ali, S, Stone, MA, Peters, JL, Davies, MJ, Khunti, K. The prevalence of co-morbid depression in adults with Type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabet Med. 2006;23:1165–1173. doi:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2006.01943.x.
Janssen-Heijnen, ML, Schipper, RM, Razenberg, PP, Crommelin, MA, Coebergh, J-WW. Prevalence of co-morbidity in lung cancer patients and its relationship with treatment: A population-based study. Lung Cancer. 1998;21:105–113. doi:10.1016/S0169-5002(98)00039-7.
Currie, SR, Wang, J. Chronic back pain and major depression in the general Canadian population. Pain. 2004;107:54–60. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2003.09.015.
Forster, A, Young, J. Incidence and consequences offalls due to stroke: A systematic inquiry. BMJ. 1995;311:83–86. doi:10.1136/bmj.311.6997.83.
Wolf, PA, D'Agostino, RB, Kannel, WB, Bonita, R, Belanger, AJ. Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for stroke: The Framingham Study. JAMA. 1988;259:1025–1029.
Hecht, SS. Tobacco smoke carcinogens and lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91:1194–1210. doi:10.1093/jnci/91.14.1194.
Mannino, DM, Buist, AS. Global burden of COPD: Risk factors, prevalence, and future trends. Lancet. 2007;370:765–773.
Yusuf, S, Reddy, S, Ounpuu, S, Anand, S. Global burden of cardiovascular diseases: Part I: General Considerations, the epidemiologic transition, risk factors, and impact of urbanization. Circulation. 2001;104:2746–2753. doi:10.1161/hc4601.099487.
Feldman, DE, Rossignol, M, Shrier, I, Abenhaim, L. Smoking: A risk factor for development of low back pain in adolescents. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1999;24:2492.
MacMahon, S, Peto, R, Collins, R, et al.
Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease: Part 1, prolonged differences in blood pressure: Prospective observational studies corrected for the regression dilution bias. Lancet. 1990;335:765–774.
Kang, JG, Park, C-Y. Anti-obesity drugs: A review about their effects and safety. Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36:13–25. doi:10.4093/dmj.2012.36.1.13.
Manson, JE. A prospective study of exercise and incidence of diabetes among US male physicians. JAMA. 1992;268:63. doi:10.1001/jama.1992.03490010065031.
Barnett, K, Mercer, SW, Norbury, M, Watt, G, Wyke, S, Guthrie, B. Epidemiology of multimorbidity and implications for health care, research, and medical education: A cross-sectional study. Lancet. 2012;380: 37–43.
Britton, A, McKee, M, Black, N, McPherson, K, Sanderson, C, Bain, C. Threats to applicability of randomised trials: Exclusions and selective participation. J Health Serv Res Policy. 1999;4: 112–121.
Hägg, L, Johansson, C, Jansson, J-H, Johansson, L. External validity of the ARISTOTLE trial in real-life atrial fibrillation patients. Cardiovasc Ther. 2014;32:214–218. doi:10.1111/1755-5922.12087.
Simon, ST, Higginson, IJ, Harding, R, et al.
Enhancing patient-reported outcome measurement in research and practice of palliative and end-of-life care. Support Care Cancer. 2012;20:1573–1578.
Cohen, D. Attacks on publicly funded trials: What happens when industry does not want to know the answer. BMJ. 2015;350:h1701.
May, P, Normand, C, Morrison, RS. Economic impact of hospital inpatient palliative care consultation: Review of current evidence and directions for future research. J Palliat Med. 2014;17:1054–1063.
Longworth, L, Sculpher, MJ, Bojke, L, Tosh, JC. Bridging the gap between methods research and the needs of policy makers: A review of the research priorities of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2011;27:180–187. doi:10.1017/S0266462311000043.
Drummond, M, Marshall, D. IHE Methodology forum: Prioritizing methodological research in the evaluation of health technologies in Canada. Alberta, Canada: IHE; 2010.
Chalkidou, K, Whicher, D, Kary, W, Tunis, S. Comparative effectiveness research priorities: Identifying critical gaps in evidence for clinical and health policy decision making. Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2009;25:241–248. doi:10.1017/S0266462309990225.
George, B, Harris, AH, Mitchell, AJ. Cost effectiveness analysis and the consistency of decision making: Evidence from pharmaceutical reimbursement in Australia 1991–96. Australia: Centre for Health Program Evaluation Melbourne; 1999.
Devlin, N, Parkin, D. Does NICE have a cost-effectiveness threshold and what other factors influence its decisions? A binary choice analysis. Health Econ. 2004;13:437–452. doi:10.1002/hec.864.
Claxton, K, Martin, S, Soares, M, et al. Methods for the estimation of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence cost-effectiveness threshold. Southampton (UK): NIHR Journals Library; 2015 Feb. (Health Technology Assessment, No. 19.14.) Appendix 1, Systematic review of the literature on the cost-effectiveness threshold. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK274312/ (accessed May 5, 2015)
Cleemput, I, Neyt, M, Thiry, N, De Laet, C, Leys, M. Threshold values for cost-effectiveness in health care. KCE Rep 100C. 2009. https://kce.fgov.be/publication/report/threshold-values-for-cost-effectiveness-in-health-care#.VUjIEPl_NBc (accessed February 23, 2014).
Claxton, K, Sculpher, M, Palmer, S, Culyer, AJ. Causes for concern: Is NICE failing to uphold its responsibilities to all NHS patients?
Health Econ. 2015;24:1–7. doi:10.1002/hec.3130.
Claxton, K, Martin, S, Soares, M, et al.
Methods for the estimation of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence cost-effectiveness threshold. Health Technol Assess. 2015;19:1–504. doi:10.3310/hta19140.
Bobinac, A, van Exel, NJA, Rutten, FFH, Brouwer, WBF. Willingness to pay for a quality-adjusted life-year: The individual perspective. Value Health. 2010;13:1046–1055. doi:10.1111/j.1524-4733.2010.00781.x.
Simoens, S. Pricing and reimbursement of orphan drugs: The need for more transparency. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2011;6:1172–1176.
Baltussen, R, Niessen, L. Priority setting of health interventions: The need for multi-criteria decision analysis. Cost Eff Resour Alloc. 2006;4:14.
Tony, M, Wagner, M, Khoury, H, et al.
Bridging health technology assessment (HTA) with multicriteria decision analyses (MCDA): Field testing of the EVIDEM framework for coverage decisions by a public payer in Canada. BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11:329. doi:10.1186/1472-6963-11-329.
Pearson, S, Littlejohns, P. Reallocating resources: How should the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guide disinvestment efforts in the National Health Service?
J Health Serv Res Policy. 2007;12:160–165. doi:10.1258/135581907781542987.
Hughes, DA, Ferner, RE. New drugs for old: Disinvestment and NICE. BMJ. 2010;340:c572. doi:10.1136/bmj.c572.
Eddama, O, Coast, J. Use of economic evaluation in local health care decision-making in England: A qualitative investigation. Health Policy. 2009;89:261–270. doi:10.1016/j.healthpol.2008.06.004.
Wang, R, Lagakos, SW, Ware, JH, Hunter, DJ, Drazen, JM. Statistics in medicine — Reporting of subgroup analyses in clinical trials. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:2189–2194.
Godwin, M, Ruhland, L, Casson, I, et al.
Pragmatic controlled clinical trials in primary care: The struggle between external and internal validity. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2003;3:28. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-3-28.
Kaiser, C, Brunner-La Rocca, HP, Buser, PT, et al.
Incremental cost-effectiveness of drug-eluting stents compared with a third-generation bare-metal stent in a real-world setting: Randomised Basel Stent Kosten Effektivitäts Trial (BASKET). Lancet. 2005;366:921–929. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67221-2.
Pietri, G, Masoura, P. Market access and reimbursement: The increasing role of real-world evidence. Value Health. 2014;17:A450–A451. doi:10.1016/j.jval.2014.08.1216.
Davis, C, Lexchin, J, Jefferson, T, Gøtzsche, P, McKee, M. “Adaptive pathways” to drug authorisation: Adapting to industry?
New, JP, Bakerly, ND, Leather, D, Woodcock, A. Obtaining real-world evidence: The Salford Lung Study. Thorax. 2014;69:1152–1154. doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2014-205259.
Tashkin, DP, Ferguson, GT. Combination bronchodilator therapy in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respir Res. 2013;14:49. doi:10.1186/1465-9921-14-49.
Tosh, J, Stevenson, M, Akehurst, R. Health economic modelling of treatment sequences for rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic review. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2014;16:447. doi:10.1007/s11926-014-0447-2.
Brilleman, SL, Purdy, S, Salisbury, C, Windmeijer, F, Gravelle, H, Hollinghurst, S. Implications of comorbidity for primary care costs in the UK: A retrospective observational study. Br J Gen Pract. 2013;63:e274-82. doi:10.3399/bjgp13X665242.
Tappenden, P, Chilcott, J, Brennan, A, Squires, H, Stevenson, M. Whole disease modeling to inform resource allocation decisions in cancer: A methodological framework. Value Health. 2012;15:1127–1136.
Tappenden, P, Chilcott, J, Brennan, A, Squires, H, Glynne-Jones, R, Tappenden, J. Using whole disease modeling to inform resource allocation decisions: Economic evaluation of a clinical guideline for colorectal cancer using a single model. Value Health. 2013;16: 542–553.
Tosh, J, Kearns, B, Brennan, A, et al.
Innovation in health economic modelling of service improvements for longer-term depression: Demonstration in a local health community. BMC Health Serv Res. 2013;13:150. doi:10.1186/1472-6963-13-150.
Hunger, M, Thorand, B, Schunk, M, et al.
Multimorbidity and health-related quality of life in the older population: Results from the German KORA-age study. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2011;9:53. doi:10.1186/1477-7525-9-53.
Logsdon, RG, Gibbons, LE, McCurry, SM, Teri, L. Assessing quality of life in older adults with cognitive impairment. Psychosom Med. 2002;64:510–519.
Bausewein, C, Simon, ST, Benalia, H, et al.
Implementing patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) in palliative care-users’ cry for help. Heal Qual Life Outcomes. 2011;9:1–11.
Personal Social Services Research Unit (PSSRU). Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit - ASCOT. http://www.pssru.ac.uk/ascot/. Published 2015 (accessed January 3, 2017).
Peña-Longobardo, LM, Oliva-Moreno, J, Hidalgo-Vega, Á, Miravitlles, M. Economic valuation and determinants of informal care to disabled people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). BMC Health Serv Res. 2015;15:101. doi:10.1186/s12913-015-0759-6.
Ramsey, S, Willke, R, Briggs, A, et al.
Good research practices for cost-effectiveness analysis alongside clinical trials: The ISPOR RCT-CEA Task Force report. Value Health. 2005;8:521–533. doi:10.1111/j.1524-4733.2005.00045.x.
Drummond, MF, Jefferson, TO. Guidelines for authors and peer reviewers of economic submissions to the BMJ. BMJ. 1996;313:275–283. doi:10.1136/bmj.313.7052.275.
Kristensen, FB, Lampe, K, Chase, DL, et al.
Practical tools and methods for health technology assessment in Europe: Structures, methodologies, and tools developed by the European Network for Health Technology Assessment, EUnetHTA. Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2009;25
(Suppl 2):1–8. doi:10.1017/S0266462309990626.
Husereau, D, Drummond, M, Petrou, S, et al. Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS)—Explanation and elaboration: A report of the ISPOR Health Economic Evaluation Publication Guidelines Good Reporting Practices Task Force. www.sciencedirect.com(accessed July 11, 2017).
World Health Organization. The economics of the social determinants of health and health inequalities: A resource book. ISBN 978 92 4 154862 5. Geneva: WHO; 2013.
Lozano, R, Naghavi, M, Foreman, K, et al.
Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380