Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Seasonal abundance of the banana skipper, Erionota thrax (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) and its parasitoids in a commercial plantation and a subsistence farm in Penang, Malaysia

  • Justin N. Okolle (a1), Mashhor Mansor (a1) and Abu Hassan Ahmad (a1)
Abstract

To characterize the population dynamics of Erionota thrax Linnaeus and its major parasitoids, biweekly samplings were carried out in a commercial Cavendish banana plantation and a subsistence farm of local varieties, from April 2004 to November 2005. Five primary endoparasitoids were recorded: Ooencyrtus erionotae Ferriere, Cotesia erionotae Wilkinson, Brachymeria albotibialis Hoffmann, Elasmus sp. and Melaloncha sp. Ooencyrtus erionotaeC. erionotae, and B. albotibialis were, respectively, the major egg, larval and pupal parasitoids. In 2004, there was no significant difference in the E. thrax population densities and parasitism of immature life stages in both farms. In 2005, the pest population densities were significantly different, while only egg and larvae parasitism rates were significantly different. In the commercial plantation, peaks of E. thrax population densities per banana mat were recorded in April, June, July, and October–December and highest values for eggs, larvae and pupae were 4.66, 2.76 and 1.7, respectively. Percentage parasitism peaked in August, October, and February with peak values ranging from 60 to 100%. In the subsistence farm, peak E. thrax population densities were observed between May–July and September–December. Percentage parasitism peaked in January, February, July, August, October and November, with peak values ranging from 24 to 100%. Correlations between population densities of E. thrax and the numbers of parasitized insects showed strong positive relationships. There was evidence of a delayed density dependence of the parasitoids as most peaks of parasitism appeared 1 or 2 months after those of the host stages. Parasitism rates in the commercial plantation were substantial in spite of the frequent use of insecticides, and activities of the parasitoids were more favoured in the subsistence farm compared with the commercial plantation.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*E-mail: okollejustin@yahoo.com
References
Hide All
Ahmad, Y. and Balasubramaniam, A. (1975) Major Crop Pests in Peninsular Malaysia. Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Malaysia. 177 pp.
Chiang, H. (1988) Bionomics and control of banana skipper, Erionota torus Evans, in Taiwan. Chinese Journal of Entomology, Special Publication 2, 167174.
Christie, A. W., Sands, D. and Yarrow, W. H. T. (1989) A new threat – the banana skipper. Queensland Agricultural Journal 115, 8081.
Clausen, C. P. (1940) Entomophagous Insects. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York. 688 pp.
Corbet, A. S. and Pendlebury, H. M. (1992), pp. 330345. In The Butterflies of the Malay Peninsula (Edited by Eliot, J. N.), Fourth Edition Revised. Malayan Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
DeBach, P. (1964) Biological Control of Insect Pests and Weeds. Chapman and Hall, London. 844 pp.
de Kraker, J., van Huis, A., Heong, K., van Lenteren, J. C. and Rabbinge, R. (1999) Population dynamics of rice leaffolders (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and their natural enemies in irrigated rice in the Phillippines. Bulletin of Entomological Research 89, 411421.
Fleming W. A. (1983) Butterflies of West Malaysia and Singapore. Revised by Alix McCartney. Longman Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. 148 pp.
Fowler, J., Cohen, L. and Jarvis, P. (1998) Practical Statistics for Field Biology. Second Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, England. 257 pp.
Gold, C. S., Pinese, B. and Pena, J. E. (2002) Pests of bananas, pp. 13–55. In Tropical Fruit Pests and Pollinators (Edited by J. E. Pena, J. L. Sharp and M. Wysoki). CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon.
Gould, J. R., Elkinton, J. S. and Van Driesche, R. G. (1992) Assessment of potential methods of measuring parasitism by Brachymeria intermedia (Nees) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) of pupae of the gypsy moth. Environmental Entomology 21, 394400.
Hasyim, A., Hasan, N., Syafril, and Herlion, (1994) Parasitoids of the banana skipper; Erionota thrax (L.) in Sumatera Barat, Indonesia, with notes on their life history, distribution and abundance. Tropics 3, 131142.
Kalshoven, L. G. E. (1981) Pests of Crops in Indonesia. P. T. Ichtiar Baru-Nun Hoeve, Jakarta. 701 pp.
Karamura E. A. and Gold C. S. (2000) The elusive banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus Germar. Acta Horticulturae 540 ISHS 11, 447–484.
Khoo, K. C., Ooi, P. A. C. and Ho, C. T. (1991) Crop Pests and Their Management in Malaysia. Tropical Press Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia. 233 pp.
Liu, S. S., Wang, S. G., Guo, S. J., He, J. H. and Shi, Z. H. (2000) Seasonal abundance of the parasitoid complex associated with the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in Hangzhou, China. Bulletin of Entomological Research 90, 221231.
Maramis, T. D. R. (2005) Contribution of several generalist parasitoids from host insect Erionota thrax (Lepidoptera: Hersperiidae) on its habitat. PhD thesis, Available from http:digilib.bi.itb.ac.id/go.php.
Mau, R. F. L., Murai, K., Kumashiro, B. and Teramoto, K. (1980) Biological control of the banana skipper, Pelopidas thrax (Linnaeus), (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) in Hawaii. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 23(2), 231238.
Okolle, J. N., Mansor, M. and Abu Hassan, A. (2004) Preliminary survey of the banana leaf roller, Erionota thrax. In Harnessing Research to Improve Livelihoods Proceedings of the First International Congress on Musa, 6–9 July, 2004, Penang, Malaysia. International Network for the Improvement of Bananas and plantains, France. 177 pp.
Okolle, J. N., Mansor, M. and Abu Hassan, A. (2006) Spatial distribution of banana skipper (Erionota thrax L.) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) and its parasitoids in a Cavendish banana plantation, Penang, Malaysia. Insect Science 13, 237241.
Prasad, B. and Singh, O. L. (1987) Insect pests of banana and their incidence in Manipur. Indian Journal of Hill Farming 1, 7173.
Sands D. P. A., Sands M.C. and Arura M. (1991) Banana skipper Erionota thrax (L.) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), a new pest in the South Pacific Region. Micronesia, supplement 3, 93–98.
Sands, D. P. A., Bakker, P. and Dori, F. M. (1993) Cotesia erionotae (Wilkinson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), for biological control of banana skipper, Erionota thrax (L.) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) in Papua New Guinea. Micronesia 4, 99105.
Van Driesche, R. G. (1983) Meaning of ‘percent parasitism’ in studies of insect parasitoids. Environmental Entomology 12, 16111622.
Van Driesche, R. G. and Bellows, T. S. (1988) Host and parasitoid recruitment for quantifying losses from parasitism, with reference to Pieris rapae and Cotesia glomerata. Ecological Entomology 13, 215222.
Van Driesche, R. G., Bellows, T. S., Elkinton, J. S., Gould, J. R. and Ferro, D. N. (1991) The meaning of percent parasitism revisited: Solutions to the problem of accurately estimating total losses from parasitism. Environmental Entomology 20, 17.
Waterhouse D. F. and Norris K. P. (1989) Erionota thrax, Supplement 1, 88–99. In Biological Control: Pacific Prospects. ACIAR Monograph No. 12.
Waterhouse, D., Birribi, D. and David, V. (1998) Economic benefits to Papua New Guinea and Australia from biological control of banana skipper (Erionota thrax). CSIRO Division of Entomology, Australia. 36 pp.
Welesoh, R. M. and Anderson, J. F. (1982) Releases of Brachymeria lasus and Coccygomimus disparis, two exotic gypsy moth parasitoids, in Connecticut: Habitat preference and overwintering potential. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 75, 4650.
Yeo L. P. and Zakaria H. (2001) Pisang – Penyakit dan perosak utama dalam penanaman Pisang. Aventis Crop Science Sdn. Bhd. PP 11537/8/2001. Terbitan No. 14 (in Bahasa Malaysian).
Yusuf, E. (2005) Population dynamics of banana skipper (Erionota thrax) in West Java, Indonesiawww.ees.hokudai.ac.jp/old/semi/oshirase040910.htm. Accessed 24/11/2005.
Zhang, Y., Li, W. and Huang, D. (2005) A taxonomic study of Chinese species of Ooencyrtus (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Zoological Studies 44, 347360.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Journal of Tropical Insect Science
  • ISSN: 1742-7584
  • EISSN: 1742-7592
  • URL: /core/journals/international-journal-of-tropical-insect-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed