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Mateo and Juana: Racial Silencing, Epistemic Violence, and Counterarchives in Puerto Rican Labor History

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 November 2019

Jorell A. Meléndez-Badillo*
Affiliation:
Dartmouth College

Abstract

During the first three decades of the twentieth century, a cluster of self-educated workers that called themselves obreros ilustrados (enlightened workers) sought to dominate the means of knowledge production, reproduction, and documentation. The discourses produced by this group of working-class intellectuals did not challenge but complemented the elite's contempt towards the laboring masses. In order to be legible in the “Archive of Puertorriqueñidad”—an archive crossed by centuries of colonialism, slavery, and imperial violence—these ragged intellectuals created various layers of exclusions that silenced those individuals that unapologetically upheld their Blackness. These silencing practices not only had power in the moment in which they took place but also influenced later historical production. To explore these dynamics, this paper uses the stories of Juana Colón and Mateo Pérez Sanjurjo. Both were highly-respected Black illiterate labor organizers that were absent in the historical narratives obreros ilustrados wrote about the labor movement. Ultimately, this article seeks to create counterarchives by unearthing, imagining, and retelling the lives of those that were not deemed worthy of being represented in the historical record.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © International Labor and Working-Class History, Inc. 2019

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Footnotes

*

I would like to thank the generosity of Ileana Rodríguez-Silva, Eileen Suárez-Findlay, Jorge L. Giovannetti, and Orlando Deavila Pertuz who attentively read earlier drafts of this paper and provided me with substantial feedback. This article also benefitted from comments and suggestions made by Shona N. Jackson, Franco Barchiesi, and anonymous reviewers. I am also thankful for the constant support of Aurora Santiago-Ortiz, Libertad Brouhns-Santiago, and Pipe Meléndez-Santiago.

References

NOTES

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37. See Ileana Rodríguez-Silva, “Racial Silencing and the Organizing of Puerto Rican Labor,” in Silencing Race, 159–86.

38. The Liberal construction of the “Great Puerto Rican Family” myth was integral to the Archive of Puertorriqueñidad. See Findlay, Imposing Decency, 54–9; Arlene Torres, “La gran familia puertorriqueña ‘ej prieta de belda’ (The Great Puerto Rican Family is Really Black), in Blackness in Latin America and the Caribbean, vol II, ed. Torres, Arlene and E., Norman Whitten, Jr., (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1998), 285306Google Scholar; Quintero-Rivera, Ángel G., Patricios y plebeyos: burgueses, hacendados, artesanos y obreros. Las relaciones de clase en el Puerto Rico de cambio de siglo (Río Piedras: Ediciones Huracán, 1988), 193Google Scholar.

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40. Ibid.

41. Suárez-Findlay, Imposing Decency, 57.

42. “Entrevista al Sr. Mateo Pérez Sanjurjo,” File 8301, 1, CIHO.

43. Ibid., 2; For the broad tradition, see Robinson, Cedric J., Black Marxism: The Making of the Black Radical Tradition (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000)Google Scholar.

44. It is important to note that at the turn of the twentieth century, the current municipality of Canóvanas was a neighborhood of Loíza. In 1902, Canóvanas became its own municipality. This was revoked in 1905. Four years later, in 1909, Loiza's municipal administration moved to Canóvanas. Predominantly black communities lived on the coast, which is where current day Loíza is located. Whites settled in the mountains, which after 1969 became recognized as a separate town, Canóvanas. War Department, Office Director Census of Porto Rico. Report on the Census of Porto Rico, 1899 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1900), 156; 170Google Scholar.

45. Ibid., 244.

46. “Entrevista al Sr. Mateo Pérez Sanjurjo,” CIHO, 4.

47. Ibid., 14.

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49. Luis Figueroa explored the relation between social categories and types of dances in Gauayama. See Figueroa, Sugar, Slavery, and Freedom, 175–200.

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53. Ibid., 24.

54. “Entrevista al Sr. Mateo Pérez Sanjurjo,” CIHO, 11.

55. Ibid., 14.

56. Ibid., 15.

57. Ibid., 15.

58. Ibid., 22.

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60. Ibid., 38.

61. “Entrevista al Sr. Mateo Pérez Sanjurjo,” CIHO, 12.

62. Romero Rosa wrote, “…when I was elected as Delegate of the House of Representatives, instead of inquiring about what I should do in favor the working people, many workers just looked at my shoes, my clothing, and my hat as if they wanted to ask: is this a Delegate?” del Romeral, R., Entre broma y vera: Manjares en salsa picante que conviene digerir con calma y sana intención para el bien de la higiene social (San Juan: La República Española, 1906), 62Google Scholar.

63. “Entrevista al Sr. Mateo Pérez Sanjurjo,” CIHO, 12–13.

64. Ibid., 17.

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70. Wilson Torres Rosario, Juana Colón, 101–2; Bianca Medina Báez, Juana Colón, 69–70.

71. Cited in Wilson Torres, Juana Colón, 106–9.

72. See Silvestrini, Blanca, “La política de salud de los Estados Unidos en Puerto Rico, 1898–1913: Consecuencias en el proceso de americanización,” in Politics, Society, and Culture in the Caribbean, ed. Silvetrini, Blanca G. (San Juan: Universidad de Puerto Rico, 1983)Google Scholar. Briggs, Laura, Reproducing Empire: Race, Sex, Science, and US Imperialism in Puerto Rico (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2002)Google Scholar; Trujillo-Pagán, Nicole, Modern Colonization by Medical Intervention (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar. Amador, José, Medicine and Nation Building in the Americas: 1890–1940 (Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press, 2015)Google Scholar.

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75. Ibid.

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79. Ibid., 97.

80. Ibid., 99.

81. Wilson Torres, Juana Colón, 119.

82. “Datos biográficos de Epifanio Fiz Jiménez,” L11-C3 Santiago Iglesias Pantín Fund, Centro de Documentación Obrera Santiago Iglesias Pantín, Humacao.

83. Fiz Jiménez, Epifanio. Comerío y su gente. Barcelona: Ediciones Rumbos, 1957; Fiz Jiménez, Epifanio. Bayamón y su gente. Barcelona: Ediciones Rumbos, 1960.

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86. Rosario, Wilson Torres, Juana Colón: Combatiente en el tabacal puertorriqueño (Comerío: N.p., 2011)Google Scholar; Medina, Bianca, Juana Colón y la lucha de la mujer obrera (Río Piedras: Ediciones Huracán, 2013)Google Scholar.

87. The Poetry Foundation, “Puerto Rican Obituary,” poem by Pedro Pietri, accessed November 2, 2018, https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/58396/puerto-rican-obituary.

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