Skip to main content Accessibility help

Explaining Terrorism: Leadership Deficits and Militant Group Tactics

  • Max Abrahms and Philip B.K. Potter

Certain types of militant groups—those suffering from leadership deficits—are more likely to attack civilians. Their leadership deficits exacerbate the principal-agent problem between leaders and foot soldiers, who have stronger incentives to harm civilians. We establish the validity of this proposition with a tripartite research strategy that balances generalizability and identification. First, we demonstrate in a sample of militant organizations operating in the Middle East and North Africa that those lacking centralized leadership are prone to targeting civilians. Second, we show that when the leaderships of militant groups are degraded from drone strikes in the Afghanistan-Pakistan tribal regions, the selectivity of organizational violence plummets. Third, we elucidate the mechanism with a detailed case study of the al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade, a Palestinian group that turned to terrorism during the Second Intifada because pressure on leadership allowed low-level members to act on their preexisting incentives to attack civilians. These findings indicate that a lack of principal control is an important, underappreciated cause of militant group violence against civilians.

Hide All
Abadie, Alberto. 2006. Poverty, Political Freedom, and the Roots of Terrorism. American Economic Review 96 (2):5056.
Abrahms, Max. 2006. Why Terrorism Does Not Work. International Security 31 (2):4248.
Abrahms, Max. 2007. Why Democracies Make Superior Counterterrorists. Security Studies 16 (2):223–53.
Abrahms, Max. 2008. What Terrorists Really Want: Terrorist Motives and Counterterrorism Strategy. International Security 32 (4):78105.
Abrahms, Max. 2012. The Political Effectiveness of Terrorism Revisited. Comparative Political Studies 45 (3):366–93.
Abrahms, Max. 2013. The Credibility Paradox: Violence as a Double-Edged Sword in International Politics. International Studies Quarterly 12 (1):660–71.
Abrahms, Max, and Gottfried, Matthew. 2014. Does Terrorism Pay? An Empirical Analysis. Terrorism and Political Violence 118. Available at <>.
Achen, Christopher H. 2002. Toward a New Political Methodology: Microfoundations and Art. Annual Review of Political Science 5 (1):423–50.
Achen, Christopher H. 2005. Let's Put Garbage-Can Regressions and Garbage-Can Probits Where They Belong. Conflict Management and Peace Science 22 (4):327–39.
Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission. 2011. Afghanistan: Annual Report on Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict 2010. Kabul, Afghanistan: AIHRC.
Allen, Lori. 2002. Palestinians Debate “Polite” Resistance to Occupation. MERIP Middle East Report 30 (225):3843.
Alter, Karen J. 2006. Delegation to International Courts and the Limits of Re-contracting Political Power. In Delegation and Agency in International Organizations, edited by Hawkins, Darren G., Lake, David A., Nielson, Daniel L., and Tierney, Michael J., 312–38. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Al-Zawahiri, Ayman. 2005. Letter from al-Zawahiri to al-Zarqawi, 9 July 2005. Available at <>. Accessed 12 May 2014.
Arquilla, John, and Karasik, Theodore. 1999. Chechnya: A Glimpse of Future Conflict? Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 22 (3):207–29.
Arquilla, John, and Ronfeldt, David F.. 1999. The Emergence of Noopolitik: Toward an American Information Strategy. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Arquilla, John, and Ronfeldt, David F.. 2001. Networks and Netwars: The Future of Terror, Crime, and Militancy. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Asal, Victor, Pate, Amy, and Wilkenfeld, Jonathan. 2008. Minorities at Risk Organizational Behavior Data and Codebook Version 9/2008. Available at <>. Accessed 12 May 2014.
Asal, Victor, and Rethemeyer, R. Karl. 2008. The Nature of the Beast: Organizational Structures and the Lethality of Terrorist Attacks. Journal of Politics 70 (2):437–49.
Azam, Jean-Paul, and Delacroix, Alexandra. 2006. Aid and the Delegated Fight Against Terrorism. Review of Development Economics 10 (2):330–44.
Banks, Arthur S., and Wilson, Kenneth A.. 2013. Cross-National Time-Series Data Archive. Databanks International. Jerusalem. Available at <>. Accessed 12 May 2014.
Berrebi, Claude. 2009. The Economics of Terrorism and Counterterrorism: What Matters and Is Rational-Choice Theory Helpful? In Social Science for Counterterrorism: Putting the Pieces Together, edited by Davis, Paul K. and Cragin, Kim, 151202. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Berrebi, Claude, and Klor, Esteban F.. 2006. On Terrorism and Electoral Outcomes: Theory and Evidence from the Israeli–Palestinian Conflict. Journal of Conflict Resolution 50 (6):899925.
Berrebi, Claude, and Klor, Esteban F.. 2008. Are Voters Sensitive to Terrorism? Direct Evidence from the Israeli Electorate. American Political Science Review 102 (3):279301.
Bishara, Azmi. 2003. The Quest for Strategy. Journal of Palestine Studies 32 (2):41–9.
Bloom, Mia M. 2004. Palestinian Suicide Bombing: Public Support, Market Share, and Outbidding. Political Science Quarterly 119 (1):6188.
Brennan, John O. 2012. The Ethics and Efficacy of the President's Counterterrorism Strategy. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, DC. Available at <>. Accessed 25 June 2014.
Butler, Christopher K., Gluch, Tali, and Mitchell, Neil J.. 2007. Security Forces and Sexual Violence: A Cross-National Analysis of a Principal-Agent Argument. Journal of Peace Research 44 (6):669–87.
Byman, Daniel, and Kreps, Sarah E.. 2010. Agents of Destruction? Applying Principal-Agent Analysis to State-Sponsored Terrorism. International Studies Perspectives 11 (1):118.
Caplan, Bryan. 2006. Terrorism: The Relevance of the Rational Choice Model. Public Choice 128 (1–2):91107.
Carter, David B., and Signorino, Curtis S.. 2010. Back to the Future: Modeling Time Dependence in Binary Data. Political Analysis 18 (3):271–92.
Chenoweth, Erica, Miller, Nicholas, McClellan, Elizabeth, Frisch, Hillel, Staniland, Paul, and Abrahms, Max. 2009. What Makes Terrorists Tick. International Security 33 (4):180202.
Chenoweth, Erica, and Stephan, Maria J.. 2011. Why Civil Resistance Works: The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict. New York: Columbia University Press.
Chowanietz, Christophe. 2011. Rallying Around the Flag or Railing Against the Government? Political Parties' Reactions to Terrorist Acts. Party Politics 17 (5):673–98.
Collier, Paul, and Hoeffler, Anke. 2004. Greed and Grievance in Civil War. Oxford Economic Papers 56 (4):563–95.
Cordes, Bonnie, Hoffman, Bruce, Jenkins, Brian M., Kellen, Konrad, Moran, Sue E., and Sater, William F.. 1984. Trends in International Terrorism, 1982 and 1983. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Cortell, Andrew P., and Peterson, Susan. 2006. Dutiful Agents, Rogue Actors, or Both? Staffing, Voting Rules, and Slack in the WHO and WTO. In Delegation and Agency in International Organizations, edited by Hawkins, Darren G., Lake, David A., Nielson, Daniel L., and Tierney, Michael J., 255–80. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Crenshaw, Martha. 1987. Theories of Terrorism: Instrumental and Organizational Approaches. Journal of Strategic Studies 10 (4):1331.
Cronin, Audrey K. 2003. Behind the Curve: Globalization and International Terrorism. International Security 27 (3):3058.
Cronin, Audrey K. 2006. How al-Qaida Ends: The Decline and Demise of Terrorist Groups. International Security 31 (1):748.
Cronin, Audrey K. 2009. How Terrorism Ends: Understanding the Decline and Demise of Terrorist Campaigns. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Crozier, Brian. 1960. The Rebels. Boston: Beacon Press.
Cunningham, Kathleen G., Bakke, Kristin M., and Seymour, Lee J.M.. 2012. Shirts Today, Skins Tomorrow: Dual Contests and the Effects of Fragmentation in Self-Determination Disputes. Journal of Conflict Resolution 56 (1):6793.
David, Steven R. 2003. Israel's Policy of Targeted Killing. Ethics and International Affairs 17 (1):111–26.
DeNardo, James. 1985. Power in Numbers: The Political Strategy of Protest and Rebellion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Downes, Alexander B. 2006. Desperate Times, Desperate Measures: The Causes of Civilian Victimization in War. International Security 30 (4):152–95.
DuPee, Matthew C., Johnson, Thomas H., and Dearing, Matthew P.. 2009. Understanding Afghan Culture—Analyzing the Taliban Code of Conduct: Reinventing the Layeha. Culture and Conflict Studies Occasional Paper. Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School.
Dzutsev, Valery. 2012. Leader of the Caucasus Emirate Vows to Stop Attacks Against Russian Civilians. Eurasia Daily Monitor 9 (24). Available at <>. Accessed 25 June 2014.
Eilstrup-Sangiovanni, Mette, and Jones, Calvert. 2008. Assessing the Dangers of Illicit Networks: Why Al-Qaida May Be Less Threatening Than Many Think. International Security 33 (2):744.
Eubank, William Lee, and Weinberg, Leonard. 1994. Does Democracy Encourage Terrorism? Terrorism and Political Violence 6 (4):417–35.
Fazal, Tanisha. 2013. Secessionism and Civilian Targeting. Prepared for the 2013 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, August, Chicago. Available at the Social Science Research Network <>. Accessed 12 May 2014.
Felter, Joseph H. 2008. Taking Guns to a Knife Fight: Effective Military Support to COIN. Civilian Research Paper. Carlisle Barracks, PA: US Army War College.
Ferrell, O.C, and Skinner, Steven J.. 1988. Ethical Behavior and Bureaucratic Structure in Marketing Research Organizations. Journal of Marketing Research 25 (1):103–9.
Fletcher, Holly. 2008. Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade. Washington, DC: Council on Foreign Relations. Available at <>. Accessed 25 June 2014.
Fortna, Virginia Page. 2012. Do Terrorists Win? Rebels' Use of Terrorism and Civil War Outcomes . Working Paper. New York: Columbia University.
Friedman, Gil. 2008. Strategic Deficiencies in National Liberation Struggles: The Case of Fatah in the Al-Aqsa Intifada. Journal of Strategic Studies 31 (1):4167.
Gaibulloev, Khusrav, and Sandler, Todd. 2009. Hostage Taking: Determinants of Terrorist Logistical and Negotiation Success. Journal of Peace Research 46 (6):739–56.
Galbraith, Jay R. 2007. Organization Design. In Handbook of Organization Development, edited by Cummings, Thomas G., 325–52. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ganor, Boaz. 2002. Defining Terrorism: Is One Man's Terrorist Another Man's Freedom Fighter? Police Practice and Research 3 (4):287304.
George, Alexander L., and Bennett, Andrew A.. 2005. Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Getmansky, Anna, and Sinmazdemir, Tolga. 2012. Success Breeds Failure: The Effect of Terrorist Attacks on Land Control in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Prepared for the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, August, New Orleans, LA.
Gill, Paul, and Young, Joseph K.. 2011. Comparing Role Specific Terrorist Profiles. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the International Studies Association, March, Montreal, Canada.
Goodwin, Jeff. 2006. A Theory of Categorical Terrorism. Social Forces 84 (4):2027–46.
Gould, Erica R. 2003. Money Talks: Supplementary Financiers and International Monetary Fund Conditionality. International Organization 57 (3):551–86.
Gould, Erica R. 2006. Delegating IMF Conditionality: Understanding Variations in Control and Conformity. In Delegation and Agency in International Organizations, edited by Hawkins, Darren G., Lake, David A., Nielson, Daniel L., and Tierney, Michael J., 281311. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Gould, Eric D., and Klor, Esteban F.. 2010. Does Terrorism Work? Quarterly Journal of Economics 125 (4):1459–510.
Greenberg, Maurice R., Wechsler, William F., and Wolosky, Lee S.. 2002. Terrorist Financing: Report of an Independent Task Force. New York: Council on Foreign Relations.
Gunaratna, Rohan. 2002. Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror. New York: Columbia University Press.
Gurr, Ted R. 2000. Peoples Versus States: Minorities at Risk in the New Century. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace.
Hawkins, Darren G., Lake, David A., Nielson, Daniel L., and Tierney, Michael J., eds. 2006. Delegation and Agency in International Organizations. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Hawkins, Darren G., and Jacoby, Wade. 2006. How Agents Matter. In Delegation and Agency in International Organizations, edited by Hawkins, Darren G., Lake, David A., Nielson, Daniel L., and Tierney, Michael J., 199228. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Hawkins, Darren G., and Jacoby, Wade. 2008. Agent Permeability, Principal Delegation and the European Court of Human Rights. The Review of International Organizations 3 (1):128.
Hoffman, Bruce. 1998. Inside Terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press.
Hoffman, Bruce. 1999. Terrorism Trends and Prospects. In Countering the New Terrorism, edited by Lesser, Ian O., Hoffman, Bruce, Arquilla, John, Ronfeldt, David, Zanini, Michele, and Jenkins, Brian M., 738. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Hoffman, Bruce. 2003. Al Qaeda, Trends in Terrorism, and Future Potentialities: An Assessment. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Hoffman, Bruce. 2006. Inside Terrorism. Updated ed. New York: Columbia University Press.
Horowitz, Michael C. 2010. Nonstate Actors and the Diffusion of Innovations: The Case of Suicide Terrorism. International Organization 64 (1):3364.
Humphreys, Macartan, and Weinstein, Jeremy M.. 2006. Handling and Manhandling Civilians in Civil War. American Political Science Review 100 (3):429–47.
International Crisis Group. 2004. Who Governs the West Bank? Palestinian Administration Under Israeli Occupation. Middle East Report 32. Amman/Brussels: International Crisis Group.
International Crisis Group. 2008. Taliban Propaganda: Winning the War of the Words? Asia Report 158. Brussels: International Crisis Group.
Johnston, Patrick B. 2012. Does Decapitation Work? Assessing the Effectiveness of Leadership Targeting in Counterinsurgency Campaigns. International Security 36 (4):4779.
Jones, Seth G., and Libicki, Martin C.. 2008. How Terrorist Groups End: Lessons for Countering Al Qaída. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Joosse, Paul. 2007. Leaderless Resistance and Ideological Inclusion: The Case of the Earth Liberation Front. Terrorism and Political Violence 19 (3):351–68.
Jordan, Jenna. 2009. When Heads Roll: Assessing the Effectiveness of Leadership Decapitation. Security Studies 18 (4):719–55.
Juergensmeyer, Mark. 2000. Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Kalleberg, Arne L., Knoke, David, and Marsden, Peter V., eds. 1996. Organizations in America: Analyzing Their Structures and Human Resource Practices. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Kalyvas, Stathis N. 2006. The Logic of Violence in Civil War. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Kalyvas, Stathis N. 2007. Book Review. Inside Rebellion: The Politics of Insurgent Violence, by Jeremy M. Weinstein. Comparative Political Studies 40 (9):1146–51.
Kaplan, Jeffrey. 1997. “Leaderless Resistance.” Terrorism and Political Violence 9 (3):8095.
Kiewiet, D. Roderick, and McCubbins, Mathew D.. 1991. The Logic of Delegation: Congressional Parties and the Appropriations Process. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
King, Gary, Honaker, James, Joseph, Anne, and Scheve, Kenneth. 2001. Analyzing Incomplete Political Science Data: An Alternative Algorithm for Multiple Imputation. American Political Science Review 95 (1):4969.
Kleponis, Greg. 2009. China's Role in the Stabilization of Afghanistan. “Of Interest” Paper Series. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute.
Krahmann, Elke. 2003. Conceptualizing Security Governance. Cooperation and Conflict 38 (1):526.
Lake, David A. 2002. Rational Extremism: Understanding Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. Dialogue IO 1 (1):1529.
Lake, David A. 2007. Delegating Divisible Sovereignty: Sweeping a Conceptual Minefield. Review of International Organizations 2 (3):219–37.
Lake, David A., and McCubbins, Mathew D.. 2006. The Logic of Delegation to International Organizations. In Delegation and Agency in International Organizations, edited by Hawkins, Darren G., Lake, David A., Nielson, Daniel L., and Tierney, Michael J., 341–68. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Lankford, Adam. 2013. The Myth of Martyrdom: What Really Drives Suicide Bombers, Rampage Shooters, and Other Self-Destructive Killers. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Laqueur, Walter. 1976. The Futility of Terrorism. Harper's Magazine March: 99105.
Laqueur, Walter. 1977. Interpretations of Terrorism: Fact, Fiction and Political Science. Journal of Contemporary History 12 (1):142.
Li, Quan. 2005. Does Democracy Promote or Reduce Transnational Terrorist Incidents? Journal of Conflict Resolution 49 (2):278–97.
Li, Quan, and Schaub, Drew. 2004. Economic Globalization and Transnational Terrorism: A Pooled Time-Series Analysis. Journal of Conflict Resolution 48 (2):230–58.
Lilja, Jannie. 2009. Trapping Constituents or Winning Hearts and Minds? Rebel Strategies to Attain Constituent Support in Sri Lanka. Terrorism and Political Violence 2 (2):306–26.
Lyall, Jason. 2010. Do Democracies Make Inferior Counterinsurgents? Reassessing Democracy's Impact on War Outcomes and Duration. International Organization 64 (1):167–92.
Margalit, Avishai. 2003. The Suicide Bombers. New York Review of Books 50 (1):3639.
Miller, Gregory. 2008. Innovation and Imitation Within Terrorist Groups. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association, March, San Francisco.
Milner, Helen V. 2006. Why Multilateralism? Foreign Aid and Domestic Principal-Agent Problems. In Delegation and Agency in International Organizations, edited by Hawkins, Darren G., Lake, David A., Nielson, Daniel L., and Tierney, Michael J., 107–39. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Mitchell, Neil J., Carey, Sabine C., and Butler, Christopher K.. 2012. Delegating Repression: Pro-Government Militias and Human Rights Violations. Working Paper. Mannheim, Germany: Universität Mannheim.
Moghadam, Assaf. 2003. Palestinian Suicide Terrorism in the Second Intifada: Motivations and Organizational Aspects. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 26 (2):6592.
Moghadam, Assaf. 2006. Suicide Terrorism, Occupation, and the Globalization of Martyrdom: A Critique of Dying to Win. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 29 (8):707–29.
Morrow, James D. 2007. When Do States Follow the Laws of War? American Political Science Review 101 (3):559–72.
Mueller, John E. 2006. Overblown: How Politicians and the Terrorism Industry Inflate National Security Threats, and Why We Believe Them. New York: Free Press.
Mulder, Mauk. 1960. Communication Structure, Decision Structure and Group Performance. Sociometry 23 (1):114.
National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START). 2003. Global Terrorism Database: Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades. College Park: University of Maryland. Available at <>. Accessed 25 June 2014.
National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START). 2012. Global Terrorism Database [Data File]. College Park: University of Maryland. Available at <>. Accessed 25 June 2014.
Neumann, Peter R., and Smith, M.L.R.. 2008. The Strategy of Terrorism: How It Works, and Why It Fails. London: Routledge.
Pape, Robert A. 2003. The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism. American Political Science Review 97 (3):343–61.
Pape, Robert A. 2005. Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism. New York: Random House.
Pearlman, Wendy. 2009. Spoiling Inside and Out: Internal Political Contestation and the Middle East Peace Process. International Security 33 (3):79109.
Pearlman, Wendy. 2011. Violence, Nonviolence, and the Palestinian National Movement. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Pollack, Mark A. 1997. Delegation, Agency, and Agenda Setting in the European Community. International Organization 51 (1):99134.
Pollack, Mark A. 2002. Learning from the Americanists (Again): Theory and Method in the Study of Delegation. West European Politics 25 (1):200–19.
Price, Bryan C. 2012. Targeting Top Terrorists: How Leadership Decapitation Contributes to Counterterrorism. International Security 36 (4):946.
Pugh, D.S. 1973. The Measurement of Organization Structures: Does Context Determine Form? Organizational Dynamics 1 (4):1934.
Rabushka, Alvin, and Shepsle, Kenneth A.. 1972. Politics in Plural Societies: A Theory of Democratic Instability. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
Richardson, Louise. 2006. What Terrorists Want: Understanding the Enemy, Containing the Threat. New York: Random House.
Sageman, Marc. 2004. Understanding Terror Networks. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Sageman, Marc. 2008. Leaderless Jihad: Terror Networks in the Twenty-First Century. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press,
Salehyan, Idean. 2010. The Delegation of War to Rebel Organizations. Journal of Conflict Resolution 54 (3):493515.
Sambanis, Nicholas. 2008. Terrorism and Civil War. In Terrorism, Economic Development, and Political Openness, edited by Keefer, Philip and Loayza, Norman, 174208. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sandler, Todd. 2005. Collective Versus Unilateral Responses to Terrorism. Public Choice 124 (1–2):7593.
Sayigh, Yezid. 2001. Arafat and the Anatomy of a Revolt. Survival 43 (3):4760.
Schelling, Thomas C. 1991. What Purposes Can “International Terrorism” Serve? In Violence, Terrorism, and Justice, edited by Frey, R.G. and Morris, Christopher W., 1832. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Schmid, Alex P., and Jongman, Albert J.. 2005. Political Terrorism: A New Guide to Actors, Authors, Concepts, Data Bases, Theories, and Literature. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
Scott, W. Richard. 1987. Organizations: Rational, Natural, and Open Systems. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Shapiro, Jacob N. 2012. Terrorist Decision-Making: Insights from Economics and Political Science. Perspectives on Terrorism 6 (4–5):520.
Shapiro, Jacob N. 2013. The Terrorist's Dilemma: Managing Violent Covert Organizations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Shapiro, Jacob N., and Siegel, David A.. 2007. Underfunding in Terrorist Organizations. International Studies Quarterly 51 (2):405–29.
Shapiro, Jacob N., and Siegel, David A.. 2012. Moral Hazard, Discipline, and the Management of Terrorist Organizations. World Politics 64 (1):3978.
Smith, Megan, and Walsh, James I.. 2013. Do Drone Strikes Degrade Al Qaeda? Evidence from Propaganda Output. Terrorism and Political Violence 25:311–27.
Stanton, Jessica A. 2013. Terrorism in the Context of Civil War. Journal of Politics 75 (4):1009–22.
Stedman, Stephen J. 1997. Spoiler Problems in Peace Processes. International Security 22 (2):553.
Stepanova, Ekaterina A. 2008. Terrorism in Asymmetrical Conflict: Ideological and Structural Aspects. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Stork, Joe. 2002. Erased in a Moment: Suicide Bombing Attacks Against Israeli Civilians. New York: Human Rights Watch.
Subrahmanian, V.S., Mannes, Aaron, Sliva, Amy, Shakarian, Jana, and Dickerson, John P.. 2013. Computational Analysis of Terrorist Groups: Lashkar-e-Taiba. New York: Springer.
Thomson, Janice E. 1994. Mercenaries, Pirates, and Sovereigns: State-Building and Extraterritorial Violence in Early Modern Europe. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Usher, Graham. 2003. Facing Defeat: The Intifada Two Years On. Journal of Palestine Studies 32 (2):2140.
Valentino, Benjamin, Huth, Paul, and Balch-Lindsay, Dylan. 2004. “Draining the Sea”: Mass Killing and Guerrilla Warfare. International Organization 58 (2):375407.
Walsh, James I., and Piazza, James A.. 2010. Why Respecting Physical Integrity Rights Reduces Terrorism. Comparative Political Studies 43 (5):551–77.
Walzer, Michael. 2002. Five Questions About Terrorism. Dissent 49 (1):510.
Weinstein, Jeremy M. 2007. Inside Rebellion: The Politics of Insurgent Violence. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Wilkinson, Paul. 1986. Terrorism and the Liberal State. 2nd ed. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan.
Wood, Elisabeth J. 2006. Variation in Sexual Violence During War. Politics and Society 34 (3):307–42.
Wood, Reed M. 2010. Rebel Capability and Strategic Violence Against Civilians. Journal of Peace Research 47 (5):601–14.
Wood, Reed M., and Kathman, Jacob D.. 2014. Too Much of a Bad Thing? Civilian Victimization and Bargaining in Civil War. British Journal of Political Science 44 (3):122.
Zelkovitz, Ido. 2008. Fatah's Embrace of Islamism. Middle East Quarterly 15 (2):1926.
Zey-Ferrell, Mary. 1979. Readings in Dimensions of Organizations: Environment, Context, Structure, Process, and Performance. Santa Monica, CA: Goodyear.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Organization
  • ISSN: 0020-8183
  • EISSN: 1531-5088
  • URL: /core/journals/international-organization
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed