Aanes, M. M., Hetland, J., Pallesen, S. and Mittelmark, M. B. (2011). Does loneliness mediate the stress-sleep quality relation? The Hordaland health study. International Psychogeriatrics, 23, 994–1002. doi: 10.1017/S1041610211000111.
Abedellaoui, A., et al. (2018). Phenome-wide investigation of health outcomes associated with genetic predisposition to loneliness. bioRxiv.
Abramson, A. and Silverstein, M. (2006). Images of Aging in America 2004. Washington, D.C.: AARP and the University of Southern California.
Arber, S. and Ginn, J. (1994). Women and aging. Reviews in Clinical Gerontology, 4, 349–358. doi: 10.1017/S0959259800002483.
Ben-Zur, H. (2012). Loneliness, optimism, and well-being among married, divorced, and widowed individuals. The Journal of Psychology, 146, 23–36. doi: 10.1080/00223980.2010.548414.
Beutel, M. E., et al. (2017). Loneliness in the general population: prevalence, determinants and relations to mental health. BMC Psychiatry, 17, 97. doi: 10.1186/s12888-017-1262-x.
Boss, L., Kang, D. H. and Branson, S. (2015). Loneliness and cognitive function in the older adult: a systematic review. International Psychogeriatrics, 27, 541–553. doi: 10.1017/S1041610214002749.
Broadbent, D. E., Cooper, P. F., FitzGerald, P. and Parkes, K. R. (1982). The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) and its correlates. British Journal of Clinical Psychology , 21, 1–16.
Cacioppo, J. and Patrick, W. (2008). Loneliness: Human Nature and the Need for Social Connection. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Cacioppo, J. T., et al. (2002). Loneliness and health: potential mechanisms. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64, 407–417. doi: 10.1097/00006842-200205000-00005.
Chen, T., Xu, M., Tu, J., Wang, H. and Niu, X. (2018). Relationship between Omnibus and Post-hoc tests: an investigation of performance of the F test in ANOVA. Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry, 30, 60–64. doi: 10.11919/j.issn.1002-0829.218014.
Chen, T., et al. (2016). Variable selection for distribution-free models for longitudinal zero-inflated count responses. Statistics in Medicine, 35, 2770–2785. doi: 10.1002/sim.6892.
Cohen, S., Kamarck, T. and Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 385–396. doi: 10.2307/2136404.
Cohen-Mansfield, J., Hazan, H., Lerman, Y. and Shalom, V. (2016). Correlates and predictors of loneliness in older-adults: a review of quantitative results informed by qualitative insights. International Psychogeriatrics, 28, 557–576. doi: 10.1017/S1041610215001532.
Connor, K. M. and Davidson, J. R. (2003). Development of a new resilience scale: the Connor-Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC). Depress Anxiety, 18, 76–82. doi: 10.1002/da.10113.
Dahlberg, L., Andersson, L., McKee, K. J. and Lennartsson, C. (2015). Predictors of loneliness among older women and men in Sweden: a national longitudinal study. Aging and Mental Health, 19, 409–417. doi: 10.1080/13607863.2014.944091.
De Jong-Gierveld, J. and Kamphuis, F. (1985). The development of a Rasch-type loneliness scale. Applied Psychological Measurement, 9, 289–299. doi: 10.1177/014662168500900307.
De Jong Gierveld, J. and Van Tilburg, T. (2010). The De Jong Gierveld short scales for emotional and social loneliness: tested on data from 7 countries in the UN generations and gender surveys. European Journal of Ageing, 7, 121–130. doi: 10.1007/s10433-010-0144-6.
De Jong Gierveld, J., van Tilburg, T. and Dykstra, P. A. (2006). Loneliness and social isolation. In: Vangelisti, A. L. and Perlman, D. (eds.) The Cambridge Handbook of Personal Relationships (pp. 485–499, Chapter xxii, 891 Pages). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Derogatis, L. R. and Melisaratos, N. (1983). The brief symptom inventory: an introductory report. Psychological Medicine, 13, 595–605. doi: 10.1017/S0033291700048017.
Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J. and Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13.
Djukanovic, I., Sorjonen, K. and Peterson, U. (2015). Association between depressive symptoms and age, sex, loneliness and treatment among older people in Sweden. Aging and Mental Health, 19, 560–568. doi: 10.1080/13607863.2014.962001.
Dykstra, P. A. (2009). Older adult loneliness: myths and realities. European Journal of Ageing, 6, 91–100. doi: 10.1007/s10433-009-0110-3.
Dykstra, P. A., van Tilburg, T. G. and de Jong Gierveld, J. (2005). Changes in older adult loneliness: results from a seven-year longitudinal study. Research on Aging, 27, 725–747. doi: 10.1177/0164027505279712.
Eglit, G. M. L., Palmer, B. W., Martin, A. S., Tu, X. and Jeste, D. V. (2018). Loneliness in schizophrenia: construct clarification, measurement, and clinical relevance. PLoS One, 13, e0194021. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0194021.
Ernst, J. M. and Cacioppo, J. T. (1999). Lonely hearts: psychological perspectives on loneliness. Applied & Preventive Psychology, 8, 1–22. doi: 10.1016/S0962-1849(99)80008-0.
Erogul, M., Singer, G., McIntyre, T. and Stefanov, D. G. (2014). Abridged mindfulness intervention to support wellness in first-year medical students. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 26, 350–356. doi: 10.1080/10401334.2014.945025.
Fees, B. S., Martin, P. and Poon, L. W. (1999). A model of loneliness in older adults. The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 54, P231–P239. doi: 10.1093/geronb/54B.4.P231.
Fokkema, T., De Jong Gierveld, J. and Dykstra, P. A. (2012). Cross-national differences in older adult loneliness. The Journal of Psychology, 146, 201–228. doi: 10.1080/00223980.2011.631612.
Fung, A. W. T., Lee, A. T. C., Cheng, S.-T. and Lam, L. C. W. (in press). Loneliness interacts with family relationship in relation to cognitive function in Chinese older adults. International Psychogeriatrics.
Hawkley, L. C. and Cacioppo, J. T. (2004). Stress and the aging immune system. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 18, 114–119. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2003.09.005.
Hawkley, L. C. and Cacioppo, J. T. (2010). Loneliness matters: a theoretical and empirical review of consequences and mechanisms. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 40, 218–227. doi: 10.1007/s12160-010-9210-8.
Holt-Lunstad, J., Smith, T. B., Baker, M., Harris, T. and Stephenson, D. (2015). Loneliness and social isolation as risk factors for mortality: a meta-analytic review. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10, 227–237. doi: 10.1177/1745691614568352.
Houtjes, W., van Meijel, B., van de Ven, P. M., Deeg, D., van Tilburg, T. and Beekman, A. (2014). The impact of an unfavorable depression course on network size and loneliness in older people: a longitudinal study in the community. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 29, 1010–1017. doi: 10.1002/gps.4091.
Jakobsson, U. and Hallberg, I. R. (2005). Loneliness, fear, and quality of life among elderly in Sweden: a gender perspective. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 17, 494–501. doi: 10.1007/BF03327417.
Jeste, D. and Lee, E. E. (2018). Emerging empirical science of wisdom: definition, measurement, neurobiology, longevity, and interventions. Harvard Review of Psychiatry (In Press).
Jeste, D. V., Ardelt, M., Blazer, D., Kraemer, H. C., Vaillant, G. and Meeks, T. W. (2010). Expert consensus on characteristics of wisdom: a Delphi method study. Gerontologist, 50, 668–680. doi: 10.1093/geront/gnq022.
Jeste, D. V. and Vahia, I. V. (2008). Comparison of the conceptualization of wisdom in ancient Indian literature with modern views: focus on the Bhagavad Gita. Psychiatry, 71, 197–209. doi: 10.1521/psyc.2008.71.3.197.
Jeste, D. V., et al. (2013). Association between older age and more successful aging: critical role of resilience and depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 170, 188–196. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12030386.
Joseph, J., et al. (2015). Associations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in schizophrenia and comparison groups. Schizophrenia Research, 168, 456–460. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2015.08.019.
Jylha, M. (2004). Old age and loneliness: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses in the Tampere longitudinal study on aging. Canadian Journal on Aging, 23, 157–168. doi: 10.1353/cja.2004.0023.
Kharicha, K., Manthorpe, J., Iliffe, S., Davies, N. and Walters, K. (2018). Strategies employed by older people to manage loneliness: systematic review of qualitative studies and model development. International Psychogeriatrics, 1–15. doi: 10.1017/s1041610218000339.
Kong, X., et al. (2015). Neuroticism and extraversion mediate the association between loneliness and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Experimental Brain Research, 233, 157–164. doi: 10.1007/s00221-014-4097-4.
Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L. and Williams, J. B. (2001). The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16, 606–613. doi: 10.1046/j.1525-1497.2001.016009606.x.
Lee, E. E., Hong, S., Martin, A. S., Eyler, L. T. and Jeste, D. V. (2016b). Inflammation in schizophrenia: cytokine levels and their relationships to demographic and clinical variables. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 25, 50–61. doi: 10.1016/j.jagp.2016.09.009.
Lee, E. E., Martin, A. S., Tu, X., Palmer, B. W. and Jeste, D. V. (2018). Childhood adversity and schizophrenia: the protective role of resilience in mental and physical health and metabolic markers. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 79, 17m11776. doi: 10.4088/jcp.17m11776.
Lee, E. E., et al. (2016a). Elevated plasma F2-isoprostane levels in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 176, 320–326. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2016.06.011.
Luhmann, M. and Hawkley, L. C. (2016). Age differences in loneliness from late adolescence to oldest old age. Developmental Psychology, 52, 943–959. doi: 10.1037/dev0000117.
McGregor, J. (2017). This former surgeon general says there’s a ‘loneliness epidemic’ and work is partly to blame. Washington Post.
Meeks, T. W. and Jeste, D. V. (2009). Neurobiology of wisdom: a literature overview. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66, 355–365. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.8.
Musich, S., Wang, S. S., Hawkins, K. and Yeh, C. S. (2015). The impact of loneliness on quality of life and patient satisfaction among older, sicker adults. Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, 1, 233372141558211. doi: 10.1177/2333721415582119.
Myers, L. and Palmarini, N. (2017). Loneliness: findings from IBM’s Institute for business value 2017 study on loneliness in the aging population. Public Policy & Aging Report, 27, 158–159. doi: 10.1093/ppar/prx022.
Nicolaisen, M. and Thorsen, K. (2014a). Loneliness among men and women–a five-year follow-up study. Aging and Mental Health, 18, 194–206. doi: 10.1080/13607863.2013.821457.
Nicolaisen, M. and Thorsen, K. (2014b). Who are lonely? Loneliness in different age groups (18-81 years old), using two measures of loneliness. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 78, 229–257. doi: 10.2190/AG.78.3.b.
Palmer, B. W. (in press). The effects of loneliness and social isolation on cognitive functioning in older adults: a need for nuanced assessments. International Psychogeriatrics.
Penninx, B. W., van Tilburg, T., Kriegsman, D. M., Deeg, D. J., Boeke, A. J. and van Eijk, J. T. (1997). Effects of social support and personal coping resources on mortality in older age: the longitudinal aging study Amsterdam. American Journal of Epidemiology, 146, 510–519. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009305.
Perlman, D. and Peplau, L. A. (1984). Loneliness reserach: a survey of empirical findings. In: Peplau, L. A. and Goldston, S. E. (eds.), Preventing the harmful consequences of severe and persistent loneliness. Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office.
Pinquart, M. and Sorensen, S. (2001). Gender differences in self-concept and psychological well-being in old age: a meta-analysis. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 56, P195–P213. doi: 10.1093/geronb/56.4.P195.
Radloff, L. (1977). The CES-D scale: a self report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurements, 1, 385–401. doi: 10.1177/014662167700100306.
Rast, P., Zimprich, D., Van Boxtel, M. and Jolles, J. (2009). Factor structure and measurement invariance of the cognitive failures questionnaire across the adult life span. Assessment, 16, 145–158.
Rokach, A. (2000). Loneliness and the life cycle. Psychological Reports, 86, 629–642. doi: 10.2466/pr0.2000.86.2.629.
Russell, D. W. (1996). UCLA loneliness scale (Version 3): reliability, validity, and factor structure. Journal of Personality Assessment, 66, 20–40. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa6601_2.
Samuelsson, G., Andersson, L. and Hagberg, B. (1998). Loneliness in relation to social, psychological and medical variables over a 13-year period: a study of the elderly in a Swedish rural district. Journal of Mental Health and Aging, 4, 361–378.
Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S. and Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): a reevaluation of the life orientation test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1063–1078. doi: 10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.113.
Sheehan, D. V., et al. (1998). The mini-international neuropsychiatric interview (M.I.N.I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59, 22–33; quiz 34–57.
Simon, M. A., Chang, E. S., Zhang, M., Ruan, J. and Dong, X. (2014). The prevalence of loneliness among U.S. Chinese older adults. Journal of Aging and Health, 26, 1172–1188. doi: 10.1177/0898264314533722.
Springer, M. B., et al. (2003). Spirituality, depression, and loneliness among Jewish seniors residing in New York City. Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling, 57, 305–318. doi: 10.1177/154230500305700306.
Tabue Teguo, M., et al. (2016). Feelings of loneliness and living alone as predictors of mortality in the elderly: the PAQUID study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 78, 904–909. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000386.
Theeke, L. A. (2009). Predictors of loneliness in U.S. adults over age sixty-five. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 23, 387–396. doi: 10.1016/j.apnu.2008.11.002.
Theeke, L. A. and Mallow, J. (2013). Loneliness and quality of life in chronically ill rural older adults. American Journal of Nursing, 113, 28–37; quiz 38. doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000434169.53750.14.
Thomas, M. L., et al. (2016). Paradoxical trend for improvement in mental health with aging: a community-based study of 1, 546 adults aged 21-100 years. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 77, e1019–e1025. doi: 10.4088/JCP.16m10671.
Thomas, M. L., et al. (2017). A new scale for assessing wisdom based on common domains and a neurobiological model: the San Diego wisdom scale (SD-WISE). Journal of Psychiatric Research, 108, 40–47.
Tijhuis, M. A., De Jong-Gierveld, J., Feskens, E. J. and Kromhout, D. (1999). Changes in and factors related to loneliness in older men. The Zutphen elderly study. Age Ageing, 28, 491–495. doi: 10.1093/ageing/28.5.491.
Tornas, S., Lovstad, M., Solbakk, A. K., Schanke, A. K. and Stubberud, J. (2016). Goal management training combined with external cuing as a means to improve emotional regulation, psychological functioning, and quality of life in patients with acquired brain injury: a randomized controlled trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 97, 1841–1852.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2016.06.014.
Tornstam, L. (1992). Loneliness in marriage. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 9, 197–217. doi: 10.1177/0265407592092003.
van Beljouw, I. M., et al. (2014). “Being all alone makes me sad”: loneliness in older adults with depressive symptoms. International Psychogeriatrics, 1–11. doi: 10.1017/s1041610214000581.
van Roekel, E., Verhagen, M., Engels, R., Scholte, R. H. J., Cacioppo, S. and Cacioppo, J. T. (2016). Trait and state levels of loneliness in early and late adolescents: examining the differential reactivity hypothesis. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 1–12. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2016.1146993.
Victor, C. R. and Bowling, A. (2012). A longitudinal analysis of loneliness among older people in Great Britain. The Journal of Psychology, 146, 313–331. doi: 10.1080/00223980.2011.609572.
Victor, C. R. and Yang, K. (2012). The prevalence of loneliness among adults: a case study of the United Kingdom. The Journal of Psychology, 146, 85–104. doi: 10.1080/00223980.2011.613875.
Wang, H., et al. (2017). Inconsistency between univariate and multiple logistic regressions. Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry, 29, 124–128. doi: 10.11919/j.issn.1002-0829.217031.
Ware, J. E. Jr. and Sherbourne, C. D. (1992). The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36). I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Medical Care, 30, 473–483. doi: 10.1097/00005650-199206000-00002.
Wilson, C. and Moulton, B. (2010). Loneliness among Older Adults: A National Survey of Adults 45+. Washington, D.C.: AARP.
Yan, Z., Yang, X., Wang, L., Zhao, Y. and Yu, L. (2014). Social change and birth cohort increase in loneliness among Chinese older adults: a cross-temporal meta-analysis, 1995-2011. International Psychogeriatrics, 26, 1773–1781. doi: 10.1017/S1041610214000921.
Yu, J., Lam, C. L. and Lee, T. M. (2016). Perceived loneliness among older adults with mild cognitive impairment. International Psychogeriatrics, 28, 1681–1685. doi: 10.1017/S1041610216000430.
Zebhauser, A., et al. (2014). How much does it hurt to be lonely? Mental and physical differences between older men and women in the KORA-Age study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 29, 245–252. doi: 10.1002/gps.3998.