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  • Cited by 3
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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Kengni, Bernard 2013. War and Environment: The Environmental Effects of the Civil War in Somalia. Environmental Quality Management, Vol. 23, Issue. 1, p. 43.

    Sanden, Joachim and Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik 2013. Countering Hybrid Eco-threats to Global Security Under International Law: The Need for an Comprehensive Legal Approach. Liverpool Law Review, Vol. 34, Issue. 3, p. 261.

    Nasu, Hitoshi 2012. Nanotechnology and challenges to international humanitarian law: a preliminary legal assessment. International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 94, Issue. 886, p. 653.


International law protecting the environment during armed conflict: gaps and opportunities


There are three key deficiencies in the existing body of international humanitarian law (IHL) relating to protection of the environment during armed conflict. First, the definition of impermissible environmental damage is both too restrictive and unclear; second, there are legal uncertainties regarding the protection of elements of the environment as civilian objects; and third, the application of the principle of proportionality where harm to the environment constitutes ‘collateral damage’ is also problematic. These gaps present specific opportunities for clarifying and developing the existing framework. One approach to addressing some of the inadequacies of IHL could be application of international environmental law during armed conflict. The detailed norms, standards, approaches, and mechanisms found in international environmental law might also help to clarify and extend basic principles of IHL to prevent, address, or assess liability for environmental damage incurred during armed conflict.

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Louise Bunker , ‘Protection of the environment during armed conflict: one gulf, two wars’, in Review of European Community & International Environmental Law, Vol. 13, No. 2, 2004, p. 211

Silja Vöneky , ‘A new shield for the environment: peacetime treaties as legal restraints of wartime damage’, in Review of European Community & International Environmental Law, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2000, pp. 2022

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International Review of the Red Cross
  • ISSN: 1816-3831
  • EISSN: 1607-5889
  • URL: /core/journals/international-review-of-the-red-cross
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