Published online by Cambridge University Press: 20 January 2017
Common reed (Phragmites australis) is an invasive perennial grass in aquatic and riparian environments across the United States, forming monotypic stands that displace native vegetation that provides food and cover for wildlife. Genetic variation in global populations of common reed has given rise to two invasive haplotypes, I and M, in the United States. Our objectives were to (1) determine if any differences in herbicide efficacy exist with respect to common reed haplotypes I and M and (2) screen for other labeled aquatic herbicides that may have activity on common reed haplotypes I and M, most notably imazamox and diquat. A replicated outdoor mesocosm study was conducted in 1,136-L (300-gal) tanks using haplotypes I and M of common reed. Restriction fragment length polymorphism methodologies were used to verify the identification of I and M haplotypes used in this study. Diquat at 2.2 (1.9) and 4.5 (4.0) kg ai ha−1 (lb ai ac−1), glyphosate at 2.1 (1.8) and 4.2 (3.7) kg ae ha−1 (lb ae ac−1), imazamox at 0.6 (0.5) and 1.1 (0.9) kg ai ha−1 (lb ai ac−1), imazapyr at 0.8 (0.7) and 1.7 (1.5) kg ai ha−1 (lb ai ac−1), and triclopyr at 3.4 (3.0) and 6.7 (5.9) kg ae ha−1 (lb ae ac−1) were applied to the foliage of common reed. After 12 wk, no difference (P = 0.28) in herbicide tolerance was seen between the two haplotypes with respect to biomass. The 4.2-kg ae ha−1 rate of glyphosate and the 0.8- and 1.7 kg ai ha−1 rates of imazapyr reduced common reed by > 90% at 12 wk after treatment (WAT). Imazamox at 0.6 and 1.1 kg ai ha−1, and triclopyr at 3.4 and 6.7 kg ae ha−1 reduced common reed biomass (62–86%) at 12 WAT, though regrowth occurred. Diquat did not significantly reduce biomass by 12 wk. Glyphosate and imazapyr were the only herbicides that resulted in > 90% biomass reduction and corroborate control from previous studies.