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International Migration Law in the Current Legal and Political Reality: Review of Research Handbook on International Law and Migration

  • Tally Kritzman-Amir (a1)
Extract

The complex human phenomenon of migration is a challenging one, and throughout history has been considered by many disciplines, including, but not limited to, law, international relations and political science, sociology and anthropology, philosophy, economics, geography and demography and psychology, as well as by multi-disciplinary scholarship. All of this growing body of scholarship has attempted to come to grips with particular aspects of this phenomenon, which has an impact on states, peoples, societies, spaces, cultures, mental states, international organisations and norms.

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1 See, eg, Stephen Legomsky and Cristina Rodrigues, Immigration and Refugee Law and Policy (University Casebook Series, 6th edn, Foundation Press 2014); Susan F Martin, International Migration: Evolving Trends from the Early Twentieth Century to the Present (Cambridge University Press 2012); Thomas Alexander Aleinikoff and others, Immigration and Citizenship: Process and Policy (7th edn, Thomson West 2012).

2 See, eg, Martin Gieger and Antoine Pecoud (eds), The Politics of International Migration Management (Migration, Minorities and Citizenship) (Palgrave Macmillan 2010); Alexander Betts and Gil Loescher (eds), Refugees in International Relations (Oxford University Press 2010); Alexandria Innes, Migration, Citizenship and the Challenge for Security: An Ethnographic Approach (Palgrave Studies in International Relations, Palgrave Macmillan 2015).

3 See, eg, Stephen Castles, Hein de Haas and Mark J Miller, ‘The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World (5th edn, The Guilford Press 2013); Yasemin Nuhoglu Soysal, Limits of Citizenship: Migrants and Postnational Membership in Europe (University of Chicago Press 1995); David Bartram, Key Concepts in Migration (Sage 2014).

4 See, eg, Elizabeth W Collier and Charles R Strain (eds), Religious and Ethical Perspectives on Global Migration (Lexington Books 2014); Joseph Carens, The Ethics of Immigration (Oxford University Press 2015).

5 See, eg, Leila Talani and Simon McMahon, Handbook of International Political Economy of Migration (Edward Elgar 2015); Timothy J Hatton and Jeffrey G Willamson, Global Migration and the World Economy: Two Centuries of Policy and Performance (The MIT Press 2008); Robert EB Lucas, International Migration and Economic Development: Lessons from Low-Income Countries (Edward Elgar 2008).

6 See, eg, Joaquin Arango and others, Worlds in Motion: Understanding International Migration at the End of the Millennium (Oxford University Press 2005).

7 See, eg, Stuart C Carr (ed), The Psychology of Global Mobility (Springer Verlag 2010); Laura Simich and Lisa Andermann, Refuge and Resilience: Promoting Resilience and Mental Health among Resettled Refugees and Forced Migrants (Springer 2014).

8 To some extent, these sources are multi-disciplinary and the categorisation I suggest above is slightly misleading. However, there is a body of scholarship which purports to be a self-proclaimed multi-disciplinary approach: see, eg, Caroline B Brettell and James F Hollifield (eds), Migration Theory: Talking across Disciplines (3rd edn, Routledge 2014). Migration has also been considered by other disciplines such as linguistics, epidemiology, literature and history.

9 Vincent Chetail and Céline Bauloz (eds), Research Handbook on International Law and Migration (Edward Elgar 2014).

10 Catherine Dauvergne, ‘Irregular Migration, State Sovereignty and the Rule of Law’, in Chetail and Bauloz (n 9) 75, 80.

11 ibid 80–81.

12 Council of the European Union, ‘Justice and Home Affairs Council, 14/09/2015’, http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/meetings/jha/2015/09/14.

13 Thomas Gammeltoft-Hansen, ‘Extraterritorial Migration Control and the Reach of Human Rights’, in Chetail and Bauloz (n 9) 113.

14 ibid 130–31. Compare Kritzman-Amir Tally and Spijkerboer Thomas, ‘On the Morality and Legality of Borders’ (2013) 26 Harvard Journal of Human Rights 1.

15 eg, Gammeltoft-Hansen (n 13) 130.

16 Beth Lyon, ‘Detention of Migrants: Harsher Policies, Increasing International Law Protection’, in Chetail and Bauloz (n 9) 173.

17 ibid 175.

18 ibid 178–79.

19 ibid 179–80.

20 ibid 182–83.

21 ibid 183–84.

22 ibid 181–84, 188–89.

23 Stephen H Legomsky, ‘The Removal of Irregular Migrants in Europe and America’, in Chetail and Bauloz (n 9) 148.

24 ibid 168–69.

25 ibid 148–49.

26 Joel P Trachtman, ‘Economic Migration and Mode 4 of GATS’, in Chetail and Bauloz (n 9) 346, 367.

27 UN General Assembly, Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, 28 July 1951, 189 UNTS 137.

28 Hugo Storey, ‘Persecution: Towards a Working Definition’, in Chetail and Bauloz (n 9) 459.

29 ibid 469–78.

30 ibid 515–16.

31 Geoff Gilbert, ‘Exclusion under Article 1F since 2001: Two Steps Backwards, One Step Forward’, in Chetail and Bauloz (n 9) 519, 524.

32 Helen O'Nions, ‘Minority and Cultural Rights of Migrants’, in Chetail and Bauloz (n 9) 239.

33 UN General Assembly, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (entered into force 3 January 1976) 993 UNTS 3.

34 Council of Europe, Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (entered into force 1 February 1998) ETS 157.

35 European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (entered into force 3 September 1953) 213 UNTS 222.

36 Hemme Battjes, ‘Subsidiary Protection and Other Alternative Forms of Protection’, in Chetail and Bauloz (n 9) 541, 549.

37 Wouter Vandenhole, ‘Migration and Discrimination: Non-Discrimination as Guardian against Arbitrariness or Driver of Integration’, in Chetail and Bauloz (n 9) 216, 216–17.

38 ibid 218.

39 David Weissbrodt and Justin Rhodes, ‘United Nations Treaty Bodies and Migrant Workers’, in Chetail and Bauloz (n 9) 303, 308–28.

40 Dauvergne (n 10) 78.

41 ibid 84.

42 ibid 91.

43 Lyon (n 16) 181–93.

44 ibid 182–83.

45 ibid 183–84.

46 Motomura Hiroshi, ‘Federalism, International Human Rights and Immigration Exceptionalism’ (1999) 70 University of Colorado Law Review 1361, Pt III, especially Pt III.B.

47 Jens Vedsted-Hansen, ‘The Asylum Procedures and the Assessment of Asylum Requests’, in Chetail and Bauloz (n 9) 439, 449.

48 ibid 449.

49 ibid 439.

50 ibid 446–47. This is in respect of art 3 ECHR as it applies in the context of asylum procedures.

51 Ryszard Piotrowicz, ‘Smuggling and Trafficking of Human Beings’, in Chetail and Bauloz (n 9) 132.

52 Peter J Spiro, ‘Citizenship, Nationality and Statelessness’, in Chetail and Bauloz (n 9) 281.

53 Hélène Lambert, ‘Family Unity in Migration Law: The Evolution of a More Unified Approach in Europe’, in Chetail and Bauloz (n 9) 194.

54 Weissbrodt and Rhodes (n 39) 303; Lori A Nessel, ‘Human Dignity or State Sovereignty? The Roadblocks to Full Realization of the UN Migrant Workers Convention’, in Chetail and Bauloz (n 9) 329; Trachtman (n 26) 346; Elspeth Guild, ‘Labour Migration and the European Union’, in Chetail and Bauloz, ibid 368.

55 T Alexander Aleinikoff, ‘The Mandate of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees’, in Chetail and Bauloz (n 9) 389; Rebecca MM Wallace, ‘The Principle of Non-Refoulement in International Refugee Law’, in Chetail and Bauloz, ibid 417; Vedsted-Hansen (n 47) 439; Storey (n 28) 459; Gilbert (n 31) 519; Battjes (n 36) 541; Marjoleine Zieck, ‘The Limitations of Voluntary Repatriation and Resettlement of Refugees’, in Chetail and Bauloz, ibid 562.

56 Roberta Cohen, ‘Protection of Internally Displaced Persons: National and International Responsibilities’, in Chetail and Bauloz (n 9) 589; Walter Kälin, ‘The Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement and the Search for a Universal Framework of Protection for Internally Displaced Persons’, in Chetail and Bauloz, ibid 612; Stephane Ojeda, ‘International Humanitarian Law and the Protection of Internally Displaced Persons’, in Chetail and Bauloz, ibid 634; Moetsi Duchatellier and Catherine Phuong, ‘The African Contribution to the Protection of Internally Displaced Persons: A Commentary on the 2009 Kampala Convention’, in Chetail and Bauloz, ibid 650.

57 Cohen (n 56) 593, 596.

58 O'Nions (n 32) 241.

59 Piotrowicz (n 51) 132–42.

60 Dauvergne (n 10) 85.

61 UN General Assembly (entered into force 1 July 2003) UN Doc A/RES/45/158, 2220 UNTS 3.

62 ibid art 2.

63 Weissbrodt and Rhodes (n 39) 303.

64 Aleinikoff (n 55) 389.

65 ibid 396–97.

66 ibid 402–10.

67 Gilbert (n 31) 519.

68 ibid 523.

69 Guild (n 54) 368.

70 O'Nions (n 32) 11, quoting Stephen May, Tariq Modood and Judith Squires (eds), Ethnicity, Nationalism and Minority Rights (Cambridge University Press 2004) 5.

71 Battjes (n 36) 550.

72 ibid 560.

73 Kritzman-Amir Tally, ‘Looking Behind the “Protection Gap”: The Moral Obligation of the State to Necessitous Immigrants’ (2010) 13(1) The University of Pennsylvania Journal of Law and Social Change 47.

74 Tally Kritzman-Amir, ‘Socio-Economic Refugees’, PhD Thesis, Tel Aviv University, 2008.

75 Vincent Chetail, ‘The Transnational Movement of Persons under General International Law: Mapping the Customary Law Foundations of International Migration Law’, in Chetail and Bauloz (n 9) 1, 56.

76 Idil Atak and François Crépeau, ‘National Security, Terrorism and the Securitization of Migration’, in Chetail and Bauloz (n 9) 93, 94–96; see also Gilbert (n 31) 519.

77 Atak and Crépeau, ibid 98.

78 ibid 100–02.

79 Zieck (n 55) 562.

80 ibid 582.

81 Cohen (n 56) 592.

82 ibid.

83 James C Hathaway, The Law of Refugee Status (Butterworths 1991) 1.

84 Karatani Rieko, ‘How History Separated Refugee and Migrant Regimes: In Search of Their Institutional Origins’ (2005) 17 International Journal of Refugee Law 517, 520–21.

85 Lambert (n 53) 195–200.

86 ibid 204–06.

87 Vandenhole (n 37) 216–17.

88 Dauvergne (n 10) 75–92.

89 Weissbrodt and Rhodes (n 39) 311.

90 Nessel (n 54) 345.

91 Weissbrodt and Rhodes (n 39) 303.

92 Cohen (n 56) 590.

93 UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), ‘Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement’, 22 July 1998, UN Doc E/CN.4/1998/53/Add2, Annex.

94 Brookings-Bern Project on Internal Displacement, ‘Addressing Internal Displacement: A Framework for National Responsibility’, April 2005, http://www.brookings.edu/fp/projects/idp/20050401_nrframework.pdf.

95 African Union, Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa (entered into force 6 December 2012) (Kampala Convention).

96 Cohen (n 56) 595–96.

97 Maryellen Fullerton, ‘The International and National Protection of Refugees’, in Hurst Hannum (ed), Guide to International Human Rights Practice (4th edn, Hotei 2004) 247.

98 Roberts Adam, ‘More Refugees, Less Asylum: A Regime in Transformation’ (1998) 11 Journal of Refugee Studies 375–95.

99 ‘Syrian Regional Refugee Response’, http://data.unhcr.org/syrianrefugees/regional.php.

100 eg, Kritzman-Amir Tally, ‘Not in My Backyard: On the Morality of Responsibility Sharing in Refugee Law’ (2009) 34 Brooklyn International Law Journal 355–93.

101 Chetail (n 75) 1, 33–34.

102 Vedsted-Hansen (n 47) 443.

103 UNHCR, ‘ExCom Conclusions on International Protection’, http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49e6e6dd6.html.

104 Vedsted-Hansen (n 47) 443.

105 Art 1 Organization of African Unity (OAU) Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, 10 September 1969, 1001 UNTS 45, reads: ‘1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term “refugee” shall mean every person who, owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country, or who, not having a nationality and being outside the country of his former habitual residence as a result of such events, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to it. 2. The term “refugee” shall also apply to every person who, owing to external aggression, occupation, foreign domination or events seriously disturbing public order in either part or the whole of his country of origin or nationality, is compelled to leave his place of habitual residence in order to seek refuge in another place outside his country of origin or nationality’.

106 Lyon (n 16) 190.

107 Cohen (n 56) 597; Duchatellier and Phuong (n 56) 650.

108 eg, Dauvergne (n 10) 83.

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