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Slavery in Nineteenth Century Egypt

  • Gabriel Baer
Extract

In nineteenth-century Egypt Circassian females were mostly kept in the harems of wealthy Turks, the concubines of ‘middle class’ Egyptians generally were Abyssinians, while male and female Negro slaves were used for domestic service by almost all layers of Egyptian society. In addition to domestic service, black slaves were used as soldiers by Egypt's rulers and, contrary to the prevalent assumption, as agricultural workers on the farms of the Muḥammad Alī family and elsewhere in Upper Egypt and during periods of prosperity and shortage of labour also in Lower Egypt. Apparently there were at least 30,000 slaves in Egypt at different times of the nineteenth century, and probably many more.

White slaves were brought to Egypt from the eastern coast of the Black Sea and from the Circassian settlements of Anatolia via Istanbul. Brown and black slaves were brought (a) from Darfur to Asyūṭ, directly or through Kordofan; (b) from Sennar to Isnā; (c) from the area of the White Nile; (d) from Bornu and Wadāy via Libya and the Western Desert; (e) from Abyssinia and the East African coast through the Red Sea. The slave dealers in Egypt were mainly people from Upper Egypt and the Oases, beduin and villagers of the Buḥayra province. They were divided into dealers in black and in white slaves and organized in a guild with a shaykh. Cairo was the great depot of slaves and the centre of the trade, but a very important occasion for trading in slaves was the annual mawlid of Ṭanṭā.

Official measures taken against the slave-trade were among the important causes for the final disappearance of slavery in Egypt. These were, amongst others, the appointment of foreigners, mainly British, as governors of the Sudan and commanders of special missions to suppress the trade; two Anglo-Egyptian conventions, of 1877 and of 1895, for the suppression of slavery; and, from 1877 on, the establishment of offices and later a special service for the fight against the trade and for the manumission of slaves. However, were it not for the internal development of Egyptian society, these measures could never have succeeded; this is illustrated by the tremendous obstacles they encountered and their ineffectiveness for a long time. During the last two decades of the nineteenth century most of these impediments vanished. In addition to the Mahdist revolution and the reconquest of the Sudan, the most important change was the emergence of a free labour market as a result of accelerated urbanization and the collapse of the guild system. At the same time a small but important section of Egyptians had changed their attitudes towards slavery as a result of their cultural contact with Europe.

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1 Bowring, John, Report on Egypt and Candia (London, 1840), 9;Hekekyan Papers, vol. 5, British Museum, MS., Add. 37452, f. 10b (written on 26 Feb. 1851); Bruce to Clarendon, Cairo, 13 Aug. 1854, Public Record Office, P.O. 78/1036;von Kremer, Alfred, Aegypten, II (Leipzig, 1863), 86–7.

2 Bowring, 9; Mengin, F., Histoire sommaire de l'Egypte sous le gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly (Paris, 1839), 157.

3 Cf.Bowring, op. cit.;Mengin, op. cit.;Lane, E. W., The Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians (1836), (London, Everyman's Library, 1944), 136–7.

4 Bruce to Clarendon, Cairo, a Aug. 1854, P.R.O., F.O. 78/1036. See also Hekekyan Papers, vol., Add. 37452, f. 10b.

5 'Muba¯rak, Alī Pasha, al-Khita al-tawfīqiyya al-jadīda, XVII (Cairo-Būla¯q, 18861889), 4; Borg to Stanton, Cairo, zo May 1872, F.O. 141/78, part 2.

6 Cf. McCoan, J. C., Egypt as It Is (London, 1877), 318.

7 Further Correspondence Respecting Reorganization in Egypt, Egypt no. 6 (1883), C. 3529, p. 91.

8 Report by Henry Salt, Alexandria, 12 Aug. 1826, F.O. 78/147; Report by John Barker, Alexandria, 17 May 1828, Barker to Vice-Admiral Codringion, Alexandria, 24 May 1828, and Barker to Vice-Admiral Malcolm, Alexandria, 21 Nov. 1828, F.O. 78/170.

9 Report by Henry Salt, Alexandria, 12 Aug. 1826, F.O. 78/147; Barker to Malcolm, Alexandria, 31 Oct. 1828, F.O. 78/170; Amīn Sa¯mī, Taqwīm al-Nīl, part 2 (Cairo, 1928), 337, 344.

10 Bowring, 9; Mengin, 157.

11 Cf. Lane, 191; McCoan, 319.

12 Tugay, Emine F., Three Centuries: Family Chronicles of Turkey and Egypt (London, 1963), 191, 179, and passim.

13 Vivian to Derby, Cairo, 14 Apr. 1877, F.O. 84/1472.

14 Muba¯rak, xvii, 4.

15 Cf. Wallace, D. Mackenzie, Egypt and the Egyptian Question (London, 1883), 269 ff.

16 Tugay, 193; see also, for instance, John, J. A. St, Egypt and Nubia (London, 1845), 240.

17 McCoan, 318, and see examples in Tugay, 184, 202, 305, etc.

18 McCoan, 319–20; see also Lapanouse, H. J., ‘Mémoire sur les caravanes venant du royaume de Sennâar…’, Mémoires sur l'Egypte, IV (Paris, An xi), 97.

19 Lane, 190. It is interesting to note that ten Abyssinian girls bought in the Cairo slave market made up the first batch of girl students at Mubammad 'Alī's madrasat alwila¯da (school of midwifery) established in the early 1830s—since it was not possible, for some time, to get Egyptian girls or women to enter this school of their own free will. See Heyworth-Dunne, J., An Introduction to the History of Education in Modern Egypt (London, n.d.), 132; Sa¯mī, part 2, 479.

20 For a detailed discussion of this phenomenon see Lane, 200.

21 Lane, 193;McCoan, 320.

22 Lane, 137; Bruce to Clarendon, Cairo, 17 Jan. 1855, F.O. 84/974. There were 150 eunuchs in Qasr al-';A¯lī alone—see Tugay, 191.

23 Frank, Louis, ‘Mémoire sur le commerce des Nègres au Caire…’, Mémoires sur l'Egypte, IV, 132ff.;Girard, P. S., ‘Mémoire sur l'agriculture, l'industrie et le commerce de l'Egypte’, Description de l'Egypte, Etat Moderne, II (Paris, 1812), 632;Muba¯rak, XI, 70–1;McCoan, 327.

24 See, for instance, ‘List of slaves freed by Thos. F. Reade’, in ‘Memorandum by Consul Reade on slave trade in Egypt’, London, 13 Aug. 1868, F.O. 84/1290.

25 See, for instance, McCoan, 315 ff.;Tugay, 303 ff., and many others.

26 See, for instance, Hill, R., Egypt in the Sudan 1820–1881 (London, 1959), 24 ff., 46–8, 62–4, etc.

27 Mengin, 159;Bowring, 10.

28 ‘Memorandum by Mr Petherick’, Dec. 1860, and ‘Report of Dr J. Natterer… dated 5 April 1860’, end, in Colquhoun to Russell, Alexandria, 29 May 1860, F.O. 84/1120; Colquhoun to Russell, Alexandria, I July and 17 Aug. 1863, F.O. 84/2204; Petherick to Colquhoun, Cairo, 17 Mar. 1865, F.O. 141/57.

29 Petherick to Colquhoun, Ibid.; Reade to Stanley, Alexandria, 9 Aug. 1867, F.O.141/63; Vivian to Derby, Cairo, 8 Dec. 1876, F.O. 84/1450.

30 Omar Bey to Reade, Cairo, 28 May 1868, F.O. 84/1290;Rogers to Stanton, Cairo, 23 Apr. 1872, F.O. 141/78, part 2;Harding to Stanton, Mansura, 30 May 1873, and Consular Agent at Mansura to Vivian, 23 June and 22 July 1873, F.O. 141/82;‘Statement by Said el Soudani’, encl, in Borg to Governor of Cairo, 18 Apr. 1878, F.O. 141/119; etc.

31 Campbell to Palmerston, Cairo, 15 Mar. 1839, F.O. 78/373;Barnett to Aberdeen, Alexandria, 27 Apr. 1842, F.O. 78/502 (also 84/426);‘Memorandum by Mr Petherick’, loc. cit.;Vivian to Derby, Cairo, 8 Dec. 1876, F.O. 84/1450.

32 De Chabrol, , ‘Essai sur les mceurs des habitants modernes de l'Egypte’, Description de l'Egypte, Etat moderne, II, part 2 (Paris, 1812), 482.

33 Bowring, 16, 89.

34 Hekekyan Papers, vol. 3, B.M., Add. 37450, f. 224 (written in Jan. 1847); Rogers to Clarendon, Cairo, 24 Nov. 3869, F.O. 84/1305.

35 Hekekyan Papers, vol. 2, B.M,, Add. ff. 469–70 (written on 33 Sept. 1844); Muba¯rak, XVII, 23.

36 Further Correspondence Respecting the Finances and Conditions of Egypt, Egypt no. 4 (1889) C. 5718, p. 44. Cf. della Sala to Riaz, Cairo, 12 September 1880, F.O. 141/140.

37 Correspondence Respecting Slavery in Egypt, Africa no. 4 (1887), C. 4994, pp. 9–32.

38 Rogers to Vivian, Cairo 3 Sept. 1873, F.O. 343/82; ‘Confidential memorandum on slave dealing in Alexandria’ (signed Ali Hassan), Alexandria, 2 and 6 June 1873, F.O. 341/84 (also 84/1371).

39 Reade to Stanley, Alexandria, 9 Aug. 1867, F.O. 141/63.

40 Report by Henry Salt, Alexandria, 32 July 1827, F.O. 78/160; Barker to Stratford Canning, Alexandria, II Oct. 1828, F.O. 78/170.

41 West to Vivian, Suez, 28 July 1873, F.O. 141 82.

42 Francis to Clarendon, Constantinople, 28 Sept. 1869, F.O. 84/1305. For other examples of agricultural work in Muslim countries done by slaves (Khiwa, Zanzibar and Beduin Arabia) see Brunschvig, R., ‘Abd’, Encyclopedia of Islam, new edition, I, 36.In Mecca, slaves were used at that time as builders—see Hurgronje, C. Snouck, Mekka in the Latter Part of the 19th century (Leyden and London, 1931), II.

43 McCoan, 317.

44 Muba¯rak, VIII, 82; IX, 39; XIV, 38; etc.

45 Bowring, 9; Hekekyan Papers, vol. 3, f. 329b;Muba¯rak, VIII, 82; IX, 39; XIV, 38; XVII, 4, 23;Calvert to Reade, Alexandria, 2 July 1867, F.O. 141/62;Rogers to Stanton, Cairo, 22 Feb. 1872, F.O. 141/78, part I;Atkin to Stanton, Mansura, 12 May 1873, and West to Vivian, Suez, 5 Aug. 1873, F.O. 343/82;Borg to Vivian, Cairo, I July 1878, F.O. 141/120; and in particular ‘List of slaves…’, in ‘Memorandum by Consul Reade’ loc. cit. Thus with regard to Egypt, at least, it seems to be inaccurate to claim that ‘ownership of slaves tended to be a prerogative, if not a privilege, of the wealthy élite’ (Van Nieuwenhuijze, C.A.O., Social Stratification and the Middle East (Leiden, 1965), p. 33).

46 Chabrol, 374; Pezzoni to Nesselrode, Alexandria, 24 May 1828, in Cattaui, R., Le règne de Mohammed Aly d'après les archives russes en Egypte, I (Cairo, 1931), 236.

47 Chabrol, op. cit.; Cattaui, 230–6;Lane, 104;Muba¯rak, XIV, 53;McCoan, 326–7;‘List of Slaves ‘in’ ‘Memorandum by Consul Reade’, loc. cit.;Reade to Stanley, Alexandria, 9 Aug. 1867, F.O. 141/63;Gilbert to Palmerston, Alexandria, 7 Nov. 1848, F.O. 84/737;Vivian to Derby, Alexandria, 30 June 1877, F.O. 84/1472;Clot-Bey, A. B., Aperçu général sur l'Egypte (Paris, 1840), I, 274 ff.;Senior, N. W., Conversations and Journals in Egypt and Malta (London, 1882), I, 207.

48 Mengin, 157–9;Bowring, 9–10;Col. Campbell, ‘Report on Egypt’, 6 July 1840, F.O. 78/408B.

49 Bey, M. J. Colucci, ‘Quelques notes sur le cholera qui sévit au Caire en 1850 Ct 1855’, Mémires… présentées… à l'Institut Egyptien, I (Paris, 1862), 607.

50 Further Correspondence Respecting Reorganization in Egypt, Egypt no. 6 (1883), C. 3529, p. 9’; Further Correspondence Respecting the Finances and Condition of Egypt, Egypt no. 4 (1889), C. 5718, 44.

51 Pisani to Elliot, 14 Sept. 1869, end, in Elliot to Clarendon, Constantinople, 54 Sept. 1869;Taylor to Clarendon, Erzeroom, 20 Sept. 1869;Palgrave to Clarendon, Trebizond, 25 Sept. 1869;Francis to Clarendon, Constantinople, 28 Sept. 1869;Elliot to Clarendon, 27 Oct. 1869;Rogers to Clarendon, Cairo, 24 Nov. 1869, F.O. 84/1305;Palgrave to Clarendon, Trebizond, 6 July 1870, F.O. 84/5324;Bowring, 9;McCoan, 318;White, Ch., Three Years in Constantinople (London, 1845), II, 286, 309; and see especially Tugay, 178–9, for the story of her grandmother Neshedil.

52 Lapanouse, M. J., ‘Mémoire sur les caravanes qui arrivent du royaume de Dârfurth…’, Mémoires sur l'Egypte, IV, 81–2;Girard in Description de l'Egypte, Etat Moderne, II, 630–2;Muba¯rak, XVII, 32.

53 Gray, R., A History of the Southern Sudan, 1839–1889 (London, 1961), 66–9;‘Memorandum by Mr Petherick’, Dec. 1860, F.O. 84/1120;Stanton to Clarendon, Alexandria, 9 May 1866, F.O. 84/1260. For alternative routes from Kordofan to Egypt see Borg to Vivian, Cairo, 23 Aug. 1878, F.O. 141/121.

54 Girard, 636–7;Lapanouse, M. J., 96–8, i 116 ff.;L. Frank, 138.

55 Gray, 44–5 ‘Memorandum by Mr Petherick’, F.O. 84/1120.

56 Gray, 5, 149–50;Colquhoun to Cherif Pasha, Alexandria, 4 June 1862, F.O. 84/1181;Petherick to Coiquhoun, Cairo, 17 Mar. 1865, F.O. 141/57;‘Abstract of Sir Samuel Baker's Report to the Viceroy’, end, in Vivian to Granville, Alexandria, 6 Sept. 1873, F.O. 84/1371. However, in Gray's view, ‘the impression given (by Baker) to those who directed policy both in Egypt and Europe was that the misery of the situation on the White Nile was solely due to the operations of the slave trade, with the result that their subsequent efforts to suppress it led them to overlook the more serious sources of this trade elsewhere and to ignore the fundamental factors which were creating the disaster on the White Nile’. See Gray, 84, and passim.

57 Frank, 535;Stanton to Derby, Alexandria, 3 Sept. 1874, F.O. 84/1397;Henderson to Derby, Benghazi, 24 Dec. 1875, F.O. 84/1412;Cookson to Malet, Alexandria, 17 May 1880, F.O. 141/138;Smith, Robertson to Malet, Alexandria, 22 Apr. 1880, F.O. 141/140.Cf. Muba¯rak, XII, 112; XV, 5.

58 Frank, 138;Circular of Ragheb Pasha, 9 Jan. 1865;West to Colquhoun, Suez, 10 May 1865;Stanton to Russell, Alexandria, 26 Sept. 1865, F.O. 84/1246;‘Report on the slave trade… in the consular district of Jedda’, Raby to Clarendon, Jidda, 10 Dec. 1869, F.O. 84/1305;West to Vivian, Suez, 5 Aug. 1873, F.O. 141/82 (also 84/1371).Cf. Pankhurst, R., ‘The Ethiopian slave trade in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries: a statistical inquiry’, Journal of Semitic Studies, IV, no. I (Spring, 1964), 225.

59 Lapanouse, 81, 98;Girard in Description de l'Egypte, Etat Moderne, II, 632, 637.

60 Frank, 136. According to this author the reason for contradictory information on this subject was that the registers were burnt every year by the Coptic scribes or the proprietors of the waka¯la (see below).

61 Bowring, 9, and Bowring to Palmerston, off Tripoli (Syria), 7 Apr. 1838, F.O. 78/345.

62 Kremer, II, 86 (decline from 5,000 in 1847 to no more than 1,000 in the late 1850s); ‘Memorandum on the slave trade…by Mr Coulthard’, encl, in Colquhoun to Russell, Alexandria, 8 June 1860, F.O. 84/1120 (3,000–4,000 in the late 1850s).

63 Stanton to Clarendon, Alexandria, 9 May 1866, F.O. 84/1260;Reade to Stanley, Alexandria, 9 Aug. 1867, F.O. 141/63.

64 ‘Report on the slave trade…’, Raby to Clarendon, Jidda, 10 Dec. 1869, F.O. 84/8305;Borg to Vivian, Cairo, 23 Aug. 1878, F.O. 141/121;Cookson to Malet, Alexandria, 17 May 1880, F.O. 141/138.

65 White, II, 285–6;Girard, 649.

66 F.O. 141/70 (1869); 141/72 (1870); 141/75, part I (1871); 141/8, part z and 141/79 (1872); 141/90 (1874), passim. See also Elliot to Clarendon, Constantinople, 10 June 1869, F.O. 84/1305.

67 F.O. 84/1305, passim; F.O. 84/1324, passim; Stanley to Granville, Alexandria, 10 Sept. 1872, F.O. 84/1354. F.O. 84/1371, passim.

68 Cf. Frank, 145;Lane, 190 (decline by 50 per cent in the course of a few years);Sakakini to Malet, Alexandria, 14 June 1880, F.O. 141/140 (fluctuations of 12–18 per cent from one year to another).

69 For figures see, in addition to sources mentioned in the previous note, Girard, 632, 637;Lapanouse, 98;Lane, 191–2;Bowring, 89;McCoan, 327;‘Confidential memorandum on slave dealing in Alexandria’, F.O. 141/84.

70 Bu tayife esmerül-levin Elvahîn ve Asvanî ve ibrim vilayetinden âdemlerdir;Evliya Çelebi Seyahetnamesi, Mīsīr, Sudan, Habesh (1672–1680), x, (Istanbul, 1938), 382.

71 Our principal source for establishing the identity of slave-dealers were their trials as published in Majrnūat al-qara¯ra¯t wa'l-manshūara¯t, Cairo-Būla¯q, 18761880, p. 94; 1881, p. 93; 1886, p. 713; 1887, pp. 24–5, 52, 101–2, 320, 335, 554, 557, 583, 638, 670, 857; 1888, pp. 23, 30–1, 120; 1889, pp. 183, 467; 1890, pp. 265, 548; 1891, pp. 672, 932; 1892, pp. 4, 132, 273, 407, 602; 1893, pp. 178, 430; 1894, p. 78. For beduin, see also Hogg to Malet, Minya, 6 May 1880, F.O. 141/140; and for women, Reade to Cherif Pacha, Alexandria, 8 Aug. 1867, F.O. 84/1277.

72 Della Sala to Riaz Pacha, Cairo, 12 Sept. 1880, F.O. 141/140. See also Mubarak, XI, 2, mentioning the slave-trade as one of the major occupations of the people of Dara¯w.

73 Stanton to Granville, Alexandria, 19 Aug. 1872, F.O. 84/1354.

74 Borg to Lascelles, Cairo, 8 Sept. 1879, F.O. 141/129; ‘Confidential memorandum on slave dealing in Alexandria’, F.O. 141/84.

75 Further Correspondence Respecting the Finances and Condition of Egypt, Egypt no. 4 (1889), C. 5718, pp. 40, 44; Correspondence Respecting Slavery in Egypt, Africa no. 4 (1887), C. 4994, p. 7.

76 Cf.Amin, Abmad, Qa¯mūs al-'a¯da¯t wa'l-taqa¯līd wa'l-ta'a¯bīr al-misriyya (Cairo, 1953), 214.

77 Evliya Çelebi, 382, 376;cf. Baer, G., Egyptian Guilds in Modern Times (Jerusalem, 1964), 35.

78 Reade to Cherif Pacha, Alexandria, 8 Aug. 1867, F.O. 84/1277.

79 Ibid..; ‘Confidential memorandum on slave dealing in Alexandria’, F.O. 141/84.

80 ‘Memorandum by Mr Petherick’, Dec. 1860, and ‘Report of Dr Natterer’, 5 Apr. 1860, encl, in Colquhoun to Russell, Alexandria, 29 May 1860, F.O. 84/1120; Gray, 52.

81 Reade to Cherif Pacha, 8 Aug. 8867, F.O. 84/1277;Borg to Vivian, Cairo, 19 Apr. 1878, and ‘Statement by Saîd el Soudani’ in Borg to Governor of Cairo, 18 Apr. 1878, F.O. 141/119;Sami Ibraheem to Borg, I May 1878, end, in Borg to Vivian, Cairo, 2 May 1878, F.O. 141/120. Cf. Baer, passim.

82 Reade to Cherif Pacha, 8 Aug. 1867, F.O. 84/1277;Cherif Pacha to Reade, Alexandria, 18 Aug. 1867, F.O. 84/1277.

83 ‘Report of Dr Natterer’ in Coiquhoun to Russell, 29 May 1860, F.O. 84/1120;Gray, 52.

84 Frank in Mémoires sur l'Egypte, IV, 135.

85 Girard in Description de l'Egypte, II, 634.

86 Sa¯mī, II, 286.

87 Ibid.. 518.

88 Reade to Cherif Pacha, Alexandria, 8 Aug. 1867, F.O. 84/1277;cf. Muba¯rak, III, 41.

89 ‘Confidential memorandum on slave dealing in Alexandria’, F.O. 141/84. See also de Vaujany, H., Alexandrie et la Basse Egypte (Paris, 1885), 160.

90 Vaujany, Ibid..; ‘Confidential memorandum on slave dealing in Alexandria’, F.O. 141/84.

91 Reade to Stanley, Alexandria, 9 Aug. 1867, F.O. 141/63.The slaves who were not sold at the mawlid of Tanta¯ were taken to Disūq in the Northern Delta, where the mawlid of the Saint Ibra¯him al-Disūql was held one week after that of al-Badawl in Tanta¯. See, for instance, Carr to Rogers, Kafr al-Zayya¯t, 20 Aug. 1871, F.O. 84/1341; Carr to Wallis, Kafr al-Zayya¯t, 23 Apr. 1877, F.O. 141/110.

92 Bamett to Aberdeen, Alexandria, 12 July 1842, F.O. 84/426, and I Aug. 2843, F.O. 84/486.

93 For Turkish text and English translation of the order dated Dec. 1854, see F.O. 141/28.See also Hill, 102, n. I, for another reference. Cf. Bruce to Clarendon, Cairo, 17 Jan. F.O. 84/974. At that time, the Ottoman Sultan Abdülmecid had prohibited trade in white slaves only (October 1854). See Brunschvig, 37.

94 Hill, 102.

95 For French translation of the text see Nahoum, Haim Eff. (ed.), Recueil de firmans impériaux ottomans adressés aux valis et aux khédives d'Egypte (Cairo, 1934), 268–70. Cf. Brunschvig, 37.

96 Sa¯mī, part 3, vol. I, p. 299.

97 Hill, 102.

98 Cf.Kremer, II, 84–6;Gray, 73–8;Petherick to Colquhoun, Cairo, 17 Mar. 1865, F.O. 141/57.

99 For background and implications in the Sudan see Gray, 166 ff. The British and specific Sudanese aspects of the campaign against the slave-trade are beyond the scope of this paper.

100 McCoan, 321;Sir Bulwer, Henry (British ambassador in Istanbul) to Stanley (British consul in Alexandria), Alexandria, 21 Mar. 1865, F.O. 141/57.

101 See, for instance, West to Stanton, Suez, 29 Jan. and 3 Mar. 1866, F.O. 141/59;Rogers to Vivian, Cairo, 2 Aug. 1873, F.O. 141/82 (relating Consul Reade's activities in 1867).

102 Egerton to Reade, 28 Aug. 1868, F.O. 84/1290 and 141/84. McCoan's claim (p. 321) that the Consular agent at Manura ‘emancipated’ no fewer than 1,700 slaves in a single month in 1873 is not accurate. His report reads as follows: ‘From the 13th July last I have sent to the Moudirieh (seat of the governor) 1,717 slaves… All received letters, with the exception of the last 249’. Harding to Vivian, Mansoura, 25 Aug. 1873, F.O. 141/82.

103 See Vivian to Derby, Cairo, 8 Dec. 1876, F.O. 84/1450, and 13 Jan. 1877, F.O. 84/1472.

104 ‘Directeur Général du service de l'abolition de Ia Traite dans la Mer Rouge et sur les côtes qui relèvent de notrejuridiction’.See end, in Cherif to Vivian, Cairo, 9 Jan. 1878, F.O. 141/119.See also Vivian to Derby, Cairo, 2 Mar. 2877, F.O. 84/1472, and 8 Jan. 1878, F.O. 84/1511.

105 F.O. 84/1511, passim. According to Lord Dufferin, ‘the Red Sea Service was suppressed after it had failed’. See Further Correspondence Respecting Reorganization in Egypt, Egypt no. 6 (1883), C. 3529 (Dufferin Report), p. 71.

106 See Stanton to Granville, Cairo, ao Dec. 1872, F.O. 84/1354.

107 Stanton to Derby, Alexandria, 9 Sept. 1874, F.O. 84/1397.

108 For English and French text see Blue Book, Egypt no. I (1878). Arabic text in Sa¯mI, part 3, vol. 3, pp. 1485–7.

109 For Arabic text see Sa¯mī, part 3, vol. 3, pp. 1488–91. Both the Convention and the Regulations are recorded by Sa¯mī under the heading ‘24 Juma¯da¯ al-ūla¯ 1294’, i.e. 6 June 1877, which must be an error. The Regulations themselves are not dated in Sa¯mī's text. According to another source they were dated ‘7 Shawwa¯l 1294/14 October 1877’. See Borg to Malet, Cairo, I Mar. 1880, F.O. 141/138.

110 Vivian to Derby, Cairo, 9 Oct. 1877, F.O. 84/1473; Borg to Vivian, Cairo, 13 Dec. 1877, F.O. 141/112, and 2 May 1878, F.O. 141/120.

111 Majm¯ at al-qara¯ra¯t (1880), 98–9; Sir Malet, Edward, Egypt, 1879–1883 (London, 1909), 63.

112 Della Sala to Malet, Cairo, 26 Oct. 1880, F.O. 141/140; della Sala to Riaz, Cairo, 21 Mar. 1881, F.O. 141/151.

113 Cf. della Sala to Malet, Assiout, 8 Nov. 1880, F.O. 141/140; Dufferin Report, 71.

114 See, for instance, Majmū' at al-qara¯ra¯t (1880), 109, 126–9.

115 Report on the Administration and Condition of Egypt and the Progress of Reforms, Egypt no. 3 (1891), C. 6321, p. 36.

116 Ph.Gelat, , Répertoire de la législation et de l'administration égyptienne, zènle période, I, (Alexandria, 1893), 588 (Minister of the Interior, Circular of 21 July 1888).

117 For sources see notes 37 and 50 above; Borg to Vivian, Cairo, 23 Aug. 1878, F.O. 141/121;Borg to Lascelles, Cairo, 8 Sept. 1879, F.O. 141/129.

118 For text see Treaty Series, no. 6 (1896), C. 8011. French text also in Gelat, 3ème période, 1894–6, I (Alexandria, 1897), 584–90, and in Gouvernement Egvptien, Ministère de l'Intérieur,Législation administrative et criminelle, 3ème edition, II (Cairo, 1914), 179–186.

119 Ibid.. 186–9.

120 Ibid.. I (Cairo, 1912), 464–7.

121 For trials in the late 1880s and the early 1890s see sources mentioned in note 71. For the late 1890s see, for instance, Sir Scott, John, ‘L'abolition de l'esclavage en Egypte’, Revue de l'Islam, VI (Paris, 1901), 92.

122 For a concise treatment of this matter see Holt, P. M., A Modern History of the Sudan (London, 1961), 6470. For details see especially Gray, passim.

123 Gordon to Consul General, Cairo (telegram), Khartoum, 28 July 1879, F.O. 141/131.

124 See Colquhoun to Russell, Alexandria, 17 Aug. 1863, F.O. 84/1204;Stanton to Clarendon, Alexandria, 4 May 1866, F.O. 84/1260;Reade to Stanley, Alexandria, 9 Aug. 1867, F.O. 141/63;Borg to Vivian, Cairo, 1 July 1878, F.O. 141/220;Borg to Lascellcs, Cairo, 8 Sept. 1879, F.O. 141/129;Cookson to Malet, Alexandria, 17 May 1880, F.O. 141/138;della Sala to Riaz, Cairo, 12 Sept. 1880, F.O. 241/140.

125 Reade to Stanley, Alexandria, 25 Aug. 1867, F.O. 84/1277.

126 Borg to Malet, Cairo, 8 May 1880, F.O. 141/138; Hogg to Malet, Assiout, 3 May 1880, F.O. 141/140.

127 Hogg to Malet, ibid., and 6 April 1881, F.O. 141/151; Circular of Riaz to governors, Cairo, 29 Feb. 1880, F.O. 141/139.

128 Della Sala to Malet, Cairo, 26 Oct. 1880, F.O. 141/140;West to Malet, Suez, II Jan. 1881, reprinted in Malet, 94.

129 Cf. Rogers to Vivian, Cairo, 2 Aug. 1873, F.O. 141/82;de Malortie, Baron, Native Rulers and Foreign Interference (London, 1882), 116.

130 Cf. Borg to Vivian, Cairo, 65 Aug. 1878, F.O. 141/121;Borg to Lascelles, Cairo, 8 Sept. 1879, F.O. 141/129;della Sala to Malet, Cairo, 26 Oct. 1880, F.O. 141/140.

131 Cf. Borg to Cookson, Cairo, 21 Oct. 1877, F.O. 141/112. For the concepts of satara and kashafa see, for instance, Berger, M., The Arab World Today (New York, 1962), 163–5.

132 Cf. Borg to Vivian, Cairo, 26 Sept. 1877, F.O. 141/112.

133 Cf. Cherif to Stanton, Cairo, 2 Jan. 1866, and West to Stanton, Suez, 10 Jan. 1866, F.O. 141/59;Calvert to Reade, Alexandria, Oct. 1867, F.O. 141/62;Atkin to Stanton, Mansoura, 12 May 1873;Consular Agent, Mansoura, to Vivian, 20 June 1873;West to Vivian, Suez, 5 Aug. 1873, F.O. 141/82.

134 Stanley to Stanton, Alexandria, 16 Jan. 1867, F.O. 141/62; encl, in Rogers to Stanton, Cairo, 22 Feb. 1872, F.O. 141/78, Pt. I.

135 Sa¯mī, part 3, vol. 3 p. 1489.

136 See della Sala to Riaz, Cairo, 21 Mar. 1881, F.O. 141/151.

137 ‘Analysis of the slave trade convention of the 4th of August 1877’,Zohrab to Malet, Cairo, 22 Jan. 1880, F.O. 141/138.

138 Della Sala to Malet, Cairo, 26 Oct. 1880, F.O. 141/140.

139 Majmū‘at al-awa¯mir al’aliyya wa'l-dakrīta¯t (Cairo, 1887), 58–9. Cf. Baring to Salisbury, Cairo, 12 Feb. 1887, Africa no. 4 (1887), C. 4994, p. 7.

140 Borg to Vivian, Cairo, 3 Feb. 1879, F.O. 141/128;Borg to Lascelles, Cairo, 8 Sept. 1879, F.O. 141/129;della Sala to Malet, Cairo, 26 Oct. 1880, F.O. 141/140;cf. de Guerville, A. B., New Egypt (London, 1905), 139.

141 For a description of this Home, see Lamba, H., ‘L'esclavage en Egypte’, Revue de l'Islam, VI (1901), 6975. For Egyptian government contributions see Annexe B and C of the 1895 Convention, Législat ion adminutrative et criminelle, II, 183.

142 Reade to Stanton, Cairo, 28 May 1868, F.O. 141/65;‘Memorandum by Consul Reade on slave trade in Egypt’, London, 13 Aug. 1868, F.O. 84/1290;Rogers to Clarendon, 24 Nov. 1869, F.O. 84/1305;Rogers to Stanton, Cairo, 23 Apr. 1872, F.O. 141/78, pt. 2.

143 Vivian to Derby, Cairo, 14 Apr. 1877, F.O. 84/1472.

144 Borg to Vivian, Cairo, 2 May 1878, F.O. 240/120;see also Borg to Vivian, Cairo, 23 Aug. 1878, F.O. 141/121.

145 Felice to Borg, Zagazig, I Mar. 1882, F.O. 141/160.

146 Cf. Holt, 121–2, 148.

147 Cf. Baer, G., ‘Urbanization in Egypt, 1820–1907’, paper submitted to the Conference on the Beginnings of Modernization in the Middle East, Chicago, Oct. 1966.

148 Baer, Egyptian Guilds, 145–6, and passim.

149 Baring to Salisbury, Cairo, 12 Feb. 1887, Africa no. 4 (1887), C. 4994, p. 7; Report on the Finances, Administration, and Conditions of Egypt, and the Progress of Reforms, Egypt no. I (1896), C. 7978, pp. 22–4.

150 Report on the Administration and Conditions of Egypt, and the Progress of Reforms, 29 Mar. 1891, Egypt no. 3 (1891), C. 6321, p. 36,cf. Steckner, H., Beim Fellah und Khedive (Halle, a.S., 1892), 177–8.

151 Cf. Baer, G., A History of Landownership in modern Egypt, 1800–1950 (London, 1962), 2838.

152 Chefik, Ahmed, L'esclavage au point de vue musulman (Cairo, 1891); translated Arabic by Abmad Zakī under the title Al-riqq fl'l-Isla¯m (Cairo, 1892): references below are to the Arabic translation. The book was written in an apologetic vein as a reply prominent members of the Catholic Church who had accused Islam and the Arabs for part in African slavery and the slave trade.

153 Shafiq, Al-riqq fi'l-Isla¯m, 67 ff., 85–92.

154 Ibid.. 94. This later became the accepted view of the Islamic Modernists. See, instance, Rashīd Rida¯, Tafsīr al-Mana¯r, Xl, 2nd ed. (Cairo, 2953), 288–9.

155 Shafīq, 95-6, 101. For a similar opinion expressed by the Egyptian paper al-Mu'ayyad see Ibid., appendix, 124.

156 Cf. Landau, J. M., Parliaments and Parties in Egypt (Tel-Aviv, 46–9.

157 See Egypt no. I (1896), C. 7978, pp. 22–4.

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