Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684899dbb8-p6h7k Total loading time: 0.329 Render date: 2022-05-20T23:15:20.765Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

Genetic improvements in winter wheat yields since 1900 and associated physiological changes

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 March 2009

R. B. Austin
Affiliation:
Plant Breeding Institute, Trumpington, Cambridge
J. Bingham
Affiliation:
Plant Breeding Institute, Trumpington, Cambridge
R. D. Blackwell
Affiliation:
Plant Breeding Institute, Trumpington, Cambridge
L. T. Evans
Affiliation:
Plant Breeding Institute, Trumpington, Cambridge
M. A. Ford
Affiliation:
Plant Breeding Institute, Trumpington, Cambridge
C. L. Morgan
Affiliation:
Plant Breeding Institute, Trumpington, Cambridge
M. Taylor
Affiliation:
Plant Breeding Institute, Trumpington, Cambridge

Summary

Experiments were carried out to assess the increase in yield potential of winter wheat in the U.K. due to variety improvement since the early years of this century. The effects of other genetic changes were minimized by applying fungicide to control eyespot and foliar diseases, and by using nets to prevent lodging. The experiments were carried out in 1978 at Cambridge. One, on soil of high fertility in Camp Field, received 104 kg N/ha and the other, on soil of lower fertility in Paternoster Field, received 38 kg N/ha. Twelve genotypes were tested. Eight were varieties which formed a chronological series beginning with Little Joss, introduced in 1908. The remaining genotypes were recently developed selections from the Plant Breeding Institute and a line bred by the French breeders, Benoist.

The average yield of the 12 varieties and lines tested was 3·96 t/ha in Paternoster Field and 6·40 t/ha in Camp Field. In both fields the two highest yielding entries, Hobbit and the advanced breeding line 989/10, outyielded Little Joss by close to 40%. Benoist 10483 was the only entry for which the percentage yield advantage depended on high soil fertility.

The newer, high yielding, varieties were shorter and reached anthesis earlier than the older varieties. They had lower stem weights/m2 than the older varieties but similar maximum leaf area indices and leaf weights/m2. Within each experiment the total dry-matter production of the varieties was similar, the increase in grain yield due to variety improvement being associated mainly with greater harvest index (ratio of grain yield to grain + straw yield).

It is argued that by a continuation of the trend towards reduced stem length, with no change in above-ground biomass, breeders may be able to increase harvest index, from the present value of about 50% to about 60%, achieving a genetic gain in yield of some 25%. As the limit to harvest index is approached, genetic gain in yield will depend on detecting and exploiting genetic variation in biomass production.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1980

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Anon. (1979). Recommended varieties of cereals. National Institute of Agricultural Botany, Farmers Leaflet No. 8.Google Scholar
Austin, R. B. (1978). Actual and potential yields of wheat and barley in the United Kingdom. ADAS Quarterly Review 29, 7687.Google Scholar
Austin, R. B. & Blackwell, R. D. (1980). Edge and neighbour effects in cereal yield trials. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 94, 731734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Austin, R. B., Edrich, J. A., Ford, M. A. & Blackwell, R. D. (1977). The fate of the dry matter, carbohydrates and 14C lost from the leaves and stems of wheat during grain filling. Annals of Botany 41, 13091321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Austin, R. B., Ford, M. A., Edrich, J. A. & Hooper, B. E. (1976). Some effects of leaf posture on photosynthesis and yield in wheat. Annals of Applied Biology 83, 425446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Austin, R. B. & Jones, H. G. (1975). The physiology of wheat. In Report of the Plant Breeding Institute, Cambridge, for 1974, pp. 2073.Google Scholar
Bingham, J. (1969). Physiological determinants of grain yield in cereals. Agricultural Progress 44, 3042.Google Scholar
Elliott, C. S. (1962). The importance of variety testing in relation to crop production. Journal of the National Institute of Agricultural Botany 9, 199206.Google Scholar
Evans, L. T. & Dunstone, R. L. (1970). Some physiological aspects of evolution in wheat. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 23, 725741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Friend, D. J. C. (1965). Ear length and spikelet number of wheat grown at different temperatures and light intensities. Canadian Journal of Botany 43, 345353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gale, M. D. (1979). The effects of Norin 10 dwarfing genes on yield. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Wheat Genetics Symposium, Delhi, 1978, pp. 978987.Google Scholar
Jain, H. K. & Kulshrestha, V. P. (1976). Dwarfing genes and breeding for yield in bread wheat. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenziichtung 76, 102112.Google Scholar
Patrick, J. W. (1972). Distribution of assimilate during stem elongation in wheat. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 25, 455467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pushman, F. M. & Binoham, J. (1976). The effects of a granular nitrogen fertilizer and a foliar spray of urea on the yield and bread-making quality of ten winter wheats. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 87, 281292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rawson, H. M. & Evans, L. T. (1971). The contribution of stem reserves to grain development in a range of wheat cultivars of different height. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 22, 851863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rawson, H. M. & Hofstra, G. (1969). Translocation and remobilisation of 14C assimilated at different stages by each leaf of the wheat plant. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 22, 321331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Silvey, V. (1979). The contribution of new varieties to increasing cereal yield in England and Wales. Journal of the National Institute of Agricultural Botany 14, 367384.Google Scholar
Syme, J. R. (1970). A high yielding Mexican semidwarf wheat and the relationship of yield to harvest index and other varietal characteristics. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 10, 350353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Dobben, W. H. (1962). Influence of temperature and light conditions on dry matter distribution, development rate and yield in arable crops. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 10, 377389.Google Scholar
Watson, D. J., Thorne, G. N. & French, S. A. W. (1963). Analysis of growth and yield of winter and spring wheats. Annals of Botany, London 27, 122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
531
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Genetic improvements in winter wheat yields since 1900 and associated physiological changes
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Genetic improvements in winter wheat yields since 1900 and associated physiological changes
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Genetic improvements in winter wheat yields since 1900 and associated physiological changes
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *