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Safe for Democracy: Constitutional Politics, Popular Spectacle, and the British Monarchy 1910–1914

  • Frank Mort
Abstract

How did the British monarchy respond to the multiple challenges of early twentieth-century mass democracy? Historians have separated the growth of constitutional sovereignty from the practice of a welfare monarchy, or from royalty as decorative and media friendly. This article argues that the political transformation of the modern monarchy was inseparable from innovations to its style and presentation. Opening with the dramatic constitutional crisis that confronted George V and his advisors in 1910, I show how the monarchy's entanglement in high politics forced the crown to assume an increasingly neutral, arbitrarial stance on industrial disputes and on the Irish question, despite the king's own conservatism. Simultaneously, George V invested in styles of royal accessibility and informality that contrasted sharply with other major European dynasties, in a series of royal tours across the industrial heartlands of England and Wales in 1912 and 1913. Extensively covered by the national and imperial press and by the newsreels, these visits to the strongholds of laborism promoted a vision of patrician democracy that drew heavily on traditions of organic, one-nation conservatism. But they also positioned royalty and the people in a new imaginary relationship that was more personal and intimate. Both versions had long-term consequences for the British monarchy across the twentieth century.

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Please direct any correspondence to: frank.mort@manchester.ac.uk
References
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2 “Crowds Line Lancaster's Streets for Queen's Visit,” BBC News, 29 May 2015.

3 “Prince Charles Makes Permanent Base in Burnley,” Lancashire Telegraph, 18 May 2012, http://www.lancashiretelegraph.co.uk/news/9713220.Prince_Charles_makes_permanent_base_in_Burnley.

4 Greg Lambert, “The Queen Visits Lancaster,” Visitor (Morecambe, Lancashire), 1 June 2015, https://www.thevisitor.co.uk/news/video-the-queen-visits-lancaster-1-7284541.

5 “Prince William and Kate Middleton Visit Lancashire,” BBC News, 11 April 2011, http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-lancashire-13033244.

6 See “The King Planting Copper Beech at Houghton Tower,” Manchester Guardian, supplement, 11 July 1913, 5A.

7 Bagehot, Walter, The English Constitution (London, 1867).

8 Cannadine, David, “The Context, Performance and Meaning of Ritual: The British Monarchy and the ‘Invention of Tradition,’ c.1820–1977,” in The Invention of Tradition, ed. Hobsbawm, Eric and Ranger, Terence (Cambridge, 1983), 101–64, at 108, 120. See also Cannadine, David and Price, Simon, eds. Rituals of Royalty: Power and Ceremonial in Traditional Societies (Cambridge, 1987).

9 Bogdanor, Vernon, The Monarchy and the Constitution (Oxford, 1995), 34. See also Brazier, Rodney and Bogdanor, Vernon, The British Constitution in the Twentieth Century (Oxford, 2003); Nicholson, Harold, King George V: His Life and Reign (London, 1967).

10 Prochaska, Frank, The Republic of Britain, 1760–2000 (London, 2000); Prochaska, Frank, Royal Bounty: The Making of a Welfare Monarchy (New Haven, 1995). See also Zweiniger-Bargielowska, Ina, “Prince Philip: Sportsman and Youth Leader,” in The Man behind the Throne: Male Consorts in History, ed. Been, Charles and Taylor, Miles (Basingstoke, 2014), 223–40.

11 See McKernan, Luke, Topical Budget: The Great British News Film (London, 1992), 117–22; McKernan, Luke, “‘The Finest Cinema Performers That We Possess’: British Royalty and the Newsreels, 1910–37,” Court Historian 8, no. 1 (July 2003): 5971; Mayhall, Laura E. Nym, “The Prince of Wales Versus Clark Gable: Anglophone Celebrity and Citizenship between the Wars,” Cultural and Social History 4, no. 4 (December 2007): 529–43; Schwarzenbach, Alexis, “Love, Marriage and Divorce: American and European Reactions to the Abdication of Edward VIII,” in New Dangerous Liaisons: Discourses on Europe and Love in the Twentieth Century, ed. Passerini, Luisa, Ellena, Lilliana, and Geppert, Alexander (New York, 2010), 137–57.

12 Prochaska, Royal Bounty, 172.

13 Kuhn, William, Democratic Royalism: The Transformation of the British Monarchy, 1861–1914 (Basingstoke, 1996), 8.

14 For imperial Russia, see Lieven, Dominic, Towards the Flame: Empire, War and the End of Tsarist Russia (London, 2015); King, Greg, The Court of the Last Tsar: Pomp, Power and Pageantry in the Reign of Nicholas II (Hoboken, 2006); Wortman, Richard, Scenarios of Power: Myth and Ceremony in the Russian Monarchy, vol. 2, From Alexander II to the Abdication of Nicholas II (Princeton, 2000). For Germany, see Röhl, John, The Kaiser and His Court: Wilhelm II and the Government of Germany, trans. Cole, Terence (Cambridge, 1987); Röhl, John, Wilhelm II: Into the Abyss of War and Exile, 1900–1941, trans. de Bellaigue, Sheila and Bridge, Roy (Cambridge, 2014); Clark, Christopher, Kaiser Wilhelm II (Harlow, 2000). For Austro-Hungary, see Bled, Jean-Paul, Franz Joseph, trans. Bridgeman, Teresa (Oxford, 1992).

15 Nicholas, Alison, Elisabeth, Queen of the Belgians: Her Life and Times (Bognor Regis, 1982), 5354; Potter, Frank, Belgium's Soldier King: Albert, King of the Belgians, 1909–1934 (Ilfracombe, 1994).

16 Thompson, Dorothy, Queen Victoria: Gender and Power (London, 1990), 14.

17 Homans, Margaret, Royal Representations: Queen Victoria and British Culture, 1837–1876 (Chicago, 1998), chap. 1.

18 Morris, Marilyn, The British Monarchy and the French Revolution (New Haven, 1998), 160–61. For differing interpretations of George III's public image, see Colley, Linda, “The Apotheosis of George III: Loyalty, Royalty and the British Nation,” Past and Present 102, no. 1 (February 1984): 94129; Sack, James, From Jacobite to Conservative: Reaction and Orthodoxy in Britain, c. 1760–1832 (Cambridge, 1993), chap. 5.

19 Dangerfield, George, The Strange Death of Liberal England (1935; repr., Geneva, 1971).

20 See McLean, Roderick, Royalty and Diplomacy in Europe, 1880–1914 (Cambridge, 2000), 193206; Nicholson, George V, 291–92; Pope-Hennessy, James, Queen Mary, 1867–1953 (London, 1959), 479–82.

21 Joyce, Patrick, Work, Society and Politics: The Culture of the Factory in Later Victorian England (Brighton, 1980), xxii, 279–80.

22 Plunkett, John, Queen Victoria: First Media Monarch (Oxford, 2003).

23 George V Diary, 18 May 1910, RA GV/PRIV/GVD/1910, Royal Archives, Windsor Castle (hereafter RA).

24 George V Diary, 11 November 1911 and 12 November 1911.

25 Queen Mary to Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, 22 July 1914, RA QM/PRIV/CC26/94.

26 For accounts of the crisis that have been used here, see Dangerfield, Strange Death of Liberal England, 19–68; Nicholson, George V, chaps. 7, 9–10; Rose, Kenneth, King George V (London, 1983), chap. 5; Bogdanor, Monarchy and the Constitution, 113–35; Heffer, Simon, Power and Place: The Political Consequences of King Edward VII (London, 1998), 230–35, 275–97.

27 Lee, Sir Sidney, King Edward VII: A Biography, vol. 2, The Reign, 22nd January 1901 to 6th May 1910 (London, 1927), 455. See also Heffer, Power and Place, 304–5.

28 Lord Crewe to Lord Knollys, 19 April 1910 [marked confidential], RA PS/PSO/GV/C/K/2522/1/21.

29 Anson, William, The Law and Custom of the Constitution, part 2, The Crown, 2nd ed. (London, 1896), 55.

30 Windsor, Duke of, A King's Story: The Memoirs of H. R. H. the Duke of Windsor (London, 1998), 186–88.

31 Cannadine, David, George V: The Unexpected King (London, 2014). See also H. H. Asquith to Margot Asquith, September 1912 (no day given), in H. H. Asquith: Letters to Venetia Stanley, ed. Michael and Eleanor Brock (Oxford, 1982), 43.

32 Rose, George V, 52, 69; Riddell, Lord, More Pages from My Diary, 1908–1914 (London, 1934), 218.

33 “The King and Queen: Royal Visit to Brighouse,” Brighouse Echo, 12 July 1912, RA NEWS/PRESS/GV/MAIN/1912/LII/722. See also Lockhart, J. G., Cosmo Gordon Lang (London, 1949), 217.

34 William M. Kuhn, “Bigge, Arthur John, Baron Stamfordham,” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 3 January 2008, https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/31883. See also Ponsonby, Frederick, Recollections of Three Reigns (London, 1951), x.

35 Keith Grieves, “Stanley, Edward George Villiers, Seventeenth Earl of Derby,” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 6 January 2011, https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/36243; Seth-Smith, Michael, A Classic Connection: The Friendship of the Earl of Derby and the Hon. George Lambton, 1893–1945 (London, 1993). For Liverpool politics, see Waller, Philip, Democracy and Sectarianism: A Political and Social History of Liverpool, 1869–1939 (Liverpool, 1981), 225–26.

36 Lord Derby to Lord Stamfordham, 28 April 1913 and 16 May 1913, RA PS/PSO/GV/PS/MAIN/5721/34, 38.

37 See Esher, Viscount, Journals and Letters of Reginald Viscount Esher, vol. 3, 1910–1915, ed. Oliver, , Esher, Viscount (London, 1938), 1517.

38 Pope-Hennessy, Queen Mary, 286.

39 Pope-Hennessy, 279, 424; Mabell, Countess of Airlie, Thatched with Gold: The Memories of Mabell, Countess of Airlie, ed. Ellis, Jennifer (London, 1962), 108–9.

40 Jennings, Ivor, Cabinet Government (Cambridge, 1959), 329; Bogdanor, Monarchy and the Constitution, 68.

41 George, Lloyd to George, Margaret Lloyd, 16 September 1911, in Lloyd George Family Letters, 1885–1936, ed. Morgan, Kenneth (Cardiff, 1973), 158–59. See also Grigg, John, Lloyd George: The People's Champion, 1902–1911 (London, 1978), 305.

42 Green, E. H. H., Ideologies of Conservatism: Political Ideas in the Twentieth Century (Oxford, 2002), 6970; Green, E. H. H., The Crisis of Conservatism: The Politics, Economics and Ideology of the British Conservative Party, 1880–1914 (London, 1995); Manton, Kevin, “Edwardian Conservatism and the Constitution: The Thought of Lord Hugh David Cecil,” Parliamentary History 34, no. 3 (October 2015): 365–82; Thackeray, David, “Rethinking the Crisis of Edwardian Conservatism,” Historical Journal 54, no. 1 (March 2011): 191213; Thackeray, David, Conservatism for the Democratic Age: Conservative Cultures and the Challenge of Mass Politics in Early Twentieth-Century England (Manchester, 2013). See also Ridley, Jane, “The Unionist Social Reform Committee, 1911–1914: Wets before the Deluge,” Historical Journal 30, no. 2 (June 1987): 391413.

43 See Lawrence, Jon, “Paternalism, Class, and the British Path to Modernity,” in The Peculiarities of Liberal Modernity in Imperial Britain, ed. Gunn, Simon and Vernon, James (Berkeley, 2011), 147–64, at 147; David Thackeray, Conservatism for the Democratic Age, 55.

44 Lockhart, Lang, 141–42, 216–17; Beaken, Robert, Cosmo Lang: Archbishop in War and Crisis (London, 2012), 6871, 74–77.

45 Cosmo Lang to Mrs. H. Lang, 14 July 1912, Lang Papers, Family Papers, 1882–1920, vol. 188, 84, 101, Lambeth Palace Library, London; Beaken, Cosmo Lang, 71.

46 Beaken, Cosmo Lang, 71.

47 Prochaska, Royal Bounty, 172.

48 Prochaska, Royal Bounty, 172.

49 Lloyd George to Margaret Lloyd George, 9 May 1910, in Lloyd George Family Letters, 152. See also Grigg, Lloyd George, 216.

50 See Béliard, Yann, “Introduction: Revisiting the Great Labour Unrest, 1911–1914,” Labour History Review 79, no. 1 (April 2014): 117.

51 Thompson, James, “The Great Labour Unrest and Political Thought in Britain, 1911–1914,” Labour History Review 79, no.1 (April 2014): 3753, at 38.

52 Fritz Ponsonby to Winston Churchill, 16 August 1911, RA PS/PSO/GV/C/B/246/1. See also Davies, Sam and Noon, Ron, “The Rank-and-File in the 1911 Liverpool General Transport Strike,” Labour History Review 79, no. 1 (April 2014): 5580.

53 Winston Churchill to George V, telegram, 17 August 1911, RA PS/PSO/GV/C/B/246/3; Dudley Ward to George V, telegram, 17 August 1911, RA PS/PSO/GV/C/B/246/2.

54 See Nicholson, George V, 157.

55 Winston Churchill to George V, telegram, 20 August 1911, RA PS/PSO/GV/C/B/246/18; George V to Churchill, telegram, 20 August 1911, RA PS/PSO/GV/C/B/246/19.

56 G. R. Askwith to Stamfordham, 25 January 1912, RA PS/PSO/GV/C/B/350/4.

57 Heath, Alison, The Life of George Ranken Askwith, 1861–1942 (London, 2013), 131–38.

58 Heath, The Life of George Ranken Askwith, 125.

59 Nicholson, George V, 223–24; Rose, George V, 148.

60 Nicholson, George V, 223–24. See also aan de Wiel, Jérôme, “1914: What Will the British Do? The Irish Home Rule Crisis in the July Crisis,” International History Review 37, no. 4 (August 2015): 657–81.

61 Speech of King to Buckingham Palace Conference, Ireland, 21 July 1914, Lloyd George Papers, LG/C/5/6/7, Parliamentary Archives, London. See also George V Diary, 21 July 1914, RA GV/PRIV/GVD/1914.

62 Nicholson, George V, 157, 416–21; Rose, George V, 119, 139, 340–43.

63 Cannadine, George V, 52–53.

64 Sir George Armstrong to Stamfordham, 11 August 1911, RA PS/PSO/GV/C/K/2552/2/74.

65 Major Clive Wigram, memo, 15 November 1910, RA PS/PSO/GV/C/K/2552/1/57.

66 Sir Arthur Bigge, memorandum, 18 November 1910, RA PS/PSO/GV/C/K/2552/2/94. See also Extract of a Letter from Lord Esher to Lord Knollys, 1 March 1910, RA PS/PSO/GV/C/K/2552/1/16.

67 Bostridge, Mark, The Fateful Year: England 1914 (London, 2014), 158.

68 Judith Dray, “A Story from the Archive: A Royal Visit and a Suffragette,” http://blogs.cardiff.ac.uk/cuarm/royal-visit-and-suffragette; “Suffragette Protests at Llandaff,” South Wales Echo, 26 June 1912.

69 Queen Mary to Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, 21 February 1913, RA QM/PRIV/CC26/44; George V Diary, 4 June 1914, RA GV/PRIV/GVD/1914.

70 Tickner, Lisa, The Spectacle of Women: Imagery of the Suffrage Campaign, 1907–14 (London, 1987).

71 See Chomet, Seweryn, Helena: Princess Reclaimed: The Life and Times of Queen Victoria's Third Daughter (New York, 1999); Wake, Jehanne, Princess Louise: Queen Victoria's Unconventional Daughter (London, 1988); Hawksley, Lucinda, The Mystery of Princess Louise: Queen Victoria's Rebellious Daughter (London, 2014).

72 Hamilton, Mary Agnes, Mary Macarthur: A Biographical Sketch (London, 1925), 137–38; Hamilton, Mary Agnes, Margaret Bondfield (London, 1924), 108–9. See also Braybon, Gail, Women Workers in the First World War: The British Experience (London, 1981), 4445.

73 See Murphy, Philip, Monarchy and the End of Empire: The House of Windsor, the British Government and the Postwar Commonwealth (Oxford, 2013), 1213.

74 “Third Chapter Contrast. King in Glamorgan Valleys,” South Wales Daily News, 24 May 1912, 5.

75 H. H. Asquith to George V, 6 March 1912, Cabinet Letters: Copies of Asquith's Cabinet Letters to the King, 1908–1916, Papers of Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, mainly 1892–1928, A2 MS Asquith 5, Bodleian Library, University of Oxford.

76 See the letters and memoranda in RA PS/PSO/GV/C/K/2522/1, and RA PS/PSO/GV/C/K/2522/2.

77 Programme for the Visit of the King and Queen to Wentworth, RA PS/PSO/GV/PS/MAIN/7175. See also the exchanges between Derby and Stamfordham, RA PS/PSO/GV/PS/MAIN/5721/13, 34, 38.

78 See Bailey, Catherine, Black Diamonds: The Rise and Fall of a Great English Dynasty (London, 2008), 114.

79 Bailey, Black Diamonds, 113–14; Asquith to the king, Cabinet, 6 March 1912, Asquith Papers, A2 MS Asquith 6.

80 “The King's Visit,” Western Mail (Cardiff), 6 June 1912, 4.

81 Joyce, Patrick, Visions of the People: Industrial England and the Question of Class, c. 1848–1914 (Cambridge, 1991), 11.

82 See King George V, Books Read from 1890, RA GV/PRIV/AA7/46.

83 Quoted in “The King and the Workers ‘One Common Weel for the Common Good,’” Daily Express (London), 25 June 1912, 1.

84 “The King and the Workers.”

85 “The King's Birthday,” Register (Adelaide), 3 June 1912, and “King's Birthday,” Mirror (Trinidad), 3 June 1912, RA NEWS/PRESS/GV/MAIN/1912/XLVII/1397, 1399.

86 Potter, Simon, News and the British World: The Emergence of an Imperial Press System, 1876–1922 (Oxford, 2003).

87 Simonis, H., The Street of Ink: An Intimate History of Journalism (London, 1917), 181–82.

88 “King and Cardiff. Forthcoming Royal Visit,” South Wales Daily News, 20 May 1912, 5.

89 Derby to Stamfordham, 28 January 1913, RA PS/PSO/GV/PS/MAIN/5721/13-16.

90 Derby to Stamfordham, 16 May 1913, RA PS/PSO/GV/PS/MAIN/5721/38.

91 Mansel, Philip, Dressed to Rule: Royal Court and Costume from Louis XIV to Elizabeth II (New Haven, 2005), 142; Hibbert, Christopher, The Court of St James's: The Monarch at Work from Victoria to Elizabeth II (London, 1979), 7778.

92 Royal Visit to Bolton, July 1913, producer, Electric Cinema Bolton, film no. 33, North West Film Archive, Manchester Central Library. On the genesis of the royal wave, see Owens, Edward, “All the World Loves a Lover: Monarchy, Mass Media, and the 1934 Royal Wedding of Prince George and Princess Marina,” English Historical Review 133, no. 562 (June 2018): 597633.

93 See Morgan, Kenneth, Keir Hardie: Radical and Socialist (Oxford, 1967), 24; Holman, Bob, Keir Hardie: Labour's Greatest Hero? (Oxford, 2010), 162; Ward, Paul, Red Flag and Union Jack: Englishness, Patriotism and the British Left, 1881–1924 (Woodbridge, 1998), 99.

94 Keir Hardie, “An Open Letter. To His Most Gracious Majesty King George the Fifth, on his Proposed Visit to Dowlais Ironworks,” republished in Rhondda Socialist, 22 June 1912, 2. See also Keir Hardie's Speeches and Writings, ed. Hughes, Emrys (Glasgow, 1923), 155–58.

95 “Royal Visit to Dowlais,” South Wales Daily News, 19 June 1912, RA NEWS/PRESS/GV/MAIN/1912/XLV/909-10.

96 “Dowlais Schemes,” South Wales Daily News, 22 June 1912, 8.

97 Queen Mary to Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, 29 June 1912, RA QM/PRIV/CC26/20.

98 Queen Mary to Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, 14 July 1912, RA QM/PRIV/CC26/22.

99 “Yesterday's Tour of the King and Queen,” Manchester Guardian, supplement, 11 July 1913, 2A.

100 “The Royal Tour,” Liverpool Daily Post and Liverpool Mercury, 10 July 1913, 7.

101 Barker, T. C., The Glassmakers: Pilkington: The Rise of an International Company, 1826–1976 (London, 1977), 181241.

102 “The Royal Visit to Pilkington's Works,” St. Helen's Newspaper and Advertiser, 11 July 1913, 8; Barker, Glassmakers, 203.

103 At Messers. Pilkington's Glass Works, July 1913, producer, Weisker Brothers, film no. 138, North West Film Archive; Geoff Senior, “A Right Royal Tour of Lancashire,” unpublished paper, North West Film Archive (2013).

104 “King Visits the Miners,” South Wales Daily News, 28 June 1912, 7.

105 “Visit to Horrockses: Triumphal Arch of Cotton Bales,” Lancashire Daily Post, 8 July 1913, 4.

106 “Kind Is My Mary,” Daily Express (London), 11 July 1912, 5.

107 For early modern royal tours and progresses, see Vale, Malcolm, The Princely Court: Medieval Courts and Culture in North-West Europe, 1270–1380 (Oxford, 2003).

108 See Reynolds, K. D. and Matthew, H. C. G., Queen Victoria (Oxford, 2007), 9; Longford, Elizabeth, Victoria R. I. (London, 1983), 4143, 47–48; Gardiner, Juliet, Queen Victoria (London, 1997), 2425.

109 See Manchester Evening News, Royal Manchester: From Victoria to Diana (Manchester, 1998), 6, 9–13; “The Queen's Visits to Manchester, 1851, 1857, 1894,” Manchester Guardian, obituary supplement, 23 January 1901, 12.

110 Gunn, Simon, The Public Culture of the Victorian Middle Class: Ritual and Authority and the English Industrial City, 1840–1914 (Manchester, 2000), 166–67.

111 Manchester Evening News, Royal Manchester, 15–16; Salford City Council, Official Programme—Visit to Manchester of His Majesty King Edward VII and Her Majesty Queen Alexandra, on Thursday 13th July 1905 (Salford City Council, 1905).

112 Derby to Stamfordham, 28 April 1913, RA PS/PSO/GV/PS/MAIN/5721/34.

113 “The Personality of Royalty,” Birmingham Gazette, 27 June 1912, 4.

114 Colley, Linda, Britons: Forging the Nation, 1707–1837 (London, 1992), 233.

115 See Wiener, Joel, “‘Get the News! Get the News!’—Speed in Transatlantic Journalism, 1830–1914,” in Anglo-American Media Interactions, 1850–2000, ed. Wiener, Joel and Hampton, Mark (Basingstoke, 2007), 4861; Symon, J. D., The Press and Its Story (London, 1914), 106; Fyfe, Hamilton, Sixty Years of Fleet Street (London, 1949), 36; LeMahieu, D. L., A Culture for Democracy: Mass Communication and the Cultivated Mind in Britain between the Wars (Oxford, 1988), 11, 2526.

116 See “Edward the Peacemaker at Peace: The Late King Photographed on His Death-Bed at Buckingham Palace,” Daily Mirror, 14 May 1910, 1; Simonis, Street of Ink, 80–81.

117 Chalaby, Jean, The Invention of Journalism (Basingstoke, 1998), 7678; Wiener, Joel, “How New Was the New Journalism?” in Papers for the Millions: The New Journalism in Britain, 1850s to 1914, ed. Wiener, Joel (New York, 1988), 4771. See also Matheson, Donald, “The Birth of News Discourse: Changes in News Language in British Newspapers, 1860–1930,” Media, Culture and Society 22, no. 5 (2000): 557–73.

118 Rosemary T. Van Arschel, “Women's Periodicals and the New Journalism: The Personal Interview,” in Wiener, Papers for the Millions, 243–56, at 245.

119 See “King George V” frontispiece portrait, Illustrated London News, Coronation Record Number, ed. Bruce Ingram (London , 1911); George V, One Penny Stamp, 1911–12, Downey Head Issues, Stamp Collecting World, British Stamps Definitives of 1911–1922, https://www.stamp-collecting-world.com/britishstamps_1911d.html.

120 “The Royal Visit to Yorkshire,” Leeds Mercury, 11 June 1912, 4; “The King-Comforter,” Pall Mall Gazette, 10 July 1912, 6.

121 Yorkshire Observer and Advertiser, 17 May 1912, 8.

122 Esher, quoted in Rose, George V, 90.

123 “The Queen in a Miner's Home,” Daily Express (London), 28 June 1912, 1; “The Queen Leaving a Cottage Near Bury,” Daily Mirror (London), 14 July 1913, 9.

124 “Collier-Host of the King and Queen” and “In Lowly Homes,” South Wales Daily News, 28 June 1912, 7.

125 “In Lowly Homes,” South Wales Daily News, 28 June 1912, 7.

126 Stamfordham to Derby, 31 January 1913, RA PS/PSO/GV/PS/MAIN/5721/17.

127 Dowlais Central Infants School Log Book, 400, EMT9/1, Merthyr Tydfil Division Elementary/Primary School Records, Glamorgan Archives.

128 North Hulme Secondary School for Boys, Boy's Department, 27, Manchester School Records, School Log Books, M66/18/1/1/1, Manchester Central Library.

129 “The Royal Visit,” Liverpool Daily Post and Mercury, 2 July 1913, 5; “To Welcome the King to Lancashire,” Manchester Daily Dispatch, 2 July 1913, 5.

130 Prochaska, Royal Bounty, 18. See also Colley, Britons, 240–41.

131 Poliakoff, Stephen, The Lost Prince (London, 2003); Dennis Judd, George VI (London, 2012), 1517.

132 “Pageant in the Streets,” South Wales Daily News, 26 June 1912, 7.

133 “Pageant in the Streets.”

134 “In the Colliery District,” Dewsbury Reporter, 12 July 1912, 2.

135 Programme, Tuesday, 9 July 1912, RA PS/PSO/GV/PS/MAIN/7175.

136 “King and Queen in Yorkshire,” Daily Telegraph (London), 10 July 1912, 13; “The King in a Coal Mine,” Daily Mail (Hull), 10 July 1912, 3.

137 Quoted in “In the Colliery District,” 2, and “The King in a Coal Mine,” 3.

138 Bailey, Black Diamonds, 73.

139 Bailey, Black Diamonds, 79.

140 “Queen in Tears,” Daily Express (London), 10 July 1912, 1.

141 “Cadeby Heroes Interred,” Leeds Mercury, 13 July 1912, 5; “The Royal Week,” Sheffield Daily Telegraph, 8 July 1912, 6.

142 “The German Emperor Follows the Example of King George,” Daily Mirror (London), 13 August 1912, 1.

143 See, for example, Francis Addy Diary, 19 March 1916, MLMSS 1607/1, Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales; Ivo Lucius Beresford, sound recording, cat. no. 18564, reel 2, Imperial War Museum, London.

144 For discussion of early cinema audiences, see Biltereyst, Daniel, Maltby, Richard, and Meers, Philippe, eds., Cinema, Audiences and Modernity: New Perspectives on European Cinema History (London, 2012).

145 See McKernan, Topical Budget; Low, Rachael, The History of the British Film, 1906–1914 (London, 1997), 14.

146 McKernan, Topical Budget, 117–18.

147 “Films of the Royal Visit to Wales,” Bioscope, 11 July 1912, 101.

148 “Hibbert's Again to the Fore,” Bioscope, 24 July 1913, 246.

149 Vicki Caren, “Weisker Brothers, Merseyside at War, 1914–1918”, http://www.merseyside-at-war.org/story/weisker-brothers.

150 Royal Visit to Lancashire, July 1913, producer, Pathe, film no. 157, North West Film Archive.

151 Old Grimwade's Winton King George V & Queen Mary Visit to Padiham Mug, July 1913, accessed 6 August 2018, https://picclick.co.uk/Old-Grimwades-Winton-King-George-V-Queen-382336442033.html.

152 See Gunning, Tom, “Pictures of Crowd Splendour: The Mitchell and Kenyon Factory Gate Films,” in The Lost World of Mitchell and Kenyon: Edwardian Britain on Film, ed. Toulmin, Vanessa, Popple, Simon, and Russell, Patrick (London, 2004), 4958; Dave Russell, “The Football Films,” in Toulmin, Popple, and Russell, The Lost World of Mitchell and Kenyon, 169–80.

153 Royal Visit to Bacup, 9 July 1913, producer, Lama Films, film no. 5985, North West Film Archive.

154 Royal Visit to Atherton, July 1913, producer, Will Onda, film no. 547, North West Film Archive.

155 Turvey, Gerry, “Ideological Contradictions: The Film Topicals of the British and Colonial Kinematograph Company,” Early Popular Visual Culture 5, no. 1 (April 2007): 4156.

156 Stephen Bottomore, “From the Factory Gate to the ‘Home Talent’ Drama: An International Overview of Local Films in the Silent Era,” in Toulmin, Lost World, 33–48.

157 Low, History of the British Film, 25.

158 “Happenings at Accrington,” Bioscope, 31 July 1913, 323; “Olympia Picture,” Mildura Cultivator (Australia), 10 September 1913, 5.

159 Dangerfield, The Strange Death of Liberal England.

160 Woolf, Virginia, Mr. Bennett and Mrs. Brown (London, 1924); Todd, Selina, The People: The Rise and Fall of the Working Class (London, 2014), introduction, Kindle.

161 “Vile Attack on the King,” Daily Telegraph (London), 24 July 1914, 12.

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