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A porcine model to study the effect of brain death on kidney genomic responses

  • Mitchell B. Sally (a1) (a2), Darren J. Malinoski (a1) (a2), Frank P. Zaldivar (a3), Tony Le (a4), Matin Khoshnevis (a5), William A. Pinette (a6), Michael Hutchens (a1) and Shlomit Radom-Aizik (a3)...



A majority of transplanted organs come from donors after brain death (BD). Renal grafts from these donors have higher delayed graft function and lower long-term survival rates compared to living donors. We designed a novel porcine BD model to better delineate the incompletely understood inflammatory response to BD, hypothesizing that adhesion molecule pathways would be upregulated in BD.


Animals were anesthetized and instrumented with monitors and a balloon catheter, then randomized to control and BD groups. BD was induced by inflating the balloon catheter and animals were maintained for 6 hours. RNA was extracted from kidneys, and gene expression pattern was determined.


In total, 902 gene pairs were differently expressed between groups. Eleven selected pathways were upregulated after BD, including cell adhesion molecules.


These results should be confirmed in human organ donors. Treatment strategies should target involved pathways and lessen the negative effects of BD on transplantable organs.

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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial-NoDerivatives licence (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is unaltered and is properly cited. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use or in order to create a derivative work.

Corresponding author

*Address for correspondence: M. B. Sally, MD, Operative Care Division, Section of Surgical Critical Care, VA Portland Health Care System, Portland, OR 97239-2964 USA. (Email:


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A porcine model to study the effect of brain death on kidney genomic responses

  • Mitchell B. Sally (a1) (a2), Darren J. Malinoski (a1) (a2), Frank P. Zaldivar (a3), Tony Le (a4), Matin Khoshnevis (a5), William A. Pinette (a6), Michael Hutchens (a1) and Shlomit Radom-Aizik (a3)...


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