Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-544b6db54f-6mft8 Total loading time: 0.213 Render date: 2021-10-19T19:39:50.019Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Detailed fatty acid profile of milk, cheese, ricotta and by products, from cows grazing summer highland pastures

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 August 2017

Matteo Bergamaschi*
Affiliation:
Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural Resources, Animals and Environment (DAFNAE), University of Padova, Viale dell'Università 16, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy
Giovanni Bittante
Affiliation:
Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural Resources, Animals and Environment (DAFNAE), University of Padova, Viale dell'Università 16, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy
*
*For correspondence; e-mail: matteo.bergamaschi@unipd.it

Abstract

In this research two-dimensional GC was used to analyse, for the first time, the detailed fatty acid (FA) profiles of 11 dairy matrices: raw milk (evening whole, evening partially skimmed, morning whole, and vat milk), cream, fresh cheese, whey, ricotta, scotta, 6- and 12-month-ripened cheeses, obtained across artisanal cheese- and ricotta-making trials carried out during the summer period while cows were on highland pastures. Samples were collected during 7 cheese- and ricotta-making procedures carried out at 2-week intervals from bulk milk to study possible differences in the transfer and modification of FA. Compared with morning milk, evening milk had fewer de novo synthetised FA. The detailed FA profile of partially skimmed milk differed little from that of evening whole milk before skimming, but the cream obtained differed from partially skimmed milk and from fresh cheese in about half the FA, due mainly to higher contents of all de novo FA, and lower contents of n-3 and n-6 FA. Fresh cheese and whey had similar FA profiles. The ricotta manufacturing process affected the partition of FA between ricotta and scotta, the FA profile of the latter differing in terms of groups and individual FA from the former, whereas ricotta and fresh cheese had similar composition of FA. In general, there was an increase in medium-chain saturated FA, and a decrease in many polyunsaturated FA during the first 6 months of ripening, but not during the second 6 months. Two-dimensional GC yielded a very detailed and informative FA profile on all the 11 dairy products and by-products analysed.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Proprietors of Journal of Dairy Research 2017 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Bergamaschi, M, Cipolat-Gotet, C, Stocco, G, Valorz, C, Bazzoli, I, Sturaro, E, Ramanzin, M & Bittante, G 2016 Cheesemaking in highland pastures: milk technological properties, cream, cheese and ricotta yields, milk nutrients recovery, and products composition. Journal of Dairy Science 99 96319646 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bittante, G, Cecchinato, A, Cologna, N, Penasa, M, Tiezzi, F & De Marchi, M 2011a Factors affecting the incidence of first-quality wheels of Trentingrana cheese. Journal of Dairy Science 94 37003707 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bittante, G, Cologna, N, Cecchinato, A, De Marchi, M, Penasa, M, Tiezzi, F, Endrizzi, I & Gasperi, F 2011b Monitoring of sensory attributes used in the quality payment system of Trentingrana cheese. Journal of Dairy Science 94 56995709 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buccioni, A, Rapaccini, S, Antongiovanni, M, Minieri, S, Conte, G & Mele, M 2010 Conjugated linoleic acid and C18 : 1 isomers content in milk fat of sheep and their transfer to Pecorino Toscano cheese. International Dairy Journal 20 190194 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chouinard, PY, Corneau, L, Barbano, DM, Metzger, LE & Bauman, DE 1999 Conjugated linoleic acids alter milk fatty acid composition and inhibit milk fat secretion in dairy cows. Journal of Nutrition 129 15791584 Google ScholarPubMed
Chowdhury, R, Warnakula, S, Kunutsor, S, Crowe, F, Ward, HA, Johnson, L, Franco, OH, Butterworth, AS, Forouhi, NG & Thompson, SG 2014 Association of dietary, circulating, and supplement fatty acids with coronary risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of Internal Medicine 160 398406 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Collins, YF, McSweeney, PL & Wilkinson, MG 2003 Lipolysis and free fatty acid catabolism in cheese: a review of current knowledge. International Dairy Journal 13 841866 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collomb, M, Bisig, W, Bütikofer, U, Sieber, R, Bregy, M & Etter, L 2008 Fatty acid composition of mountain milk from Switzerland: comparison of organic and integrated farming systems. International Dairy Journal 18 976982 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coppa, M, Verdier-Metz, I, Ferlay, A, Pradel, P, Didienne, R, Farruggia, A, Montel, M & Martin, B 2011 Effect of different grazing systems on upland pastures compared with hay diet on cheese sensory properties evaluated at different ripening times. International Dairy Journal 21 815822 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coppa, M, Ferlay, A, Borreani, G, Revello-Chion, A, Tabacco, E, Tornambé, G, Pradel, P & Martin, B 2015 Effect of phenological stage and proportion of fresh herbage in cow diets on milk fatty acid composition. Animal Feed Science Technology 208 6678 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Couvreu, S, Hurtaud, C, Marnet, PG, Faverdin, P & Peyraud, JL 2007 Composition of milk fat from cows selected for milk fat globule size and offered either fresh pasture or a corn silage-based diet. Journal of Dairy Science 90 392403 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dilzer, A & Park, Y 2012 Implication of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in human health. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 52 488513 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferlay, A, Martin, B, Pradel, P, Coulon, J & Chilliard, Y 2006 Influence of grass-based diets on milk fatty acid composition and milk lipolytic system in Tarentaise and Montbéliarde cow breeds. Journal of Dairy Science 89 40264041.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ferlay, A, Martin, B, Lerch, S, Gobert, M, Pradel, P & Chilliard, Y 2010 Effects of supplementation of maize silage diets with extruded linseed, vitamin E and plant extracts rich in polyphenols, and morning v. evening milking on milk fatty acid profiles in Holstein and Montbéliarde cows. Animal 4 627640 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gebauer, SK, Chardigny, JM, Jakobsen, MU, Lamarche, B, Lock, AL, Proctor, SD & Baer, DJ 2011 Effects of ruminant trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease and cancer: a comprehensive review of epidemiological, clinical, and mechanistic studies. Advances in Nutrition (Bethesda, Md.) 2 332354 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hara, A & Radin, NS 1978 Lipid extraction of tissues with a low-toxicity solvent. Analytical Biochemistry 90 420426 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hoenselaar, R 2012 Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease: the discrepancy between the scientific literature and dietary advice. Nutrition 28 118123 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hurtaud, C, Dutreuil, M, Coppa, M, Agabriel, C & Martin, B 2014 Characterization of milk from feeding systems based on herbage or corn silage with or without flaxseed and authentication through fatty acid profile. Dairy Science and Technology 94 103123 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
ISO M 2001 Milk products. Extraction methods for lipids and liposoluble compounds. International. Standard ISO 14156Google Scholar
Jenkins, T 2010 Technical note: common analytical errors yielding inaccurate results during analysis of fatty acids in feed and digesta samples. Journal of Dairy Science 93 11701174 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kelsey, J, Corl, B, Collier, R & Bauman, D 2003 The effect of breed, parity, and stage of lactation on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk fat from dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 86 25882597 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Khanal, R, Dhiman, T & Boman, R 2008 Changes in fatty acid composition of milk from lactating dairy cows during transition to and from pasture. Livestock Science 114 164175 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Laskaridis, K, Serafeimidou, A, Zlatanos, S, Gylou, E, Kontorepanidou, E & Sagredos, A 2013 Changes in fatty acid profile of feta cheese including conjugated linoleic acid. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 93 21302136 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leiber, F, Kreuzer, M, Wettstein, HR & Scheeder, MRL 2005 A study on the causes for elevated n-3 fatty acids in cows’ milk of Alpine origin. Lipids 40 191202 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lobos-Ortega, I, Revilla, I, González-Martín, MI, Hernández Hierro, JM, Vivar-Quintana, A & González-Pérez, C 2012 Conjugated linoleic acid contents in cheeses of different compositions during six months of ripening. Czech Journal of Food Sciences 30 220226 Google Scholar
Mannion, DT, Furey, A & Kilcawley, KN 2016 Free fatty acids quantification in dairy products. International Journal of Dairy Technology 69 112 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manzano, P, Arnáiz, E, Diego, JC, Toribio, L, García-Viguera, C, Bernal, JL & Bernal, J 2011 Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with capillary flow modulation to separate FAME isomers. Journal of Chromatography A 1218 49524959 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCrorie, TA, Keaveney, EM, Wallace, JM, Binns, N & Livingstone, MBE 2011 Human health effects of conjugated linoleic acid from milk and supplements. Nutrition Research Reviews 24 206227 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mulder, H & Walstra, P 1974 Creaming and separation. In The Milk fat Globule. Emulsion Science as Applied to Milk Products and Comparable Foods, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, pp. 139162 (Ed G Mieth). Wageningen Press, Wageningen, The Netherlands Google Scholar
Palmquist, D, Beaulieu, AD & Barbano, D 1993 Feed and animal factors influencing milk fat composition. Journal of Dairy Science 76 17531771 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pérez, MD & Calvo, M 1995 Interaction of β-lactoglobulin with retinol and fatty acids and its role as a possible biological function for this protein: a review. Journal of Dairy Science 78 978988 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Petrović, M, Kezić, N & Bolanča, V 2010 Optimization of the GC method for routine analysis of the fatty acid profile in several food samples. Food Chemistry 122 285291 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Romanzin, A, Corazzin, M, Piasentier, E & Bovolenta, S 2013 Effect of rearing system (mountain pasture vs. indoor) of Simmental cows on milk composition and Montasio cheese characteristics. Journal of Dairy Research 80 390399 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schiavon, S, Cesaro, G, Cecchinato, A, Cipolat-Gotet, C, Tagliapietra, F & Bittante, G 2016a. The influence of dietary nitrogen reduction and conjugated linoleic acid supply to dairy cows on fatty acids in milk and their transfer to ripened cheese. Journal of Dairy Science 99 87598778 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schiavon, S, Pellattiero, E, Cecchinato, A, Tagliapietra, F, Dannenberger, D, Nuernberg, K, Nuernberg, G & Bittante, G 2016b The influence of different sample preparation procedures on the determination of fatty acid profiles of beef subcutaneous fat, liver and muscle by gas chromatography. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 50 1018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sturaro, E, Marchiori, E, Cocca, G, Penasa, M, Ramanzin, M & Bittante, G 2013 Dairy systems in mountainous areas: farm animal biodiversity, milk production and destination, and land use. Livestock Science 158 157168 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ulbricht, T & Southgate, D 1991 Coronary heart disease: seven dietary factors. Lancet 338 985992 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vlaemink, B, Fievez, V, Tamminga, S, Dewhurst, RJ, van Vuuren, A, De Brabander, D & Demeyer, D 2006 Milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in relation to the rumen fermentation pattern. Journal of Dairy Science 89 39543964 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vlaeminck, B, Harynuk, J, Fievez, V & Marriott, P 2007 Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for the separation of fatty acids in milk. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 109 757766 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woods, VB & Fearon, AM 2009 Dietary sources of unsaturated fatty acids for animals and their transfer into meat, milk and eggs: a review. Livestock Science 126 120 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zendri, F, Ramanzin, M, Bittante, G & Sturaro, E 2016 Transhumance of dairy cows to highland summer pastures interacts with breed to influence body condition, milk yield and quality. Italian Journal of Animal Science 15 481491 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zendri, F, Ramanzin, M, Cipolat-Gotet, C & Sturaro, E 2017 Variation of milk coagulation properties, cheese yield, and nutrients recovery in curd of cows of different breeds before, during and after transhumance to highland summer pastures. Journal of Dairy Research 84 3948 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Supplementary material: PDF

Bergamaschi and Bittante supplementary material

Table S1 and Figure S1

Download Bergamaschi and Bittante supplementary material(PDF)
PDF 225 KB
12
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Detailed fatty acid profile of milk, cheese, ricotta and by products, from cows grazing summer highland pastures
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Detailed fatty acid profile of milk, cheese, ricotta and by products, from cows grazing summer highland pastures
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Detailed fatty acid profile of milk, cheese, ricotta and by products, from cows grazing summer highland pastures
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *