Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5959bf8d4d-9jk85 Total loading time: 0.25 Render date: 2022-12-09T13:17:37.811Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Seasonal variations in the chemical composition of camel milk in Jordan

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  31 October 2007

Malik SY Haddadin*
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
Sana I Gammoh
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
Richard K Robinson
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
*
*For correspondence; e-mail: malik@hotmail.com

Abstract

The principal chemical components of milk from the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) were monitored in Jordan over one year. The analyses included total solids, fat, protein, vitamins, minerals and organic acids. Large seasonal variations in total solids and fat were apparent, with maxima in mid-winter of 139 and 39·0 g/l, respectively, and minima in August of 102 and 25·0 g/l. These differences may be sufficient to alter the sensory properties of the milk, and the fat: casein ratio may need standardisation for cheesemaking. The mean values of trace elements like zinc (5·8 mg/l), iron (4·4 mg/l) and manganese (0·05 mg/l) in Jordanian camel milk could provide valuable additions to the diet of urban populations, as could the mean concentration of vitamin C (33 mg/l). The levels of organic acids were generally higher than in bovine milk and, as with all the constituents of the milk, there were discernible patterns linking concentration and season of the year.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Proprietors of Journal of Dairy Research 2007

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Abou Ragib, A, Tawfic, F, Al-Rkebat, S & Al-Hosni, A 2002 The Socio-economics of Camel Production in Jordan. Report of the Camel Applied Research and Development Network 127Google Scholar
Al-Awadi, FM & Srikumar, TS 2001 Trace elements and their distribution in protein fractions of camel milk in comparision with other commonly consumed milks. Journal of Dairy Research 68 463469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Al-Haddad, KSH & Robinson, RK 2003 The potential application of HACCP to broiler production units in the Arabian Gulf – A Review. Journal of Food Technology 1(4) 193198Google Scholar
Anon. 1987 Colorimetric method for the determination of triglycerides in foodstuffs. Food Analysis Manual, Boehringer-Mannheim, Mannheim, GermanyGoogle Scholar
Anon. 1997 Central Australian Camel Industry Association. www.camelsaust.com.auGoogle Scholar
AOAC 1995Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Ed Horwitz, W, 13th Ed.Washington DCGoogle Scholar
Augustin, J, Klein, BP, Becker, DA & Venucopal, PB 1984 Methods of Vitamin Assay. Fourth Edition, Wiley-Interscience Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
Banks, W & Dalgleish, DG 1990 Milk and milk processing. Dairy Microbiology, pp. 136. Applied Science Publishers Ltd., LondonGoogle Scholar
Bligh, EG & Dyer, WJ 1959 A rapid method of total lipids extraction and purification. Canadian Journal of Biochemistry & Physiology 37 911917CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
British Standards Institute 1970 Chemical Analysis of Cheese – Determination of Ash Content. BS 4603 British Standards Institute, LondonGoogle Scholar
Bulliet, RW 1975 The Camel and The Wheel. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, USAGoogle Scholar
Case, RA, Bradley, RL & Williams, RR 1985 Chemical and Physical Methods. In Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products 15th Ed. pp. 327404. American Public Health Association, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
Chatty, D 1986 From Camel to Truck: The Bedouin in The Modern World. Vantage Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
Dell'Orto, V, Cattaneo, D, Beretta, E, Baldi, A & Savoini, G 2000 Effects of trace element supplementation on milk yield and composition in camels. International Dairy Journal 10 873879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Desai, HK, Patel, JN, Pandya, AJ, Upadhyay, KG & Vyas, SH 1982 Composition of camels' milk. Gujarat Agricultural University Research Journal 7(2) 131132Google Scholar
Farag, SI & Kebary, KMK 1992 Chemical composition and physical properties of camel's milk and milk fat. pp. 5767. Proceedings: 5th Egyptian Conference for Dairy Science and Technology. Egyptian Society of Dairy Science, Cairo, EgyptGoogle Scholar
Farah, Z 1993 Composition and characteristics of camel milk. Journal of Dairy Research 60 603626CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haddadin, MSY 2001 Planning of Camel Research and Development in Jordan. Report of the Camel Applied Research and Development Network 96105Google Scholar
Hassan, YM 1971 Note of The Effect of Dehydration on a Camel. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry 12 111112Google Scholar
Higgins, N 1984 The Camel: Health and Diseases. Baillier Tinall LondonGoogle Scholar
IDF 1962 Chemical Analysis of Milk – Determination of the Total Nitrogen Content of Milk by Kjeldahl Method. FIL-IDF 20 International Dairy Federation, Brussels, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
IDF 1985 Methods of Analysis for Milk and Milk Products. Bulletin No. 193 International Dairy Federation, Brussels, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
IDF 1987a Chemical Analysis of Milk, Cream and Evaporated Milk – Determination of Total Solids Content. FIL-IDF 21B International Dairy Federation, Brussels, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
IDF 1987b Chemical Analysis of Cheese and Processed Cheese Products – Determination of Total Phosphorus Content. FIL-IDF 33C International Dairy Federation, Brussels, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
Knoess, KH 1977 The Camel as a meat and milk animal. World Animal Review 22 3944Google Scholar
Knoess, KH, Makjdun, AJM & Hafeez, M 1987 Milk production potential of the dromedary with special reference to the province of Punjab. World Animal Review 57 1121Google Scholar
Korycka, DA, Richardson, T, Amundson, CH & Auen, JR 1979 Absence of fatty livers in Rhesus Monkeys fed orotic acid. Journal of Dairy Science 62 18011803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marier, JR 1959 Direct Analysis of Lactose in Milk and Serum. Journal of Dairy Science 42 13401391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marsili, RT, Ostapenko, H, Simmons, RE & Green, DE 1981 High performance liquid chromatographic determination of organic acids in dairy products. Journal of Food Science 46 5257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mehaia, MA 1994a Soft Cheeses from Camel Milk. Comm. Coll. Dromadaires et Chameaux: Animaux Laitiers. Nouakchott, MauretaniaGoogle Scholar
Mehaia, MA 1994b Vitamin C and riboflavin content in camels milk: effects of heat treatments. Food Chemistry 50(2) 153155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mohamed, MA, Mursal, AI & Larsson-Raznikiewicz, M 1989 Separation of a camel milk casein fraction and its relation to the coagulation properties of fresh milk. Milchwissenschaft 44 278280Google Scholar
Ramet, JP 1994 Les Aspects Scientifiques et Technologiques Particuliers De La Fabrication Des Fromages Au Lait De Dromadaire. Comm. Coll. Dromadaires et Chameaux: Animaux Laitiers, Nouakchott, MauritaniaGoogle Scholar
Rowland, SJ 1938 The Determination of the Nitrogen Distribution in Milk. Journal of Dairy Research 9 4251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sandhu, RS 1976 Serum phospholipids determined without acid digestion. Clinical Chemistry 22(12) 19731975Google ScholarPubMed
SAS 1988 User Guide release 6.03 Edition. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NCGoogle Scholar
Sawaya, WN, Kalil, JK, Al-Shalhat, A & Al-Mohamed, H 1984 Chemical composition and nutritional quality of camel milk. Journal of Food Science 49 744747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shalash, MR 1979 Utilization of Camel Meat and Milk in Human Nourishment. pp. 285306. In Camels International Foundation for Science Symposium, SudanGoogle Scholar
Taha, NM & Kielvein, G 1989 Studies on the nitrogen distribution and content of peptide bonds and free aminoacids in camel milk, buffalo and ass milk. Milchwissenschaft 44 633636Google Scholar
Tamime, AY 1993 Modern cheesemaking: Hard Cheeses. In Modern Dairy Technology, pp. 49220. Applied Science Publishers Ltd., LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tamime, AY & Robinson, RK 1999 Yoghurt – science and technology. Woodhead Publishers Ltd., Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
Wolfschoon-Pombo, A & Klostermeyer, H 1981 The NPN-fraction of cow milk: Amount and composition. Milchwissenschaft 36 598600Google Scholar
67
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Seasonal variations in the chemical composition of camel milk in Jordan
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Seasonal variations in the chemical composition of camel milk in Jordan
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Seasonal variations in the chemical composition of camel milk in Jordan
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *