AT Gregoire , RC Mayer . The impregnators. Fertil Steril. 1965; 16, 130–134.
SL Boulet , A Mehta , DM Kissin , et al. Trends in use of and reproductive outcomes associated with intracytoplasmic sperm injection. JAMA. 2015; 313, 255–263.
T Jain , RS Gupta . Trends in the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2007; 357, 251–257.
SI Moskovtsev , D Dacanay , A Baratz , et al. Significant increase in utilization of donor sperm by lesbian couples after the ligalization of same sex marriages in Ontario, Canada. Fertil Steril. 2013; 100, S67, O-219.
T Viloria , N Garrido , F Minaya , et al. Report of results obtained in 2934 women using donor sperm: donor insemination versus in vitro fertilization according to indication. Fertil Steril. 2011; 96, 1134–1137.
V Jadva , S Badger , M Morrissette , S Golombok . ‘Mom by choice, single by life’s circumstance…’ Findings from a large scale survey of the experiences of single mothers by choice. Hum Fertil (Camb). 2009; 12, 175–184.
M González-Comadran , J Urresta Avila , A Saavedra Tascón , et al. The impact of donor insemination on the risk of preeclampsia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2014; 182, 160–166.
GN Smith , M Walker , JL Tessier , KG Millar . Increased incidence of preeclampsia in women conceiving by intrauterine insemination with donor versus partner sperm for treatment of primary infertility. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1997; 177, 455–458.
J Hoy , A Venn , J Halliday , G Kovacs , K Waalwyk . Perinatal and obstetric outcomes of donor insemination using cryopreserved semen in Victoria, Australia. Hum Reprod. 1999; 14, 1760–1764.
O Salha , V Sharma , T Dada , et al. The influence of donated gametes on the incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Hum Reprod. 1999; 14, 2268–2273.
JA Need , B Bell , E Meffin , WR Jones . Pre-eclampsia in pregnancies from donor inseminations. J Reprod Immunol. 1983; 5, 329–338.
JR Challis , CJ Lockwood , L Myatt , et al. Inflammation and pregnancy. Reprod Sci. 2009; 16, 206–215.
K Zetterström , SN Lindeberg , B Haglund , U Hanson . Chronic hypertension as a risk factor for offspring to be born small for gestational age. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006; 85, 1046–1050.
JJ Geelhoed , A Fraser , K Tilling , et al. Preeclampsia and gestational hypertension are associated with childhood blood pressure independently of family adiposity measures: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Circulation. 2010; 122, 1192–1199.
PY Jayet , SF Rimoldi , T Stuber , et al. Pulmonary and systemic vascular dysfunction in young offspring of mothers with preeclampsia. Circulation. 2010; 122, 488–494.
EF Davis , L Newton , AJ Lewandowski , et al. Pre-eclampsia and offspring cardiovascular health: mechanistic insights from experimental studies. Clin Sci (Lond). 2012; 123, 53–72.
EF Davis , M Lazdam , AJ Lewandowski , et al. Cardiovascular risk factors in children and young adults born to preeclamptic pregnancies: a systematic review. Pediatrics. 2012; 129, e1552–e1561.
CS Wu , Y Sun , M Vestergaard , et al. Preeclampsia and risk for epilepsy in offspring. Pediatrics. 2008; 122, 1072–1078.
CS Wu , EA Nohr , BH Bech , et al. Health of children born to mothers who had preeclampsia: a population-based cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009; 201, 269.e1–269.e10.
E Kajantie , JG Eriksson , C Osmond , K Thornburg , DJ Barker . Pre-eclampsia is associated with increased risk of stroke in the adult offspring: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Stroke. 2009; 40, 1176–1180.
JR Mann , S McDermott , H Bao , J Hardin , A. Gregg
Pre-eclampsia, birth weight, and autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2010; 40, 548–554.
S Saito , A Shiozaki , A Nakashima , M Sakai , Y Sasaki . The role of the immune system in preeclampsia. Mol Aspects Med. 2007; 28, 192–209.
IL Sargent , AM Borzychowski , CW Redman . Immunoregulation in normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia: an overview. Reprod Biomed Online. 2006; 13, 680–686.
D Kyrou , EM Kolibianakis , P Devroey , HM Fatemi . Is the use of donor sperm associated with a higher incidence of preeclampsia in women who achieve pregnancy after intrauterine insemination?
Fertil Steril. 2010; 93, 1124–1127.
D Gebhardt . Sperm donor suffers years later from inherited disease. J Med Ethics. 2002; 28, 213–214.
P Callum , L Messiaen , P Bower , et al. Gonosomal mosaicism for an NF1 deletion in a sperm donor: evidence of the need for co-ordinated, long-term communication of health information among relevant parties. Hum Reprod. 2012; 27, 1223–1226.
N Zribi , N Feki Chakroun , H El Euch , et al. Effects of cryopreservation on human sperm deoxyribonucleic acid integrity. Fertil Steril. 2010; 93, 159–166.
LH Dalzell , CM McVicar , N McClure , D Lutton , SE Lewis . Effects of short and long incubations on DNA fragmentation of testicular sperm. Fertil Steril. 2004; 82, 1443–1445.
M Di Santo , N Tarozzi , M Nadalini , A Borini . Human sperm cryopreservation: update on techniques, effect on DNA integrity, and implications for ART. Adv Urol. 2012; 2012, 854837.
E Toro , S Fernández , A Colomar , et al. Processing of semen can result in increased sperm DNA fragmentation. Fertil Steril. 2009; 92, 2109–2112.
LK Thomson , SD Fleming , RJ Aitken , et al. Cryopreservation-induced human sperm DNA damage is predominantly mediated by oxidative stress rather than apoptosis. Hum Reprod. 2009; 24, 2061–2070.
C Tatone , G Di Emidio , M Vento , R Ciriminna , PG Artini . Cryopreservation and oxidative stress in reproductive cells. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2010; 26, 563–567.
DH Adams , RA Clark , MJ Davies , S de Lacey . A meta-analysis of neonatal health outcomes from oocyte donation. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2016; 7, 257–272.
QA Class , ME Rickert , P Lichtenstein , BM D’Onofrio . Birth weight, physical morbidity, and mortality: a population-based sibling-comparison study. Am J Epidemiol. 2014; 179, 550–558.
K Calkins , SU Devaskar . Fetal origins of adult disease. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care. 2011; 41, 158–176.
KJ Barrington , A Janvier . The paediatric consequences of assisted reproductive technologies, with special emphasis on multiple pregnancies. Acta Paediatr. 2013; 102, 340–348.
A Thapar , G Harold , F Rice , et al. Do intrauterine or genetic influences explain the foetal origins of chronic disease? A novel experimental method for disentangling effects. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2007; 7, 25.
M Gaudoin , R Dobbie , A Finlayson , et al. Ovulation induction/intrauterine insemination in infertile couples is associated with low-birth-weight infants. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003; 188, 611–616.
MJ Davies , VM Moore , KJ Willson , et al. Reproductive technologies and the risk of birth defects. N Engl J Med. 2012; 366, 1803–1813.
J Lansac , F Thepot , MJ Mayaux , et al. Pregnancy outcome after artificial insemination or IVF with frozen semen donor: a collaborative study of the French CECOS Federation on 21597 pregnancies. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1997; 74, 223–228.
RA Forse , CF Ackman , FC Fraser . Possible teratogenic effects of artificial insemination by donor. Clin Genet. 1985; 28, 23–26.
Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology, American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Assisted reproductive technology in the United States and Canada: 1995 results generated from the American Society for Reproductive Medicine/Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Registry. Fertil Steril. 1998; 69, 389–398.
Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology, American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Assisted reproductive technology in the United States and Canada: 1994 results generated from the American Society for Reproductive Medicine/Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Registry. Fertil Steril. 1996; 66, 697–705.
American Fertility Society & Society of Assisted Reproductive Technology. Assisted reproductive technology in the United States and Canada: 1992 results generated from the American Fertility Society/Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Registry. Fertil Steril. 1994; 62, 1121–1128.
B Blondel , MD Kogan , GR Alexander , et al. The impact of the increasing number of multiple births on the rates of preterm birth and low birthweight: an international study. Am J Public Health. 2002; 92, 1323–1330.
P Poikkeus , T Saisto , RL Punamaki , et al. Birth experience of women conceiving with assisted reproduction: a prospective multicenter study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2014; 93, 880–887.
E Gillet , E Martens , G Martens , H Cammu . Prelabour caesarean section following IVF/ICSI in older-term nulliparous women: too precious to push?
J Pregnancy. 2011; 2011, 362518.
AM Brant , Y Munakata , DI Boomsma , et al. The nature and nurture of high IQ: an extended sensitive period for intellectual development. Psychol Sci. 2013; 24, 1487–1495.
S Paul , S Harbottle , JA Stewart . Recruitment of sperm donors: the Newcastle-upon-Tyne experience 1994-2003. Hum Reprod. 2006; 21, 150–158.
MJ Tomlinson , K Pooley , A Pierce , JF Hopkisson . Sperm donor recruitment within an NHS fertility service since the removal of anonymity. Hum Fertil (Camb). 2010; 13, 159–167.
U Shukla , B Deval , M Jansa Perez , et al. Sperm donor recruitment, attitudes and provider practices – 5 years after the removal of donor anonymity. Hum Reprod. 2013; 28, 676–682.
A Pacey . Sperm donor recruitment in the UK. TOG. 2010; 12, 43–48.
American Academy of Pediatrics, Section on Ophthalmology, Council on Children with Disabilities; American Academy of Ophthalmology; American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus; American Association of Certified Orthoptists. Joint statement – learning disabilities, dyslexia, and vision. Pediatrics. 2009; 124, 837–844.
TE Scruggs , MA Mastropieri . On babies and bathwater: addressing the problems of identification of learning disabilities. Learn Disabil Q. 2002; 25, 155–168.
GR Lyon . Learning disabilities. Future Child. 1996; 6, 54–76.
SI Pfeiffer . Identifying gifted and talented students. J Appl School Psychol. 2002; 19, 31–50.
J Halliday , C Wilson , K Hammarberg , et al. Comparing indicators of health and development of singleton young adults conceived with and without assisted reproductive technology. Fertil Steril. 2014; 101, 1055–1063.