Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-54jdg Total loading time: 0.291 Render date: 2022-08-17T07:24:56.398Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Is maternal periconceptional smoking associated with 2D:4D digit ratio in their children?

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 May 2017

M. P. Velez*
Affiliation:
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada
T. E. Arbuckle
Affiliation:
Population Studies Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
P. Monnier
Affiliation:
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
W. D. Fraser
Affiliation:
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sherbrooke University, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada
*
*Address for correspondence: M. P. Velez, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada, K7L 3N6. (Email maria.velez@queensu.ca)

Abstract

The 2nd--4th finger ratio (2D:4D) has been proposed as a potential indicator of greater androgen exposure during fetal development. Maternal periconceptional smoking may alter the homeostasis of fetal androgens, which could in turn result in differential development of 2D:4Ds in utero. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of maternal periconceptional smoking (i.e. 1 year before through the first trimester of pregnancy) on the 2D:4D of children within The Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study. Maternal smoking history was obtained through questionnaires during the first trimester of pregnancy in 2001 women from 10 cities across Canada. The periconceptional smoking prevalence was 12%. A follow-up study was conducted to measure growth and development up to 5 years of age in a subsample of some 800 MIREC children (MIREC-CD Plus), and digital pictures of the ventral surface of both hands were obtained in mothers and children (2–5 years). The 2D:4D was calculated as the ratio of the 2nd and 4th fingers of each hand. Boys had lower mean 2D:4Ds compared with girls in both hands. Age and maternal 2D:4D were strong determinants of the children’s 2D:4D, however, the mean 2D:4D did not differ among children whose mothers had smoked during the periconceptional period compared with those who had not, irrespective of sex. In conclusion, we did not find an association between maternal periconceptional smoking and children’s 2D:4D, although the smoking prevalence was low.

Type
Original Article
Copyright
© Cambridge University Press and the International Society for Developmental Origins of Health and Disease 2017 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1. Louis, GM, Cooney, MA, Lynch, CD, Handal, A. Periconception window: advising the pregnancy-planning couple. Fertil Steril. 2008; 89(Suppl.), e119e121.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
2. Juul, A, Almstrup, K, Andersson, AM, et al. Possible fetal determinants of male infertility. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2014; 10, 553562.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
3. Jensen, TK, Joffe, M, Scheike, T, et al. Early exposure to smoking and future fecundity among Danish twins. Int J Androl. 2006; 29, 603613.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
4. Malas, MA, Dogan, S, Evcil, EH, Desdicioglu, K. Fetal development of the hand, digits and digit ratio (2D:4D). Early Hum Dev. 2006; 82, 469475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
5. Manning, J, Kilduff, L, Cook, C, Crewther, B, Fink, B. Digit ratio (2D:4D): a biomarker for prenatal sex steroids and adult sex steroids in challenge situations. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2014; 5, 9.Google ScholarPubMed
6. Galis, F, Ten Broek, CM, Van Dongen, S, Wijnaendts, LC. Sexual dimorphism in the prenatal digit ratio (2D:4D). Arch Sex Behav. 2010; 39, 5762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
7. Manning, JT, Scutt, D, Wilson, J, Lewis-Jones, DI. The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: a predictor of sperm numbers and concentrations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and oestrogen. Hum Reprod. 1998; 13, 30003004.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
8. Velez, MP, Arbuckle, TE, Monnier, P, Fraser, WD. Female digit length ratio (2D:4D) and time-to-pregnancy. Hum Reprod. 2016; 31, 21282134.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
9. Oh, JK, Kim, KT, Yoon, SJ, Kim, SW, Kim, TB. Second to fourth digit ratio: a predictor of adult testicular volume. Andrology. 2014; 2, 862867.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
10. Klimek, M, Galbarczyk, A, Nenko, I, Alvarado, LC, Jasienska, G. Digit ratio (2D:4D) as an indicator of body size, testosterone concentration and number of children in human males. Ann Hum Biol. 2014; 41, 518523.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
11. Honekopp, J, Bartholdt, L, Beier, L, Liebert, A. Second to fourth digit length ratio (2D:4D) and adult sex hormone levels: new data and a meta-analytic review. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2007; 32, 313321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
12. Firman, RC, Simmons, LW, Cummins, JM, Matson, PL. Are body fluctuating asymmetry and the ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length reliable predictors of semen quality? Hum Reprod. 2003; 18, 808812.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
13. Bang, AK, Carlsen, E, Holm, M, et al. A study of finger lengths, semen quality and sex hormones in 360 young men from the general Danish population. Hum Reprod. 2005; 20, 31093113.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
14. Manning, JT, Fink, B. Is low digit ratio linked with late menarche? Evidence from the BBC internet study. Am J Hum Biol. 2011; 23, 527533.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
15. Matchock, RL. Low digit ratio (2D:4D) is associated with delayed menarche. Am J Hum Biol. 2008; 20, 487489.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
16. Oberg, AS, Villamor, E. Low digit ratio predicts early age at menarche in Colombian schoolgirls. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2012; 26, 448455.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
17. Manning, JT, Fink, B. Digit ratio (2D:4D), dominance, reproductive success, asymmetry, and sociosexuality in the BBC Internet Study. Am J Hum Biol. 2008; 20, 451461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
18. Oswiecimska, JM, Ksiazek, A, Sygulla, K, et al. Androgens concentrations and second-to fourth-digit ratio (2D:4D) in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (21-hydroxylase deficiency). Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2012; 33, 787791.Google Scholar
19. Cattrall, FR, Vollenhoven, BJ, Weston, GC. Anatomical evidence for in utero androgen exposure in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2005; 84, 16891692.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
20. Lujan, ME, Podolski, AJ, Chizen, DR, Lehotay, DC, Pierson, RA. Digit ratios by computer-assisted analysis confirm lack of anatomical evidence of prenatal androgen exposure in clinical phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2010; 8, 156.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
21. Lujan, ME, Bloski, TG, Chizen, DR, Lehotay, DC, Pierson, RA. Digit ratios do not serve as anatomical evidence of prenatal androgen exposure in clinical phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome. Hum Reprod. 2010; 25, 204211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
22. Auger, J, Eustache, F. Second to fourth digit ratios, male genital development and reproductive health: a clinical study among fertile men and testis cancer patients. Int J Androl. 2011; 34(Pt 2), e49e58.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
23. Buck Louis, GM. Fecundity and fertility. In Reproductive and Perinatal Epidemiology (eds. Buck Louis GM, Platt RW), 2011; pp. 1661. Oxford University Press: New York.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
24. Baird, DD, Wilcox, AJ. Cigarette smoking associated with delayed conception. JAMA. 1985; 253, 29792983.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
25. Ernst, A, Kristensen, SL, Toft, G, et al. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and reproductive health of daughters: a follow-up study spanning two decades. Hum Reprod. 2012; 27, 35933600.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
26. Weinberg, CR, Wilcox, AJ, Baird, DD. Reduced fecundability in women with prenatal exposure to cigarette smoking. Am J Epidemiol. 1989; 129, 10721078.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
27. Smith, LM, Cloak, CC, Poland, RE, Torday, J, Ross, MG. Prenatal nicotine increases testosterone levels in the fetus and female offspring. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003; 5, 369374.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
28. Kandel, DB, Udry, JR. Prenatal effects of maternal smoking on daughters’ smoking: nicotine or testosterone exposure? Am J Public Health. 1999; 89, 13771383.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
29. Rizwan, S, Manning, JT, Brabin, BJ. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and possible effects of in utero testosterone: evidence from the 2D:4D finger length ratio. Early Hum Dev. 2007; 83, 8790.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
30. Arbuckle, TE, Fraser, WD, Fisher, M, et al. Cohort profile: the maternal-infant research on environmental chemicals research platform. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2013; 27, 415425.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
31. Brand, JS, Chan, MF, Dowsett, M, et al. Cigarette smoking and endogenous sex hormones in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 96, 31843192.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
32. Honekopp, J, Watson, S. Meta-analysis of digit ratio 2D:4D shows greater sex difference in the right hand. Am J Hum Biol. 2010; 22, 619630.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
33. Zheng, Z, Cohn, MJ. Developmental basis of sexually dimorphic digit ratios. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011; 108, 1628916294.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
34. McIntyre, MH, Ellison, PT, Lieberman, DE, Demerath, E, Towne, B. The development of sex differences in digital formula from infancy in the Fels Longitudinal Study. Proc Biol Sci. 2005; 272, 14731479.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
35. Manning, JT, Barley, L, Walton, J, et al. The 2nd:4th digit ratio, sexual dimorphism, population differences, and reproductive success. Evidence for sexually antagonistic genes? Evol Hum Behav. 2000; 21, 163183.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
36. Vink, JM, Boomsma, DI. Interplay between heritability of smoking and environmental conditions? A comparison of two birth cohorts. BMC Public Health. 2011; 11, 316.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
37. Manning, JT, Fink, B. Digit ratio, nicotine and alcohol intake and national rates of smoking and alcohol consumption. Pers Indiv Dif. 2011; 50, 344348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
38. Colapinto, CK, Arbuckle, TE, Dubois, L, Fraser, W. Is there a relationship between tea intake and maternal whole blood heavy metal concentrations? J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2016; 26, 503509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
39. Manning, JT, Fink, B, Neave, N, Caswell, N. Photocopies yield lower digit ratios (2D:4D) than direct finger measurements. Arch Sex Behav. 2005; 34, 329333.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
40. Ribeiro, E, Neave, N, Morais, RN, Manning, JT. Direct versus indirect measurement of digit ratio (2D:4D): a critical review of the literature and new data. Evol Psychol. 2016; 14, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
41. Allaway, HC, Bloski, TG, Pierson, RA, Lujan, ME. Digit ratios (2D:4D) determined by computer-assisted analysis are more reliable than those using physical measurements, photocopies, and printed scans. Am J Hum Biol. 2009; 21, 365370.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
42. Fraser, A, McNally, W, Sattar, N, et al. Prenatal exposures and anti-Mullerian hormone in female adolescents: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Am J Epidemiol. 2013; 178, 14141423.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
43. Hart, R, Sloboda, DM, Doherty, DA, et al. Prenatal determinants of uterine volume and ovarian reserve in adolescence. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009; 94, 49314937.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
44. Hakonsen, LB, Ernst, A, Ramlau-Hansen, CH. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and reproductive health in children: a review of epidemiological studies. Asian J Androl. 2014; 16, 3949.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
6
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Is maternal periconceptional smoking associated with 2D:4D digit ratio in their children?
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Is maternal periconceptional smoking associated with 2D:4D digit ratio in their children?
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Is maternal periconceptional smoking associated with 2D:4D digit ratio in their children?
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *