1.Huxley, RR, Shiell, AW, Law, CM. The role of size at birth and postnatal catch-up growth in determining systolic blood pressure: a systematic review of the literature. J Hypertens. 2000; 18, 815–831.
2.Lenfant, C. Low birth weight and blood pressure. Metab Clin Exp. 2008; 57, S32–S35.
3.Godfrey, KM, Barker, DJ. Fetal programming and adult health. Public Health Nutr. 2001; 4, 611–624.
4.Gluckman, PD, Hanson, MA, Cooper, C, Thornburg, KL. Effect of in utero and early-life conditions on adult health and disease. N Engl J Med. 2008; 359, 61–73.
5.McMillen, IC, Robinson, JS. Developmental origins of the metabolic syndrome: prediction, plasticity, and programming. Physiol Rev. 2005; 85, 571–633.
6.Armitage, JA, Taylor, PD, Poston, L. Experimental models of developmental programming: consequences of exposure to an energy rich diet during development. J Physiol. 2005; 565 (Pt 1), 3–8.
7.Langley-Evans, SC, Bellinger, L, McMullen, S. Animal models of programming: early life influences on appetite and feeding behaviour. Matern Child Nutr. 2005; 1, 142–148.
8.Zhang, L. Prenatal hypoxia and cardiac programming. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2005; 12, 2–13.
9.Fowden, AL, Giussani, DA, Forhead, AJ. Intrauterine programming of physiological systems: causes and consequences. Physiology (Bethesda). 2006; 21, 29–37.
10.Morrison, JL. Sheep models of intrauterine growth restriction: fetal adaptations and consequences. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2008; 35, 730–743.
11.Moore, LG. Maternal O2 transport and fetal growth in Colorado, Peru and Tibet high-altitude residents. Am J Hum Biol. 1990; 2, 627–637.
12.Lichty, JA, Ting, RY, Bruns, P, Dyer, E. Studies of babies born at high altitude. 1. Relation of altitude to birth weight. Am J Dis Child. 1957; 93, 666–669.
13.McClung, J. Effects of High Altitude on Human Birth, 1969. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
14.Haas, JD, Frongillo, EF, Stepcik, C, Beard, J, Hurtado, L. Altitude, ethnic and sex differences in birthweight and length in Bolivia. Hum Biol. 1980; 52, 459–477.
15.Moore, LG, Niermeyer, S, Zamudio, S. Human adaptation to high altitude: regional and life-cycle perspectives. Am J Phys Anthropol Suppl. 1998; 27, 25–64.
16.Giussani, DA, Phillips, PS, Anstee, S, Barker, DJ. Effects of altitude vs. economic status on birth weight and body shape at birth. Ped Res. 2001; 49, 490–494.
17.Zamudio, S, Postigo, L, Illsley, NP, et al. Maternal oxygen delivery is not related to altitude- and ancestry-associated differences in human fetal growth. J Physiol. 2007; 582 (Pt 2), 883–895.
18.Giussani, DA, Salinas, CE, Villena, M, Blanco, CE. The role of oxygen in prenatal growth: studies in the chick embryo. J Physiol. 2007; 585 (Pt 3), 911–917.
19.West, JB. Respiratory Physiology. The Essentials, 7th edn, 2004. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.
20.Burton, GJ, Palmer, ME. Eradicating fetomaternal fluid shift during perfusion fixation of the human placenta. Placenta. 1998; 9, 327–332.
21.Armitage, P, Berry, G. Further analyses of straight-line data. In Statistical Methods in Medical Research (eds. Armitage P, Berry G, Matthews JNS), 1994; 292–305. Blackwell, Oxford.
22.Clark, KE, Durnwald, M, Austin, JE. A model for studying chronic reduction in uterine blood flow in pregnant sheep. Am J Physiol. 1982; 242, H297–H301.
23.Jensen, A, Roman, C, Rudolph, AM. Effects of reducing uterine blood flow on fetal blood flow distribution and oxygen delivery. J Dev Physiol. 1991; 15, 309–323.
24.Richardson, BS, Bocking, AD. Metabolic and circulatory adaptations to chronic hypoxia in the fetus. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 1998; 119, 717–723.
25.Gardner, DS, Fletcher, AJ, Fowden, AL, Giussani, DA. A novel method for controlled and reversible long term compression of the umbilical cord in fetal sheep. J Physiol. 2001; 535(Pt 1), 217–229.
26.Murotsuki, J, Challis, JR, Han, VK, Fraher, LJ, Gagnon, R. Chronic fetal placental embolization and hypoxemia cause hypertension and myocardial hypertrophy in fetal sheep. Am J Physiol. 1997; 272(1 Pt 2), R201–R207.
27.Walker, AM, de Preu, ND, Horne, RS, Berger, PJ. Autonomic control of heart rate differs with electrocortical activity and chronic hypoxaemia in fetal lambs. J Dev Physiol. 1990; 14, 43–48.
28.Robinson, JS, Kingston, EJ, Jones, CT, Thorburn, GD. Studies on experimental growth retardation in sheep. The effect of removal of endometrial caruncles on fetal size and metabolism. J Dev Physiol. 1979; 1, 379–398.
29.Kitanaka, T, Alonso, JG, Gilbert, RD, Siu, BL, Clemons, GK, Longo, LD. Fetal responses to long-term hypoxemia in sheep. Am J Physiol. 1989; 256, R1348–R1354.
30.Kamitomo, M, Longo, LD, Gilbert, RD. Right and left ventricular function in fetal sheep exposed to long-term high-altitude hypoxemia. Am J Physiol. 1992; 262(2 Pt 2), H399–H405.
31.Thompson, LP, Dong, Y. Chronic hypoxia decreases endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein expression in fetal guinea pig hearts. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2005; 12, 388–395.
32.Williams, SJ, Hemmings, DG, Mitchell, JM, McMillen, IC, Davidge, ST. Effects of maternal hypoxia or nutrient restriction during pregnancy on endothelial function in adult male rat offspring. J Physiol. 2005; 565, 125–135.
33.Xu, Y, Williams, SJ, O’Brien, D, Davidge, ST. Hypoxia or nutrient restriction during pregnancy in rats leads to progressive cardiac remodeling and impairs postischemic recovery in adult male offspring. FASEB J. 2006; 20, 1251–1253.
34.Rueda-Clausen, CF, Morton, JS, Davidge, ST. Effects of hypoxia-induced intrauterine growth restriction on cardiopulmonary structure and function during adulthood. Cardiovasc Res. 2009; 81, 713–722.
35.De Grauw, TJ, Myers, R, Scott, WJ. Fetal growth in rats from different levels of hypoxia. Biol Neonate. 1986; 49, 85–89.
36.Ruijtenbeek, K, le Noble, FAC, Janssen, GMJ, et al. Chronic hypoxia stimulates periarterial sympathetic nerve development in chicken embryo. Circulation. 2000; 102, 2892–2897.
37.Rouwet, EV, Tintu, AN, Schellings, MW, et al. Hypoxia induces aortic hypertrophic growth, left ventricular dysfunction, and sympathetic hyperinnervation of peripheral arteries in the chick embryo. Circulation. 2002; 105, 2791–2796.
38.Villamor, E, Kessels, CG, Ruijtenbeek, K, et al. Chronic in ovo hypoxia decreases pulmonary arterial contractile reactivity and induces biventricular cardiac enlargement in the chicken embryo. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004; 287, R642–R651.
39.Tintu, A, Rouwet, E, Verlohren, S, et al. Hypoxia induces dilated cardiomyopathy in the chick embryo: mechanism, intervention, and long-term consequences. PLoS ONE. 2009; 4, e5155.
40.Anderson, PA, Kleinman, CS, Lister, G, Talner, NS. Cardiovascular function during normal fetal and neonatal development and with hypoxic stress. In Fetal and Neonatal Physiology (eds. Polin AR, Fox WW), 1998; pp. 876–889. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia.
41.Kempf, H, Linares, C, Corvol, P, Gasc, JM. Pharmacological inactivation of the endothelin type A receptor in the early chick embryo: a model of mispatterning of the branchial arch derivatives. Development. 1998; 125, 4931–4941.
42.Byrne, AM, Bouchier-Hayes, DJ, Harmey, JH. Angiogenic and cell survival functions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). J Cell Mol Med. 2005; 9, 777–794.
43.Skilton, MR, Evans, N, Griffiths, KA, Harmer, JA, Celermajer, DS. Aortic wall thickness in newborns with intrauterine growth restriction. Lancet. 2005; 365, 1484–1486.
44.Koklu, E, Kurtoglu, S, Akcakus, M, et al. Increased aortic intima-media thickness is related to lipid profile in newborns with intrauterine growth restriction. Horm Res. 2006; 65, 269–275.
45.Akira, M, Yoshiyuki, S. Placental circulation, fetal growth, and stiffness of the abdominal aorta in newborn infants. J Pediatr. 2006; 148, 49–53.