Martinez, A, Simmons, R. Abnormalities of fetal growth. In Avery's Diseases of the Newborn (eds. Taeusch H, Ballard R, Gleason C), 8th edn, 2005; pp. 32–45. Elsevier Saunders: Philadelphia.
Lenfant, C. Low birth weight and blood pressure. Metabolism. 2008; 57(Suppl. 2), S32–S35.
Forsen, T, Eriksson, JG, Tuomilehto, J, Osmond, C, Barker, DJ. Growth in utero and during childhood among women who develop coronary heart disease: longitudinal study. BMJ (Clinical research edn). 1999; 319, 1403–1407.
Barker, DJ, Hales, CN, Fall, CH, et al.
Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia (syndrome X): relation to reduced fetal growth. Diabetologia. 1993; 36, 62–67.
Laitinen, J, Pietilainen, K, Wadsworth, M, Sovio, U, Jarvelin, MR. Predictors of abdominal obesity among 31-y-old men and women born in Northern Finland in 1966. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004; 58, 180–190.
Mohamed-Ali, V, Goodrick, S, Rawesh, A, et al.
Subcutaneous adipose tissue releases interleukin-6, but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha, in vivo. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997; 82, 4196–4200.
Ridker, PM, Hennekens, CH, Buring, JE, Rifai, N. C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in the prediction of cardiovascular disease in women. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2000; 342, 836–843.
Ridker, PM, Rifai, N, Stampfer, MJ, Hennekens, CH. Plasma concentration of interleukin-6 and the risk of future myocardial infarction among apparently healthy men. Circulation. 2000; 101, 1767–1772.
Tzoulaki, I, Murray, GD, Lee, AJ, et al.
C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and soluble adhesion molecules as predictors of progressive peripheral atherosclerosis in the general population: Edinburgh artery study. Circulation. 2005; 112, 976–983.
Yudkin, JS, Kumari, M, Humphries, SE, Mohamed-Ali, V. Inflammation, obesity, stress and coronary heart disease: is interleukin-6 the link?
Atherosclerosis. 2000; 148, 209–214.
Yudkin, JS, Stehouwer, CD, Emeis, JJ, Coppack, SW. C-reactive protein in healthy subjects: associations with obesity, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction: a potential role for cytokines originating from adipose tissue?
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 1999; 19, 972–978.
Tzoulaki, I, Jarvelin, MR, Hartikainen, AL, et al.
Size at birth, weight gain over the life course, and low-grade inflammation in young adulthood: northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort study. European Heart Journal. 2008; 29, 1049–1056.
Pellanda, LC, Duncan, BB, Vigo, A, et al.
Low birth weight and markers of inflammation and endothelial activation in adulthood: the ARIC study. Int J Cardiol. 2009; 134, 371–377.
Sattar, N, McConnachie, A, O'Reilly, D, et al.
Inverse association between birth weight and C-reactive protein concentrations in the MIDSPAN Family Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004; 24, 583–587.
Cook, DG, Mendall, MA, Whincup, PH, et al.
C-reactive protein concentration in children: relationship to adiposity and other cardiovascular risk factors. Atherosclerosis. 2000; 149, 139–150.
Cook, DG, Whincup, PH, Miller, G, et al.
Fibrinogen and factor VII levels are related to adiposity but not to fetal growth or social class in children aged 10–11 years. Am J Epidemiol. 1999; 150, 727–736.
Laskowska, M, Laskowska, K, Leszczynska-Gorzelak, B, Oleszczuk, J. Maternal and umbilical sTNF-R1 in preeclamptic pregnancies with intrauterine normal and growth retarded fetus. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2007; 26, 13–21.
Nieto-Diaz, A, Villar, J, Matorras-Weinig, R, Valenzuela-Ruiz, P. Intrauterine growth retardation at term: association between anthropometric and endocrine parameters. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1996; 75, 127–131.
Sasanow, SR, Spitzer, AR, Pereira, GR, Heaf, L, Watkins, JB. Effect of gestational age upon prealbumin and retinol binding protein in preterm and term infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1986; 5, 111–115.
Gicquel, C, Le Bouc, Y. Hormonal regulation of fetal growth. Horm Res. 2006; 65(Suppl. 3), 28–33.
Giudice, LC, de Zegher, F, Gargosky, SE, et al.
Insulin-like growth factors and their binding proteins in the term and preterm human fetus and neonate with normal and extremes of intrauterine growth. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995; 80, 1548–1555.
Holmes, R, Montemagno, R, Jones, J, et al.
Fetal and maternal plasma insulin-like growth factors and binding proteins in pregnancies with appropriate or retarded fetal growth. Early Hum Dev. 1997; 49, 7–17.
Yildiz, L, Avci, B, Ingec, M. Umbilical cord and maternal blood leptin concentrations in intrauterine growth retardation. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2002; 40, 1114–1117.
Chiesa, C, Osborn, JF, Haass, C, et al.
Ghrelin, leptin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and insulin concentrations at birth: is there a relationship with fetal growth and neonatal anthropometry?
Clin Chem. 2008; 54, 550–558.
Strinic, T, Roje, D, Marusic, J, Capkun, V. Cord blood cortisol level is lower in growth-restricted newborns. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2007; 33, 144–150.
Street, ME, Seghini, P, Fieni, S, et al.
Changes in interleukin-6 and IGF system and their relationships in placenta and cord blood in newborns with fetal growth restriction compared with controls. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006; 155, 567–574.
Laskowska, M, Leszczynska-Gorzelak, B, Laskowska, K, Oleszczuk, J. Evaluation of maternal and umbilical serum TNFalpha levels in preeclamptic pregnancies in the intrauterine normal and growth-restricted fetus. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2006; 19, 347–351.
Wang, X, Zuckerman, B, Pearson, C, et al.
Maternal cigarette smoking, metabolic gene polymorphism, and infant birth weight. JAMA. 2002; 287, 195–202.
Matoba, N, Yu, Y, Mestan, K, et al.
Differential patterns of 27 cord blood immune biomarkers across gestational age. Pediatrics. 2009; 123, 1320–1328.
ACOG Practice Bulletin. Clinical management guidelines for obstetrician-gynecologists. Number 30, September 2001 (replaces Technical Bulletin Number 200, December 1994). Gestational diabetes. Obstet Gynecol. 2001; 98, 525–538.
Gibbs, RS, Blanco, JD, St Clair, PJ, Castaneda, YS. Quantitative bacteriology of amniotic fluid from women with clinical intraamniotic infection at term. J Infect Dis. 1982; 145, 1–8.
Report of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000; 183, S1–S22.
Zhang, J, Bowes, WA Jr. Birth-weight-for-gestational-age patterns by race, sex, and parity in the United States population. Obstet Gynecol. 1995; 86, 200–208.
Wang, L, Wang, X, Laird, N, et al.
Polymorphism in maternal LRP8 gene is associated with fetal growth. Am J Hum Genet. 2006; 78, 770–777.
Kramer, MS, Platt, R, Yang, H, McNamara, H, Usher, RH. Are all growth-restricted newborns created equal(ly)?
Pediatrics. 1999; 103, 599–602.
Skogstrand, K, Thorsen, P, Norgaard-Pedersen, B, et al.
Simultaneous measurement of 25 inflammatory markers and neurotrophins in neonatal dried blood spots by immunoassay with xMAP technology. Clin Chem. 2005; 51, 1854–1866.
Mestan, K, Yu, Y, Thorsen, P, et al.
Cord blood biomarkers of the fetal inflammatory response. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2009; 22, 379–387.
Ekins, R, Edwards, P. On the meaning of “sensitivity”. Clin Chem. 1997; 43, 1824–1831.
Duijts, L, Bakker-Jonges, LE, Labout, JA, et al.
Fetal growth influences lymphocyte subset counts at birth: The Generation R Study. Neonatology. 2008; 95, 149–156.
McDade, TW, Beck, MA, Kuzawa, C, Adair, LS. Prenatal undernutrition, postnatal environments, and antibody response to vaccination in adolescence. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001; 74, 543–548.
Hotamisligil, GS, Erbay, E. Nutrient sensing and inflammation in metabolic diseases. Nat Rev. 2008; 8, 923–934.
Chung, S, Lapoint, K, Martinez, K, et al.
Preadipocytes mediate lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in primary cultures of newly differentiated human adipocytes. Endocrinology. 2006; 147, 5340–5351.
Demas, GE, Chefer, V, Talan, MI, Nelson, RJ. Metabolic costs of mounting an antigen-stimulated immune response in adult and aged C57BL/6J mice. Am J Physiol. 1997; 273(5 Pt 2), R1631–R1637.
Kajantie, E. Fetal origins of stress-related adult disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006; 1083, 11–27.
Phillips, DI, Jones, A, Goulden, PA. Birth weight, stress, and the metabolic syndrome in adult life. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006; 1083, 28–36.
Stallmach, T, Hebisch, G, Joller-Jemelka, HI, et al.
Cytokine production and visualized effects in the feto-maternal unit. Quantitative and topographic data on cytokines during intrauterine disease. Lab Invest. 1995; 73, 384–392.
Amu, S, Hahn-Zoric, M, Malik, A, et al.
Cytokines in the placenta of Pakistani newborns with and without intrauterine growth retardation. Pediatr Res. 2006; 59, 254–258.
Lykissas, MG, Batistatou, AK, Charalabopoulos, KA, Beris, AE. The role of neurotrophins in axonal growth, guidance, and regeneration. Curr Neurovasc Res. 2007; 4, 143–151.
Chouthai, NS, Sampers, J, Desai, N, Smith, GM. Changes in neurotrophin levels in umbilical cord blood from infants with different gestational ages and clinical conditions. Pediatr Res. 2003; 53, 965–969.
Schulte-Herbruggen, O, Braun, A, Rochlitzer, S, Jockers-Scherubl, MC, Hellweg, R. Neurotrophic factors--a tool for therapeutic strategies in neurological, neuropsychiatric and neuroimmunological diseases?
Curr Med Chem. 2007; 14, 2318–2329.
Pan, W, Banks, WA, Kastin, AJ. Permeability of the blood-brain barrier to neurotrophins. Brain Res. 1998; 788, 87–94.
Malamitsi-Puchner, A, Nikolaou, KE, Puchner, KP. Intrauterine growth restriction, brain-sparing effect, and neurotrophins. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006; 1092, 293–296.
Conde-Agudelo, A, Althabe, F, Belizan, JM, Kafury-Goeta, AC. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia: a systematic review. Am Obstetr Gynecol. 1999; 181, 1026–1035.
Jeyabalan, A, Powers, RW, Durica, AR, et al.
Cigarette smoke exposure and angiogenic factors in pregnancy and preeclampsia. Am J Hypertens. 2008; 21, 943–947.
Malamitsi-Puchner, A, Nikolaou, KE, Economou, E, et al.
Intrauterine growth restriction and circulating neurotrophin levels at term. Early Hum Dev. 2007; 83, 465–469.
Rich-Edwards, JW, Stampfer, MJ, Manson, JE, et al.
Birth weight and risk of cardiovascular disease in a cohort of women followed up since 1976. BMJ (Clinical research edn) 1997; 315, 396–400.
Forsen, T, Eriksson, JG, Tuomilehto, J, et al.
Mother's weight in pregnancy and coronary heart disease in a cohort of Finnish men: follow up study. BMJ (Clinical research edn). 1997; 315, 837–840.
Henry, OA, Guaran, RL, Petterson, CD, Walstab, JE. Obstetric and birthweight differences between Vietnam-born and Australian-born women. Med J Aust. 1992; 156, 321–324.
Wang, X, Guyer, B, Paige, DM. Differences in gestational age-specific birthweight among Chinese, Japanese and white Americans. Int J Epidemiol. 1994; 23, 119–128.
Davies, DP, Senior, N, Cole, G, Blass, D, Simpson, K. Size at birth of Asian and white Caucasian babies born in Leicester: implications for obstetric and paediatric practices. Early Hum Dev. 1982; 6, 257–263.
Rizos, D, Protonotariou, E, Malamitsi-Puchner, A, et al.
Cytokine concentrations during the first days of life. Eur J Obstet, Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2007; 131, 32–35.
Meas, T, Deghmoun, S, Armoogum, P, Alberti, C, Levy-Marchal, C. Consequences of being born small for gestational age on body composition: an 8-year follow-up study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008; 93, 3804–3809.
Hediger, ML, Overpeck, MD, Kuczmarski, RJ, et al.
Muscularity and fatness of infants and young children born small- or large-for-gestational-age. Pediatrics. 1998; 102, E60.