Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The effect of maternal and child early life factors on grade repetition among HIV exposed and unexposed children in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

  • J. M. Mitchell (a1) (a2), T. J. Rochat (a1) (a3) (a4), B. Houle (a5) (a6) (a7), A. Stein (a3) (a7), M. L. Newell (a1) (a8) and R. M. Bland (a1) (a7) (a9)...
  • Please note a correction has been issued for this article.
Abstract

Receiving an education is essential for children living in poverty to fulfil their potential. Success in the early years of schooling is important as children who repeat grade one are particularly at risk for future dropout. We examined early life factors associated with grade repetition through logistic regression and explored reasons for repeating a grade through parent report. In 2012–2014 we re-enrolled children aged 7–11 years in rural KwaZulu-Natal who had been part of an early life intervention. Of the 894 children included, 43.1% had repeated a grade, of which 62.9% were boys. Higher maternal education (aOR 0.44; 95% CI 0.2–0.9) and being further along in the birth order (aOR 0.46; 95% CI 0.3–0.9) reduced the odds of grade repetition. In addition, maternal HIV status had the strongest effect on grade repetition for girls (aOR 2.17; 95% CI 1.3–3.8), whereas for boys, it was a fridge in the household (aOR 0.59; 95% CI 0.4–1.0). Issues with school readiness was the most common reason for repeating a grade according to parental report (126/385, 32.7%), while school disruptions was an important reason among HIV-exposed boys. Further research is needed to elucidate the pathways through which HIV affects girls’ educational outcomes and potentially impacts on disrupted schooling for boys. Our results also highlight the importance of preparation for schooling in the early years of life; future research could focus on gaining a better understanding of mechanisms by which to improve early school success, including increased quality of reception year and investigating the protective effect of older siblings.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The effect of maternal and child early life factors on grade repetition among HIV exposed and unexposed children in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The effect of maternal and child early life factors on grade repetition among HIV exposed and unexposed children in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The effect of maternal and child early life factors on grade repetition among HIV exposed and unexposed children in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: T. J. Rochat, Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. (Email trochat@africacentre.ac.za)
References
Hide All
1. Walker, SP, Wachs, TD, Grantham-McGregor, S, et al. Inequality in early childhood: risk and protective factors for early child development. Lancet. 2011; 378, 13251338.
2. Engle, P, Black, MM, JR, B, et al. Strategies to avoid the loss of developmental potential in more than 200 million children in the developing world. Lancet. 2007; 369, 229242.
3. Entwistle, D, Alexander, KL, Olson, LS. First grade and educational attainment by age 22: a new story. Am J Sociol. 2005; 110, 14581502.
4. Jimerson, SR, Anderson, GE, Whipple, AD. Winning the battle and losing the war: examining the relation between grade retention and dropping out of high school. Psychol Schools. 2002; 39, 441457.
5. Gomes-Neto, JB, Hanushek, EA. Causes and consequences of grade repetition: evidence from Brazil. Econ Dev Cult Change . 1994; 43, 117148.
6. Freudenberg, N, Ruglis, J. Reframing school dropout as a public health issue. Prev Chronic Dis. 2007; 4, 107.
7. Oreopoulos, P. Do dropouts drop out too soon? Wealth, health and happiness from compulsory schooling. J Public Econ. 2007; 91, 22132229.
8. Kamal, M, Bener, A. Factors contributing to school failure among school children in very fast developing Arabian Society. Oman Med J. 2009; 24, 212.
9. Hamre, B, Pianta, R. Can instructional and emotional support in the first‐grade classroom make a difference for children at risk of school failure? Child Dev. 2005; 76, 949967.
10. Byrd, RS, Weitzman, ML. Predictors of early grade retention among children in the United States. Pediatrics. 1994; 93, 481487.
11. Blair, C. The early identification of risk for grade retention among African American children at risk for school difficulty. Appl Dev Sci. 2001; 5, 3750.
12. Liu, J. Childhood externalizing behavior: theory and implications. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs. 2004; 17, 93103.
13. Dai, X, Heckman, JJ. Older siblings’ contributions to young child’s cognitive skills. Econ Model. 2013; 35, 235248.
14. Development DoS. Guidelines for early childhood development services. South Africa: UNICEF, 2006. Retrieved 24th August 2015 from http://www.unicef.org/southafrica/SAF_resources_ecdguidlines.pdf
15. Guo, Y, Li, X, Sherr, L. The impact of HIV/AIDS on children’s educational outcome: a critical review of global literature. AIDS Care. 2012; 24, 9931012.
16. Birdthistle, I, Floyd, S, Nyagadza, A, et al. Is education the link between orphanhood and HIV/HSV-2 risk among female adolescents in urban Zimbabwe? Soc Sci Med. 2009; 68, 18101818.
17. Rescorla, L, Achenbach, T, Ivanova, MY, et al. Behavioral and emotional problems reported by parents of children ages 6 to 16 in 31 societies. J Emot Behav Disord. 2007; 15, 130142.
18. Ainsworth, M, Beegle, K, Koda, G. The impact of adult mortality and parental deaths on primary schooling in North-Western Tanzania. J Dev Stud. 2005; 41, 412439.
19. Bhargava, A. AIDS epidemic and the psychological well-being and school participation of Ethiopian orphans. Psychol Health Med. 2005; 10, 263275.
20. Yamano, T, Jayne, TS. Working-age adult mortality and primary school attendance in rural Kenya. Econ Dev Cult Change. 2005; 53, 619653.
21. Ainsworth, M, Filmer, D. Inequalities in children’s schooling: AIDS, orphanhood, poverty, and gender. World Dev. 2006; 34, 10991128.
22. Evans, DK, Miguel, E. Orphans and schooling in Africa: a longitudinal analysis. Demography. 2007; 44, 3557.
23. Kobiané, JF, Calvès, AE, Marcoux, R. Parental death and children’s schooling in Burkina Faso. Comp Educ Rev. 2005; 49, 468489.
24. Fleisch, B, Shindler, J. Gender repetition: school access, transitions and equity in the ‘Birth to Twenty’cohort panel study in urban South Africa. Comp Educ. 2009; 45, 265279.
25. Motala, S, Dieltiens, V, Sayed, Y. Physical access to schooling in South Africa: mapping dropout, repetition and age-grade progression in two districts. Comp Educ. 2009; 45, 251263.
26. De Neve, J-W, Fink, G, Subramanian, SV, Moyo, S, Bor, J. Length of secondary schooling and risk of HIV infection in Botswana: evidence from a natural experiment. Lancet Glob Health. 2015; 3, 470–477.
27. Zaidi, J, Grapsa, E, Tanser, F, Newell, M-L, Bärnighausen, T. Dramatic increases in HIV prevalence after scale-up of antiretroviral treatment: a longitudinal population-based HIV surveillance study in rural kwazulu-natal. AIDS. 2013; 27, 23012305.
28. Houlihan, CF, Bland, RM, Mutevedzi, PC, et al. Cohort profile: Hlabisa HIV treatment and care programme. Int J Epidemiol. 2011; 40, 318326.
29. Mkwanazi, NB, Patel, D, Newell, M-L, et al. Rapid testing may not improve uptake of HIV testing and same day results in a rural South African community: a cohort study of 12,000 women. PLoS One. 2008; 3, 3501.
30. Bland, R, Coovadia, H, Coutsoudis, A, Rollins, N, Newell, M. Cohort profile: mamanengane or the Africa centre vertical transmission study. Int J Epidemiol. 2010; 39, 351360.
31. Coovadia, HM, Rollins, NC, Bland, RM, et al. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 infection during exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life: an intervention cohort study. Lancet. 2007; 369, 11071116.
32. Galobardes, B, Shaw, M, Lawlor, DA, Lynch, JW. Indicators of socioeconomic position (part 1). J Epidemiol Commun H. 2006; 60, 712.
33. Achenbach, TM, Edelbrock, CS. Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist and Revised Child Behavior Profile. 1983. University of Vermont: Burlington.
34. Bangirana, P, Seggane-Musisi, P, Allebeck, P, et al. A preliminary examination of the construct validity of the KABC-II in Ugandan children with a history of cerebral malaria. Afr Health Sci. 2009; 9, 186192.
35. Malda, M, van de Vijver, FJ, Srinivasan, K, Transler, C, Sukumar, P. Traveling with cognitive tests: testing the validity of a KABC-II adaptation in India. Assessment. 2009; 17, 107115.
36. Organization WH. Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding, 2003. World Health Organisation: Geneva, Switzerland.
37. Corporation S. Stata Statistical Software: Release 13, 2013. StataCorp LP: College Station, TX.
38. Hsieh, H-F, Shannon, SE. Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qual Health Res. 2005; 15, 12771288.
39. Anderson, KG, Case, A, Lam, D. Causes and consequences of schooling outcomes in South Africa: evidence from survey data. Soc Dynamics. 2001; 27, 3759.
40. Hungi, N. What are the levels and trends in grade repetition. SACMEQ policy issues series, number 5 2010. Retrieved 24th August 2015 from http://www.sacmeq.org/sites/default/files/sacmeq/reports/sacmeq-iii/policy-issue-series/005-sacmeqpolicyissuesseries-graderepetition.pdf.
41. Ginsburg, C, Richter, LM, Fleisch, B, Norris, SA. An analysis of associations between residential and school mobility and educational outcomes in South African urban children: the Birth to twenty cohort. Int J Educ Dev. 2011; 31, 213222.
42. Voyer, D, Voyer, SD. Gender differences in scholastic achievement: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull. 2014; 140, 11741204.
43. Liddell, C, Rae, G. Predicting early grade retention: a longitudinal investigation of primary school progress in a sample of rural South African children. Brit J Educ Psychol. 2001; 71, 413428.
44. Case, A, Paxson, C, Ableidinger, J. Orphans in Africa: parental death, poverty, and school enrollment. Demography. 2004; 41, 483508.
45. Nyirenda, M, McGrath, N, Newell, M-L. Gender differentials in the impact of parental death: adolescent’s sexual behaviour and risk of HIV infection in rural South Africa. Vulnerable Child Youth Stud. 2010; 5, 284296.
46. Bicego, G, Rutstein, S, Johnson, K. Dimensions of the emerging orphan crisis in sub-Saharan Africa. Soc Sci Med. 2003; 56, 12351247.
47. Downey, DB. Number of siblings and intellectual development: the resource dilution explanation. Am Psychol. 2001; 56, 497504.
48. Rudasill, KM, Rimm-Kaufman, SE. Teacher-child relationship quality: the roles of child temperament and teacher–child interactions. Early Child Res Q. 2009; 24, 107120.
49. King, EM. The effect of family size on family welfare: what do we know?. In Population Growth And Economic Development: Issues and Evidence (eds. Johnson D, Lee R), 1987; pp. 373411. University of Wisconsin Press: Wisconsin.
50. Cockburn, J, Dostie, B. Child work and schooling: the role of household asset profiles and poverty in rural Ethiopia. J Afr Econ. 2007; 16, 519563.
51. Maharaj, P, Kaufman, C, Richter, L. Children’s Schooling In South Africa: Transitions And Tensions In Households and Communities. CSDS Working Paper 30. 2000. University of Natal: Durban.
52. Niehaus, IA. Disharmonious spouses and harmonious siblings: conceptualising household formation among urban residents in Qwaqwa. Afr Stud. 1994; 53, 115135.
53. Cicirelli, VG. Sibling relationships in cross-cultural perspective. J Marriage Fam. 1994; 56, 6985.
54. Soudien, C. ‘Constituting the class’: an analysis of the process of ‘integration’in South African schools. In Changing class: Education and Social Change in Post-Apartheid South Africa (ed. Chisholm L), 2004; 89114. HSRC Press: Cape Town.
55. Glick, P, Sahn, DE. Schooling of girls and boys in a West African country: the effects of parental education, income, and household structure. Econ Educ Rev. 2000; 19, 6387.
56. Case, A, Ardington, C. The impact of parental death on school outcomes: longitudinal evidence from South Africa. Demography. 2006; 43, 401420.
57. Orkin, M, Boyes, ME, Cluver, LD, Zhang, Y. Pathways to poor educational outcomes for HIV/AIDS-affected youth in South Africa. AIDS Care. 2014; 26, 343350.
58. Foster, G, Williamson, J. A review of current literature on the impact of HIV/AIDS on children in sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS. 2000; 14, 275284.
59. Robson, E. Invisible carers: young people in Zimbabwe’s home-based healthcare. Area. 2000; 32, 5969.
60. Cluver, LD, Orkin, FM, Boyes, ME, Sherr, L. Cash plus care: social protection cumulatively mitigates HIV-risk behaviour among adolescents in South Africa. AIDS. 2014; 28, S389S397.
61. Wamani, H, Åstrøm, AN, Peterson, S, Tumwine, JK, Tylleskär, T. Boys are more stunted than girls in sub-Saharan Africa: a meta-analysis of 16 demographic and health surveys. BMC Pediatr. 2007; 7, 17.
62. Edmonds, EV. Child labor and schooling responses to anticipated income in South Africa. J Dev Econ. 2006; 81, 386414.
63. Mashiya, N. IsiZulu and English in KwaZulu-Natal rural schools: how teachers fear failure and opt for English. South African J Childhood Educ. 2014; 1, 1931.
64. Lehr, CA, Sinclair, MF, Christenson, SL. Addressing student engagement and truancy prevention during the elementary school years: a replication study of the check & connect model. JESPAR. 2004; 9, 279301.
65. van Breda, M. Acting up or opting out: an analytical literature review of extant South African and international school truancy studies. Mediterr J Soc Sci. 2014; 5, 322.
66. Hill, NE, Tyson, DF. Parental involvement in middle school: a meta-analytic assessment of the strategies that promote achievement. Dev Psychol. 2009; 45, 740763.
67. Siziya, S, Muula, AS, Rudatsikira, E. Prevalence and correlates of truancy among adolescents in Swaziland: findings from the Global School-Based Health Survey. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2007; 1, 15.
68. van Breda, MJ. Truants’ perceptions of family factors as causes of school truancy and non-attendance. J Psychol. 2014; 5, 4753.
69. Welsh, JA, Nix, RL, Blair, C, Bierman, KL, Nelson, KE. The development of cognitive skills and gains in academic school readiness for children from low-income families. J Educ Psychol. 2010; 102, 4353.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
  • ISSN: 2040-1744
  • EISSN: 2040-1752
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-developmental-origins-of-health-and-disease
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed