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Anglo-Catholicism, the ‘Crisis in the Church’ and the Cavalier Case of 1899

  • Martin Wellings
Extract

Much of the history of the late nineteenth-century Church of England is dominated by the phenomenon of Anglo-Catholicism. In the period between 1890 and 1939 Anglo-Catholics formed the most vigorous and successful party in the Church. Membership of the English Church Union, which represented a broad spectrum of Anglo-Catholic opinion, grew steadily in these years; advanced ceremonial was introduced in an increasing number of parish churches and, from 1920 onwards, a series of congresses was held which filled the Royal Albert Hall for a celebration of the strength of the ‘Catholic’ movement in the Established Church. In the Church Times the Anglo-Catholics possessed a weekly newspaper which outsold all its rivals put together and which reinforced the impression that theirs was the party with the Church's future in its hands. Furthermore, Anglo-Catholicism could claim to be supplying the Church of England with many of its saints and with a fair proportion of its scholars. Slum priests like R. R. Dolling and Arthur Stanton gave their lives to the task of urban mission; Edward King, bishop of Lincoln, was hailed as a spiritual leader by churchmen of all parties; Charles Gore, Walter Frere and Darwell Stone were scholars of renown, while Frank Weston, bishop of Zanzibar, combined academic achievements and missionary zeal with personal qualities which brought him an unexpected pre-eminence at the 1920 Lambeth Conference. In the last decade of the nineteenth century and in the first decades of the twentieth century, therefore, Anglo-Catholicism was the party of advance, offering leadership and vision and presenting the Church of England with a concept of Catholicity which many found attractive.

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1 Chadwick, O., The Victorian Church, London 1972 2, 2. 308–19; Lloyd, R., The Church of England 1900–65, London 1966, ch. vi; Pickering, W. S. F., Anglo-Catholicism: A study in religious ambiguity, London 1989, ch. ii.

2 Iremonger, F. A., William Temple, Archbishop of Canterbury, London 1948, 180.

3 Russell, G. W. E., ‘The angel of the Church of Lincoln’, in The Household of Faith, London 1902, 216–22; Prestige, G. L., The Life of Charles Gore, London 1935; Cross, F. L., Darwell Stone: Churchman and counsellor, Westminster 1943; Smith, H. Maynard, Fran, Bishop of Zanzibar, London 1926, especially 220–39.

4 Machin, G. I. T., ‘The last Victorian anti-ritualist campaign, 18951906’, Victorian Studies 25 (1982), 277302; Wellings, M., ‘Some Aspects of Late Nineteenth Century Anglican Evangelicalism’, DPhil. diss., Oxford 1989, chs 2, 3 and vii. See also Wace's address to the United Protestant Congress of 1922, published in Protestantism in Answer to Anglo-Catholicism, Romanism and Modernism, London 1922, 510.

5 Charles Gore, for example, engaged in controversy with other Anglo-Catholics over Biblical criticism in the 1890s, perpetual reservation of the sacrament in the 1910s and Prayer Book revision in the 1920s: Prestige, Charles Gore, 97115, 390–4, 504–6. See also Knox, R. A., ‘Some tendencies of Anglicanism’, Dublin Review 324 (1918) on the varieties of Anglo-Catholicism.

6 Pickering, Anglo-Catholicism, 111.

7 Ibid. 209–45.

8 Lockhart, J. G., Charles Lindley, Viscount Halifax, London 1936, 2. 38ff.

9 Minutes of the Church Association Council 17 06 1897 and 11 12 1898, in the Church Society Papers, Lambeth Palace Library.

10 Chadwick, , Victorian Church, 2. 355; Creighton, L., Life and Letters of Mandell Creighton, London 1904, 2. 288–92; Record, London, 1898, passim.

11 Gardiner, A. G., The Life of Sir William Harcourt, London 1923, 2. 48 off.; Machin, G. I. T., Politics and the Churches in Great Britain, 18681939, Oxford 1987, 237–8.

12 See, for example, Waller, P. J., Democracy and Sectarianism: A political and social history of Liverpool 18681939, Liverpool 1981, ch. 11.

13 Machin, Politics and the Churches, 245.

14 Record, London, 20 01 1899, 78.

15 Ibid. 3 March 1899, 223.

16 I am grateful to the Revd Dr Alan, Wilson for drawing my attention to the Cavalier case papers (CCP) among the Fulham Papers in Lambeth Palace Library. The fictional ‘Pomeroy affair’ may be found in Mackenzie, C., The Altar Steps, London 1922, 102–20.

17 Crockford's Clerical Directory, London 1900; Bentley, A., ‘The Transformation of the Evangelical Party in the Church of England in the later Nineteenth Century’, PhD. diss., Durham 1971, 455–9.

18 Stock, E., The History of the Church Missionary Society, London 1899, ch. 88.

19 Record, London, 30 03 1899, 330.

20 Times, London, 17 03 1899, 12.

21 Ibid.

22 Crockford's Clerical Directory, London 1900.

23 Times, 17 03 1899, 12.

24 CCP, Arthur Cavalier to George Chambers, 3 01 1899.

25 Times, London, 5 07 1899, 4.

26 Mackenzie, C., My Life and Times, London 1963, 2. 244.

27 Times, London, 24 03 1899, 12.

28 CCP, Cavalier, A. R. to Creighton, 5 02; Cavalier, A. R. to Denison, 7 02; Denison to Creighton, 7 02.

29 CCP, Cavalier, A. R. to Creighton, 7 02; Denison to Creighton, 7 and 9 02.

30 Times, London, 17 03 1899, 12.

31 Ibid. 17 March 1899, 12; 20 March 1899, 13; CCP, Denison to Creighton, 10 March 1899.

32 Ibid.

33 Times, London, 17 03 1899, 12.

34 Times, London, 20 03 1899, 13; 21 03 1899, 14; 22 03 1899, 10; 24 03 1899, 12; 27 03 1899, 9; 28 1899, 12.

35 Record, London, 24 03 1899, 296; English Churchman, London, 29 03 1899, 203; Rock, London, 24 03 1899, 9; Guardian, London, 22 03 1899, 390, 427; Parl. Deb. Eng., 96104.

36 Creighton, Mandell Creighton, 2. 364.

37 Ibid. 364.

38 Times, London, 17 03 1899, 12.

39 CCP, Cavalier, A. R. to Creighton, 7 02.

40 English Churchman, London, 29 03 1899, 203.

41 Times, London, 20 03 1899, 13 (Kelly), and 21, 14 and 27 03, 9(Cavalier, H. O.); Rock, London, 24 03, 1899, 9.

42 CCP, Cavalier, A. R. to Denison, 7 02; Times, London, 28 03 1899, 12.

43 Record, London, 15 06 1900, 577.

44 Munson, J. E. B., ‘The Oxford Movement by the end of the nineteenth century: the Anglo-Catholic clergy’, Church History 44 (1975), 390.

45 Russell, Household of Faith, 231ff.

46 Mackenzie, Life and Times, 2. 257–9.

47 Speeches of Samuel Smith, Esq., MP, and the Rt Hon. Sir William Harcourt, MP, in the House of Commons, June 16th and 21st i8g8, and an Address by Samuel Smith, Esq., MP, on Ritualism and Elementary Education, London 1898, 3247.

48 Machin, Politics and the Churches, 260–72; Bebbington, D. W., The Nonconformist Conscience: chapel and politics, 1870-1914, London 1982, 127ff.

49 CCP, Cavalier, A. R. to Denison, 7 02, and to Creighton, 7 02.

50 CCP, Cavalier, A. R. to Creighton, 5 02, and to Denison, 7 02.

51 Percival, J. et al. , Church and Faith, Being Essays on the Teaching of the Church of England, London 1899, 243–4.

52 Walsh, W., The Secret History of the Oxford Movement, London 1897, ch. 3.

53 Sir Edward Russell to Sir William Harcourt, 17 10 1898, HP Box 237, fo. 128.

54 CCP, Arthur Cavalier to George Chambers, 3 01.

55 CCP, Cavalier, A. R. to Creighton, 5 02.

56 Record, London, 8 11 1901, 1102.

57 Chavasse, F.J., Plain Words on some Present Day Questions, London 1898, 516; Ryle, J. C., Knots Untied, London 1877, chs xi and 7.

58 CCP, Cavalier, A. R. to Creighton, 7 02; Ryle, Knots Untied, 205.

59 Chavasse, Plain Words, 1314.

60 Ryle, Knots Untied, 215.

61 Sangar, J. M., The Protestant Crisis, London 1899 18,; Record, London, 25 01 1901, 120.

62 Times, London, 18 03 1899, 13.

63 Rock, London, 24 03 1899, 9.

64 Times, London, 5 07 1899, 4.

65 CCP, Cavalier, A. R. to Creighton, 5 02.

66 Record, London, 24 03 1899, 305.

67 Part. Deb. Eng., 101.

68 Chavasse, Plain Words, 912.

69 Record, London, 22 11 1912, 1109.

70 Henson, H. H., Cui Bono? An open letter to Lord Halifax on the present crisis in the Church of England, London 1898, 32.

71 CCP, Denison to Creighton, 9, 11 and 14 02, and Creighton to Denison, 13 02.

72 Parl. Deb. Eng., 106.

73 Times, London, 22 03, 1899, 10; Pad. Deb. Eng., 109–10.

74 Record, London, 20 01 1899, 78.

75 Ibid. 3 March 1899, 223.

76 Rock, London, 24 03 1899, 8.

77 Church Times, London, 7 02 1899, 403–4.

78 Record, London, 24 03 1899, 306; Part. Deb. Eng., 101. Removing an incumbent was much more difficult.

79 Creighton, Mandell Creighton, 2. 358–9.

80 Davidson to Harcourt, 7 04 1899, HP Box 241, fos 317; Bell, G. K. A., Randall Davidson, London 1935, ch. 17.

81 Creighton, Mandell Creighton, 2. 367.

82 Davidson to Harcourt, 25 08 1899, HP Box 241, fo. 54.

83 Record, London, 28 01 1898, 89; 13 05 1898, 465; 3 06 1898, 540.

84 Jansen, F. to Harcourt, 18 08 1898, HP Box 237, fos. 1617.

85 Creighton, Mandell Creighton, 2. 293.

86 See Harry, Wilson's correspondence, now in Lambeth Palace Library. I owe this suggestion to the Revd Dr Alan, Wilson.

87 Creighton, Mandell Creighton, 2. 357.

88 Ibid. ii. 381–3; Church Association Council Minutes 16 March 1899.

89 Tatlow, T., The Story of the Student Christian Movement, London 1933, 180; Wilson, A., ‘Ritualism in the 1890s’ (unpublished paper, 1982).

90 Harcourt to the Church Association, 3 11 1899, HP Box 241, fo. 131.

91 Machin, , Politics and the Churches, 110 and 243ff; Record, London, 16 03 1900, 254 and 25 June 1902, 625.

92 Davidson to Harcourt, 27 09 1898, HP Box 237, fo.77; Carpenter, S. C., Winnington-Ingram, London 1949, chs ix and 10.

93 Lloyd, , Church of England, chs 5 and xii; Stephenson, A. M. G., The Rise and Decline of English Modernism, London 1984, passim.

94 Weston, F., Ecclesia Anglicana: For what does She stand?, London 1913, 129.

95 Bullock, F. W. B., A History of Training for the ministry of the Church of England in England and Wales 18751974, London 1976, 142.

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