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Jewish Converts in the Early Church and Latin Christian Exegetes of Isaiah, c. 400–1150

  • ELISABETH MÉGIER (a1)

Abstract

This article examines the role, in patristic and medieval commentaries on Isaiah in the west up until 1150, of the theme of the ‘remnant’ (Isaiah i.9; x.22), which is related to Jewish Christians by St Paul. Assumed to signify the small number of Jewish converts in Apostolic times, it could also be used on the one hand to minimise the Jewish contribution to the early Church (St Jerome and Rupert of Deutz) and on the other hand to emphasise it (Haimo of Auxerre, Bruno of Segni and Herveus of Bourg-Dieu). Some authors, however, simply ignore the question (Arnold of Bonneval and Rainald of St Eloi).

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1 On Isaiah x.20–3; i.9: Sancti Hieronymi Presbyteri Commentariorum in Esaiam libri, ed. Marcus Adriaen, CCSL, Turnhout 1968, lxxiii–lxxiiiA.141, 14. For general discussion see Pierre Jay, L'Exegèse de Saint Jérôme d'après soncommentaire sur Isaïe’, Paris 1985.

2 I leave aside the question of Jerome's Greek sources, in particular Eusebius of Caesarea. See Simonetti, Manlio, ‘Sulle fonti del commento a Isaia di Girolamo’, Augustinianum xxiv (1984), 451–69, and Gryson, Roger and Szmatula, Dominique, ‘Les Commentaires patristiques sur Isaïe d'Origène à Jérôme’, Revue d’études augustiniennes xxxvi (1990), 341.

3 ‘Et reuera si legamus Iosephum et quanta hominum in Hierusalem et in Iudaea fuerit multitudo quando passus est Dominus, intellegimus vix paucos in apostolis et apostolicis uiris ex Iudaeis esse saluatos’: on Isaiah x.20–3, CCSL lxxiii.141.

4 On Isaiah xvii.5–6, CCSL lxxiii.185; xvii.4–6, CCSL lxxiii.269; xvii.12–14, CCSL lxxiii.272; xxvii.12, CCSL lxxiii.352; xli.8–16, CCSL lxxiiiA. 472; liii.1–4, CCSL lxxiiiA.588 (equally frequent is the statement that only some of the Jews were saved).

5 ‘De quorum humilitate eliguntur quasi in stipula spicae et quasi in uindemia racemi, qui saluati fuerint, et sicut excussio oliuae duarum aut trium oliuarum, siue quattuor aut quinque. Quando enim uenit percussio populi Iudaeorum, oliua illa populi Israel quae sub Moyse sexcenta milia habuit armatorum et sub Dauid numerante Ioab innumerabilem populum, uix paucos fructus offerre potuit Domino Saluatori’: CCSL lxxiii.269.

6 ‘illi pauperes messis reliquias, quae per apostolos saluatae sunt … legent’: ibid.

7 Acts ii.1; iv.4. ‘Multa milia’ does not appear directly in Acts (in xxi.20 there is ‘quot milia’), but is a current expression for instance in St Augustine's Enarrationes in Psalmos, when speaking of the first Christian community according to Acts. See p. 7 below.

8 The three thousand and five thousand: on Isaiah i.3, CCSL lxxiii.9; i.9, CCSL lxxiii.14; xi.11–14, CCSL lxxiii.154; lxvi.7–9, CCSL lxxiiiA.777; many thousand: on Isaiah lii.1, CCSL lxxiiiA.575; lii.11–12, CCSL lxxiiiA.585. See n. 37 below.

9 In Jerome's exposition of Isaiah lii.11–12, CCSL lxxiiiA.585, the conversion of the ‘many thousand’ underlines the success of the Apostles who leave Jerusalem as victors, not vanquished like the unconverted Jews. But its importance is restricted by the prospective submission of the ‘world’ to the Gospel: ‘[apostoli] multa milia Iudaeorum Christi fidei subiecerant, etiam mundum illius euangelio subiugarent’.

10 ‘Ex quo ostenditur, superiora quae contra Hierusalem et Iuda sermo propheticus comminatus est, non ad Babylonicae captiuitatis referenda tempus, sed ad ultimam Romanorum, quando in apostolis saluae factae sunt reliquiae populi Iudaeorum, et una die crediderunt tria milia et altera quinque milia et in toto orbe euangelium seminatum est’: CCSL lxxiii.14.

11 ‘Et quia dixerat reliquias esse saluandas, transit ad posteriora tempora, et plenam saluationem futuram dicit esse sub Christo. Quod advertens beatus Paulus scribit ad Romanos: Esaias autem clamat … Vbi ergo tanti uiri praecedit auctoritas, cesset alia omnis interpretatio’: CCSL lxxiii.140–2.

12 For instance on Isaiah lii.1: ‘Omnia autem quae promittuntur Sion et Hierusalem, non ut Iudaei somniant ad lapides illius et cineres fauillasque dicuntur, ut instauretur in pristinum statum, sed ad populum Hierusalem … Qui corruens in passione Christi, in resurrectione illius suscitatus est, quando multa milia crediderunt de Iudaeis, et reliquiae saluae factae sunt’: CCSL lxxiiiA.574f; cf. Prol. CCSL lxxiii.6; on Isaiah xi.11–14, CCSL lxxiii.153; liv.1, 4, CCSL lxxiiiA.601, 604; lx.1, CCSL lxxiiiA. 693.

13 CCSL lxxiii.154f.

14 ‘ut nequaquam iuxta nostros Iudaizantes in fine mundi cum intrauerit plenitudo gentium, tunc omnis Israel saluus fiat. Sed haec omnia in primo intellegamus aduentu’: ibid.

15 CCSL lxxiiiA.689.

16 On Isaiah xxix.22–4: ‘Tunc confundetur Iacob (at the advent of Christ) qui modo interim non confunditur … Et uultus illius erubescet, ut rubor atque confusio occasio sit salutis, praecipue cum uiderit filios suos, id est apostolos et apostolicos uiros, qui fuerunt de genere Iudaeorum, in medio nationum Domini perpetrare uirtutes, et Christi nomen gentibus praedicare, et dicere: pater noster’: CCSL lxxiii.380.

17 Cf. on Isaiah xi.11–14, CCSL lxxiii.155, or on xli.8–16, CCSL lxxiiiA.472, where the believing Jews are persecuted by the non-believing ones. In the commentary on Isaiah xvii.12 the rarity of Jewish believers: ‘per apostolos atque in apostolis paucorum de Iudaeis credentium electio’, is related to the ‘uocatio gentium et abiectio Iudaeorum’, with a reference to the preceding exposition of Isaiah xvii.4–6, CCSL lxxiii.272.

18 He quotes this verse nine times, which is the case for only five other biblical verses; only one, John xiv.6, is quoted more often (11 times): CCSL lxxiiiA, ‘index locorum sacrae Scripturae’.

19 Jerome starts with a long description of the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, the dispersion of the non-believing Jews and their reduction to a small number, opposing this to the salvation of the converts: ‘Si quis autem crediderit in Christum, et impletum fuerit illud quod supra legimus: Nisi Dominus sabaoth reliquisset nobis semen … Quando iuxta apostolum reliquiae saluabuntur, hoc semen sanctum erit, et de apostolorum germine cunctae ecclesiae pullulabunt’: CCSL lxxiii.94f.

20 On Isaiah lxv.23–5: ‘Apostoli igitur et apostolici uiri ita filios generabunt, ut de scripturis sanctis instruant, ut non imitentur maledictionem Iudaeorum’: CCSL lxxiiiA.766.

21 For instance on Isaiah ii.3, CCSL lxxiii.29.

22 On Isaiah vii.4–6: ‘illi pauperes messis reliquias, quae per apostolos saluatae sunt, et rarissimas spicas legent, non de montibus et erectis locis, sed in ualle Raphaim, id est in litterae uilitate’: CCSL lxxiii.269.

23 On Isaiah ii.3, CCSL lxxiii.29.

24 See John G. Gager, The origins of anti-semitism: attitudes towards Judaism in pagan and Christian antiquity, New York–Oxford 1983, 127f. In fact the Christians following Jewish customs, the ‘Judaizers’ attacked by Jerome, are to be found especially in the eastern part of the Roman empire (ibid. 124, 188f), and are less of a problem for Christians living in the west, like St Augustine (see p. 7 below). On the controversy between Jerome and St Augustine on Galatians ii.11–14, and the problem of ‘Judaizing’, see Paula Frederiksen, ‘Secundum carnem: history and Israel in the theology of St Augustine’, in William E. Klingshirn and Mark Vessey (eds), The limits of ancient Christianity: essays on late antique thought and culture in honor of R. A. Markus, Ann Arbor 1999, 26–41 at p. 38.

25 Cf. on Isaiah xiv.2–4: ‘Restat igitur ut (Iudaei) iuxta fabulas suas de imperio hoc putent futurum esse Romano, quibus superatis in ultimo tempore, seruiturae sint eis gentes quibus ante seruierint. Quod si sequentes litteram, spe se falsa decipiunt, quis eis concedet, ut Roma uocetur Babylon, et Nabuchodonosor rex Romani imperii?’: CCSL lxxiii.237. See Hervé Inglebert, Les Romains chrétiens face à l'histoire de Rome: histoire, christianisme et romanité en occident dans l'antiquité tardive (IIIe–Ve siècles), Paris 1996, 280.

26 See Bernhard Blumenkranz, Die Judenpredigt Augustins, Basle 1946, repr. Paris 1973, 112. To the references quoted there more can be added with the help of the CLCLT database. See also Caroline P. Bammel, ‘Die Juden im Römerbriefkommentar des Origenes’, in H. Frohnhofer (ed.), Christlicher Antijudaismus und jüdischer Antipaganismus: ihre Motive und Hintergründe in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten, Hamburg 1990, 145–51, repr. in her Tradition and exegesis in early Christian writers, Aldershot 1995, xiii.

27 For instance In Iohannis euangelium tractatus cxxiv, ed. D. Radbodus Willems osb, Turnhout 1954, CCSL xxxvi.347, or Enarrationes in Psalmos, ed. D. Eligius Dekkers osb and Iohannes Fraipont, Turnhout 1956, CCSL xxxix.5–46.

28 CCSL xxxvi.347.

29 See especially Enarrationes in Psalmos lxxviii.2, CCSL xxxix.1089; xc.7, CCSL xxxix.1336; cxlviii.16, CCSL xl.2151.

30 For Haimo of Auxerre, an example of direct dependence upon St Augustine is given by Bernhard Blumenkranz, Les Auteurs chrétiens latins du moyen-âge sur les juifs et le judaïsme, Paris 1963, 204, but it concerns the unconverted Jews and does not come from the commentary on Isaiah.

31 Ibid. 86, 132.

32 It has been observed that Haimo does not hesitate to note the sometimes diverging opinions of his sources and to choose the one that he finds more adequate: Silvia Cantelli Berarducci, ‘L'esegesi della rinascità carolingia’, in Giuseppe Cremascoli and Claudio Leonardi (eds), La bibbia nel medioevo, Bologna 1996, 190. However, the opinions rejected are those of recent or dubious authors like Claudius of Turin or Origen, not Jerome to whom Haimo appeals as to a secure guide: ‘ut beatus Hieronymus dicit’ is a standard expression: on Isaiah ii.2–3, PL cxvi.730A; xxix.1, PL cxvi.856C; xxix.17, PL cxvi.860A and passim). In Haimo's frequent enumerations of the ‘expositores divinorum eloquiorum’, or ‘sancti doctores’, Jerome is usually present together with St Ambrose, St Augustine, St Gregory, St Hilary: for example on Isaiah xxx.25, PL cxvi. 869C; xxxiii.21, PL cxvi.889A; xl. 20, PL cxvi. 918C. Interpretations that diverge from Jerome's may be added, but without a judgement: for instance on Isaiah xxx.29, PL cxvi.871D.

33 See Dominique Iogna-Prat, ‘L'Oeuvre d'Haimon d'Auxerre’, in D. Iogna-Prat, C. Jeudy and G. Lobrichon (eds), L'Ecole carolingienne d'Auxerre: de Murethach à Rémi (830–908), Paris 1991, 157–89; John Contreni, ‘Haimo of Auxerre's commentary on Ezechiel, ms. Paris 12302’, ibid. 229–42; and Raffaele Savigni, ‘Il commentario a Isaia di Aimone di Auxerrre e le sue fonti’, in C. Leonardi and G. Orlandi (eds), Biblical studies in the early Middle Ages: proceedings of the conference on biblical studies in the early Middle Ages (Gargnano on Lake Garda 2001), Florence 2005, 215–38. Haimo's commentary, ‘Haymonis Halberstatensis episcopi commentariorum in Isaiam libri tres’, attributed, like the rest of his work, to Haimo of Halberstadt, is published in PL cxvi.715–1086. A critical edition is being prepared by Corinne Gabriel.

34 For instance on Isaiah xxvii.10–12, PL cxvi.846D; lii.15, PL cxvi.988A; xlii.1, PL cxvi.923B.

35 For instance on Isaiah iii.25, PL cxvi.742B; xix.18, PL cxvi.811A; xlv.6, PL cxvi.943D.

36 See the text of Haimo's commentary on Isaiah x.21–2 quoted in n. 44 below.

37 For instance, on Isaiah i.9, PL cxvi.722A, quoted in n. 43 below. There are seven more occurrences: on Isaiah i.3, PL cxvi.719A; iv.2–3, PL cxvi.744C; xi.12, PL cxvi.782B; xxvii.9, PL cxvi.845C; xlix.19, PL cxvi.968B; lii.1, PL cxvi.981D; lxvi.7, PL cxvi.1078B, and two mentions of the three thousand and five thousand without the many thousand: on Isaiah x.21, PL cxvi.776C, and lx.1, PL cxvi.1031B.

38 I have found the first occurrence of the adding which becomes popular in the Middle Ages in Cesarius of Arles, Sermones Caesarii uel ex aliis fontibus hausti, sermo 88 cap. 2: ‘quia crediderunt una die tria milia, item alia die quinque milia, item postea multa milia’: CCSL ciii.362.

39 PL cxvi.803A–B. This interpretation is also to be found in Jerome's commentary, in book v where he concentrates on the historical meanings, the allegorical senses being reserved to book vii. But in the historical sense of Isaiah xvii.4–6 Jerome includes also the the reference to the Roman conquest, that is to the time of Christ, and to the Apostles: CCSL lxxiii.185.

40 On Isaiah lxii.2–3: ‘quando (apostoli) viderunt multitudinem Iudaeorum et multitudinem gentium venire ad fidem’: PL cxvi.1043D.

41 For instance on Isaiah lxv.8, CCSL lxxiiiA.751.

42 On Isaiah lx.1, PL cxvi.1031A; on xlix.14, PL cxvi.967C.

43 ‘Hoc de reliquiis apostolorum aliorumque fidelium est intelligendum, qui post Domini adventum crediderunt ex Iudaeis, de quibus dicitur in actibus apostolorum quod una die crediderunt tria millia, alia die quinque millia, et deinceps multa millia. Egregius quoque praedicator, in epistola ad Romanos de iisdem reliquiis ita loquitur: Reliquiae secundum electionem gratiae salvae factae sunt’: PL cxvi.722A.

44 ‘Hoc ad adventum Christi pertinet. Vox prophetae. O domus Israel, licet tanta multitudo sit in medio tui quasi arena maris: tamen ad comparationem illorum, quidquid in duritia cordis remanebit, adveniente Christo in carne, quasi reliquiae convertentur ex ipsis ad ipsum [Romans ix.11]. Quae fuerunt istae reliquiae? Apostoli, et alii qui ante ascensionem Domini crediderunt ex ludaeis Et illi de quibus legitur in actibus apostolorum: Quia praedicante Petro crediderunt una die tria millia, altera die quinque millia’: PL cxvi.776B–C.

45 As has also been noted by Savigni, ‘Il commentario’, 25, Haimo probably found it in Bede who uses it especially in In primam partem Samuhelis, for instance at CCSL cxix.153, and passim. In Jerome's text we find ‘prima Christi ecclesia’, on Isaiah xliii.1, CCSL lxxiiiA.489, but the usual formulation is: the Church which was assembled first (‘primum’), and he may or may not add ‘from the Jews’: see, for instance, on Isaiah lx.2, CCSL lxxiiiA.694; lx.4, CCSL lxxiiiA.695.

46 For instance, on Isaiah xliii.1, ‘Nunc vero alloquitur primitivam ecclesiam, quae constitit in apostolis, et eis qui per eos ex Iudaeis credidere’: PL cxvi.930A–B; or, on lx.1, ‘ad ecclesiam primitivam ea referimus, quae collecta est ex Iudaeis in apostolis videlicet qui ante passionem Domini crediderunt, et in illis qui post illius resurrectionem ascensionemque ad coelos praedicantibus apostolis fidem Dei perceperunt, de quibus dicit Lucas, quod uno die crediderunt tria millia et caetera quae sequuntur’: PL cxvi.1031B.

47 On Isaiah ii.2–3: ‘Per Sion … et per Hierusalem … intelligitur primitiva ecclesia, quae fuit in apostolis aliisque credentibus ex Iudaeis, de qua processit ad omnes nationes lex veteris testamenti spiritualiter intellecta, et verbum Domini doctrina evangelii. Potest etiam et de generali ecclesia intelligi, de qua quotidie manat lex, et doctrina evangelii’: PL cxvi.730A.

48 PL cxvi.908A.

49 CCSL lxxiii.455.

50 On Isaiah lxvi.7: ‘antequam parturiret Sion, hoc est primitiva ecclesia, et antequam veniret partus eius, id est in velocitate temporis, peperit masculum fortem, videlicet populum, quando una die crediderunt quatuor millia, altera die quinque millia, ac deinceps multa millia: ex quorum numero fuit beatissimus Stephanus, aliique quamplurimi filii apostolorum, qui antea potuerunt occidi quam a fide Christi separari’: PL cxvi.1078B.

51 On Isaiah xlix.14–21, PL cxvi.967D–968A.

52 On Isaiah lix.21: ‘Semen illius debemus intelligere omnes successores eius, qui eodem spiritu sancto repleti fuerunt, ut fuit Jeremias, et caeteri ante captivitatem, Ezechiel et Daniel in captivitate, Aggaeus, Zacharias, ac Malachias post captivitatem, et deinde apostoli, martyres, omnesque doctores sanctae ecclesiae, de quorum ore processit doctrina veteris et novi testamenti. Spiritus enim sanctus qui docuit Isaiam, transivit per successores ad apostolos': PL cxvi.1030C–D. St Augustine's comparable text in Enarrationes in Psalmos lxx.2, CCSL xxxix.1098, expresses this idea of continuity only marginally.

53 On Isaiah ii.3: ‘Ecclesia primitiva quae fuit in apostolis aliisque credentibus ex Iudaeis, de qua processit ad omnes nationes lex veteris testamenti spiritualiter intellecta, et verbum Domini doctrina evangelii’: PL cxvi.730A.

54 On Isaiah xliii.9: ‘Postquam crediderunt qui praedestinati erant ex Iudaeis in Christum, congregatae sunt et gentes. Congregatae sunt ergo gentes, et collectae sunt tribus, hoc est Iudaei. Et factum est tam ex gentibus quam ex Iudaeis unum ovile Domini, in quo quotidie congregantur unitate fidei, in baptismate, et in una perceptione corporis et sanguinis Christi’: PL cxvi.932A–B.

55 For instance on Isaiah liv.1: ‘revertitur ad vocationem gentium, et ad eos qui in eum crediderunt tam ex Iudaeis quam ex gentibus’: PL cxvi.993B, to be compared with Jerome's ‘transit ad uocationem gentium, et qui in illo sint credituri, pleno sermone describit’: CCSL lxxiiiA.599.

56 On Isaiah xliii.1: ‘populus Israel in duo dividitur, in credentes et non credentes. Similiter et gentiles’: PL cxvi.930A.

57 On Isaiah lx.1–2, CCSL lxxiiiA.694, a formulation which Haimo takes up on another occasion: see n. 58 below.

58 ‘Quod cecidit in synagogis per infidelitatem, restaurabunt in illis qui crediderunt ex Iudaeis Et quod cecidit ab exordio mundi in gentibus per idololatriam, restaurabunt et erigent ipsi per culturam omnipotentis Dei’: PL cxvi.1044A–B. Similarly, on Isaiah lxii.4, ‘Sicut displicuit Domino Iudaeis in infidelitate manentibus, et in gentibus post idololatriam ambulantibus, sic complacuit ei in credentibus ex utroque populo, ad fidem eius venientibus’: PL cxvi.1048B. Or, on Isaiah lx.14, PL cxvi.1038B.

59 On Isaiah xl.4: ‘Prava, id est tortuosa corda publicanorum et pharisaeorum, qui venerunt per praedicationem Domini et apostolorum eius ad fidem, facta sunt recta ad bona opera peragenda. Et aspera, id est intractabilia et dura corda scribarum et pharisaeorum, et gentilium, in vias planas, hoc est in mollitudinem et lenitatem conversa sunt, dum venirent ad fidem, ut Matthaeus narrat’: PL cxvi.909A. Moreover, Haimo is one of the rare medieval authors (there are only four other occurrences in texts published by Migne) to quote Acts vi.7: ‘multa turba sacerdotum obediebat fidei’ (on Isaiah lx.14, PL cxvi.1038B).

60 For instance on Isaiah lx.14, PL cxvi.1038B. On this passage see E. Mégier, ‘Otto of Freising's revendication of Isaiah as the prophet of Constantine's “exaltation of the Church”, in the context of Christian Latin exegesis’, Sacris Erudiri xlii (2003), 287–326 at p. 302f. Other occurrences are on Isaiah liii.4, PL cxvi.989C; lix.15, PL cxvi.1028C. However, if there is an echo of St Augustine's theme of repentance in these passages, it is rather faint.

61 ‘Quomodo enim in abscondito Iudaeus est, qui spiritu circumciditur … sic et sacerdotes et levitae in abscondito sunt, qui non seriem generis sequuntur, sed ordinem fidei. Vel certe non dicit de apostolis et apostolicis uiris, qui principes fuerunt ecclesiae ex populo Iudaeorum, sed de enumeratis supra gentibus, de mari, de Africa … quarum habitatores primum non audierant Dominum, nec uiderant gloriam eius, et postea uertentur in sacerdotes, et qui fuerant cauda, sint caput, et qui caput, uertantur in caudam’: CCSL lxxiiiA.793f.

62 ‘Assumam, inquit, ex eis, subaudis ex gentibus qui crediderunt, et erunt mihi in sacerdotes et Levitas, reprobato sacerdotio Iudaeorum. Unde dicit apostolus: Translato, inquit, sacerdotio, necesse est ut legis translatio fiat [Hebrews vii. 12]. Quod probari potest ex hoc, quia modo ex Iudaeis aut rarus aut nullus invenitur sacerdos in sancta ecclesia, aut aliquis minister. Et in singulis ecclesiis sacerdotes et ministros mysteriorum Christi ex gentibus cernimus qui quotidie corpus et sanguinem Christi pro redemptione generis humani offerunt in commemorationem passionis eius’: PL cxvi.1084A–B. This can be compared with St Augustine's remark on the absence of circumcised Christians in the present time, whereas they were numerous in the past: Enarrationes in Psalmos xxxiii.1, CCSL xxxviii.278.

63 ‘Hoc dupliciter potest intelligi, ut referatur tam ad Iudaeos quam ad gentiles. Assumam inquit ex eis, id est ex Iudaeis credentibus, et erunt mihi in sacerdotes et levitas … Sacerdotes enim erant, quia sacra responsa dabant populis, et semetipsos offerebant Deo, et alios quos ei sua praedicatione acquirebant: ut Paulus Timotheum. Levitae erant, id est assumpti, quia a Domino fuerunt electi, et assumpti ad officium praedicationis’: ibid. Here starts the interpretation quoted in n. 62 above, introduced by ‘Aliter’.

64 ‘Et sicut apostoli semetipsos offerebant Deo, et alios quoscunque poterant, ita et sacerdotes gentium. Verbi gratia, sicut fecit beatus Hilarius, qui beatum Martinum Deo obtulit. Levitae sunt, quia ad hoc ministerium assumuntur’: ibid.

65 A ‘Judeophilic’ attitude has also been detected in the works of Hrabanus Maurus by Jean-Louis Verstrepen: ‘Raban Maur et le judaïsme dans son commentaire sur les quatre livres des rois’, Revue Mabillon n.s.vii=lxviii (1996), 23–55.

66 On Isaiah xi.11: ‘Vel etiam secundo adiiciet manum suam in die iudicii, quando praedicante Elia et Enoch, omnis Israel qui inventus fuerit salvabitur’: PL cxvi.782A; cf. on Isaiah xxxii.15, PL cxvi.880, and passim. See also Savigni, ‘Il commentario’, 31.

67 On Isaiah xxii.24: ‘Referendum est ad diem iudicii. Veniente enim antichristo, postquam plenitudo gentium intraverit, praedicante Elia et Enoch omnis Israel salvabitur. Et in illo tempore complebitur illud quod dictum est: Superabundabit iniquitas, refrigescet charitas multorum [Matthew xxiv.12] Multi enim prae timore antichristi, et afflictione negabunt Christum, et tunc confringetur paxillus, id est evangelium quod erat in ecclesia, et ex parte cessabit, et transibit ad Iudaeos’: PL cxvi. 823D–824A. Cf. Robert E. Lerner, The feast of Saint Abraham: medieval millenarians and the Jews, Philadelphia 2001.

68 See Iogna-Prat, Jeudy and Lobrichon, L'Ecole carolingienne d'Auxerre, avant-propos, 6; Janet L. Nelson, ‘Charles le Chauve et les utilisations du savoir’, ibid. 37–54, and ‘Kingship and empire in the Carolingian world’, in Rosamond McKitterick (ed.), Carolinigan culture: emulation and innovation, Cambridge–New York 1994, 52–87 at pp. 69–72.

69 Bruno's Isaiah commentary has been published by G. Amelli in Spicilegium Casinene complectens, Analecta Sacra et Profana, iii/1, Monte Cassino 1897, as ‘Anonimi seu S. Brunonis Astensis commentarium in Isaiam hucusque deperditum ex Cod. Casinensi’. On Bruno and his writings see Réginald Grégoire, Bruno de Segni: exégète médiéval et théologien monastique, Spoleto 1965; Giuseppe Fornasari, ‘L'esegesi gregoriana’, in Cremascoli and Leonardi, La bibbia nel medioevo, 212; and Robinson, I. S., ‘Political allegory in the biblical exegesis of Bruno of Segni’, Recherches de theologie ancienne et médiévale l (1983), 6998n.

70 For instance, on Isaiah xlix.1–4, ‘vanae fortitudinem meam in populo Iudeorum consumpsi: quia valde pauci mea predicatione ad fidem sunt conversi’: ‘Brunonis commentarium’, 140.

71 He adopts the identification of the olives with the Apostles, but as a hypothesis only: ‘quidam autem … olivas … apostolos intelligere volunt’: ibid. 54.

72 ‘Neque enim sine illius benedictione ex tam pauco semine tanta fidelium messis ubique pullulare posset’: ibid. 185.

73 ‘Nemo inquit dubitet residuos Israhel qui in captivitatem sive a Senacherib sive a diabolo ducti non fuerint super Dominum inniti quia revera absque dubio reliquiae Israel convertentur. Et notandum quod a littera ad spiritum transeat ut intelligamus post Christi passionem cum exercitu suo diabolo superato caeteris Iudeis deceptis et in diaboli captivitatem deducti paucos quos reliquias appellat in Dominum credidisse. Et o vere beate reliquiae, quas iam saturatus diabolus devorare non potuit. Utinam et nos ipsius reliquiae simus, neque ad eius dentes aliquando perveniamus’: ibid. 36. The first sentence concerns the Jews before Christ, and the rest those after the coming of Christ: this is what Bruno expresses by the passage from the ‘letter’ to the ‘spirit’.

74 ‘Pauci quidem ad pereuntium comparationem de Israel convertentur, per quos tamen ubique terrarum iustitia inundabit’: ibid.

75 ‘Hoc autem ideo dixit ne quis putet Iudeos ideo a Deo penitus esse repulsos, quia totam superius narravit civitatem fuisse destructam. Unde et apostolus ait, non reppulit Dominus plebem suam quam prescivit. Nam et ego Hisraelita sum ex semine Abraham, et ex tribu Beniamin’: ibid. 3.

76 ‘Semen istud apostoli sunt et qui ex Iudeis tunc temporis crediderunt. De hoc autem semine aecclesia pullulavit, de quo et nati sunt quicumque ex Iudeis salvantur’: ibid.

77 In particular on the opposition between the believing and the non-believing Jews: see Jerome's exposition of Isaiah vi.11, CCSL lxxiii.94 (quoted at n. 19 above) and of xlv.17, CCSL lxxiiiA.515. On Isaiah xlviii.17, CCSL lxxiiiA.531, ‘pullulare’ is used by Jerome in a pejorative sense for the Jews who ‘like worms’ (‘instar uermiculorum’), continue to multiply in the present.

78 ‘Veniente igitur Christo et evangelica predicatione ubique resonante, Iudei qui ubique dispersi erant maxima ex parte ad fidem Christi conversi sunt … Plures enim ex his qui dispersi fuerant crediderunt, quam ex his qui in Hierusalem morabantur’: ‘Brunonis commentarium’, 39.

79 Here again the verb is ‘sunt’, which is also a way to present the prophecy directly as an account of historical events.

80 Cf. Jerome, CCSL lxxiiiA.603; Haimo, PL cxvi.995A.

81 ‘Funiculi namque quibus tabernacula tenduntur, et claves quibus terrae ne forte ruant affiguntur, Apostoli sunt et doctores. Longus funiculus beatus Petrus qui ab Hierusolimis Romae venit figere clavum. Sed quid de Paulo dicam, cui nec terra sufficiebat undique circa tabernaculum discurrens quasi clavos singulis quibusque civitatibus episcopos infigebat et constituebat?’: ‘Brunonis commentarium’, 158.

82 ‘Ideo enim in Hierusalem quae in medio mundi sita est, aecclesia caepit, ut undique circa se locum haberet ad quem se extendere posset’: ibid.

83 On Isaiah liv.3, ibid.

84 On Isaiah lx.5, ibid. 179.

85 Cf. Mégier, ‘Otto of Freising’, 305–6.

86 On Isaiah ii.3: ‘Sed et in Hierusalem primum fundata ecclesia totius orbis ecclesias seminauit … Et pulchre non dixit: in Sion et in Hierusalem erit et manebit uerbum et lex Domini, sed egredietur, ut de illo fonte omnes nationes doctrina Dei significet irrigandas’: CCSL lxxiii.29.

87 For instance on Isaiah i.26: ‘Tales tibi iudices et consiliarios dabo quales Moises et Aaron fuerunt quales et ceteri qui te antiquitus docuerunt. Per quos apostolos intelligimus, qui iudices et consiliarii et Iudeis et gentibus dati sunt, quotquot ex utroque populo credere voluerunt. Post hec vocaberis civitas iusti, urbs fidelis. Hoc autem de illis intelligitur qui ex Iudaico populo ad fidem Christi venientes unam cum gentibus aecclesiam perfecerunt’: ‘Brunonis commentarium’, 5.

88 See, on Isaiah ii.3, ibid. 6.

89 Ibid. 39.

90 On Isaiah lxi.3–5: ‘Pecora namque illa quae prius apostolis Dominus commisit, nunc alieni pascunt quia ex gentili populo qui secundum carnem a generatione Iudeorum vel apostolorum alienus est pastores et episcopi in aecclesia eliguntur … Magnum in hoc apostolorum privilegium commendatur, quod semel susceptas semper possident hereditates. Nemo enim post beatum Petrum Romae praefuit qui eius oves non paverit, eius agrum non coluerit, eius vineam non laboraverit’: ibid. 184.

91 For instance, on Isaiah xiv.1–2: ‘Allegoricae autem mundi huius terminum quem per Babilonem significari diximus, prope esse significat. In quo … aliquas reliquias eliget de Israel. Quia cum plenitudo gentium introierit tunc Israel salvus fiet. In diebus enim illis salvabitur Iuda et requiescere eos faciet super humerum suam … Tunc advena adiungetur ad eos, gentium videlicet populus, ut fiat unum ovile et unus pastor. Et tenebunt eos populi sanctorum sive angelorum et deducent eos in locum suum, id est in Hierusalem caelestem’: ibid. 45.

92 On Isaiah xxii.17–21: ‘Quis enim Iudeum inveniens non dicat convertere nunc?’: ibid. 65; on Isaiah li.21–3: ‘Quotiens enim Iudeus convertitur et Dei sui recordatur, totiens de manu eius calix soporis et oblivionis aufertur … et ulterius eis Deus non irascatur’: ibid. 151. According to Berger, David, ‘Mission to the Jews and Jewish-Christian contacts in the polemical literature of the high Middle Ages’, American Historical Review xci (1986), 576–91, Bruno's interest in the conversion of the contemporary Jews seems to have been rather an exception at his time.

93 The only specific publication concerning this author seems still to be Germain Morin, ‘Un Critique en liturgie au XIIe siècle: le traité inédit d'Hervé de Bourgdieu De correctione quarumdam lectionum’, Revue bénédictine xxiv (1907), 36–61, quoted by Constable, Giles, ‘Forgery and plagiarism in the Middle Ages’, Archiv für Diplomatik xxix (1983) 141, repr. in his Religious life and thought (11th–12th centuries), London 1979, i. 24. A publication is being prepared by Pierre Boucaud.

94 Venerabilis Hervei Burgidolensis monachi commentariorum in Isaiam libri octo, PL clxxxi.17–592. We read, on Isaiah lxv.8–12, ‘Nam quasi granum in botro est inventum, quando pars, quae doctrinam ecclesiasticam susceperat, reperta est in populo Iudaeorum. Sicut enim granum ad botrum, ita pauci credentes ex Iudaeis in comparationem fuerunt reliquae multitudinis illorum, quae credere nolens disperiit. Et de hac minima parte electa dictum est: Ne dissipes illud, quoniam benedictio est, quando Patrem pro discipulis oravit. Et ideo Dominus populum illum non disperdidit totum quoniam eos, qui fidem receperunt, a perditione salvavit, et ab excidio et captivitate illorum eripuit’: PL clxxxi.571B–C.

95 See Jerome, CCSL lxxiiiA.750f; Haimo, PL cxvi.1067C–D.

96 On Isaiah xxiv.4–6, PL clxxxi.233C; xxiv.13, PL clxxxi.235C.

97 On Isaiah iii.5: ‘Capta vero Jerusalem, cum paucae eorum reliquiae in perniciem suam denuo rebellare tentarent, audiamus quid fecerint’: PL clxxxi.56C.

98 On Isaiah xvi.12–14, PL clxxxi.182A–B.

99 On Isaiah xviii.18–19: ‘Reliquiae autem ligni saltus eius sunt reliquiae gentilitatis, quae fidem recipere noluerunt. Sed iam prae paucitate numerari possunt, quia raro invenitur quis qui Christianus non sit’: PL clxxxi.135A. Similarly, on Isaiah xiv.12–15, PL clxxxi.165A.

100 On Isaiah liii.3, PL clxxxi.560A.

101 On Isaiah xvii.4–6: ‘et quomodo paucae spinae et olivae remanere solent in agro vel in arbore, sic relinquentur pauci in Israel’: PL clxxxi.184B.

102 We can add that Herveus' term ‘ingloriosi’, applied to the Jews after Christ, is a transformation of Jerome's ‘gloriosi’, used for the pre-Christian Jews.

103 ‘sic et Iudaeorum reliquiae fuerunt paucae post excidium Jerusalem’: PL clxxxi.185A. This is an interpretation rejected by St Augustine in Enarrationes in Psalmos lxx.2, CCSL xxxix.1090.

104 In his commentary on Romans Herveus on the one hand concedes that Jewish converts were but few, and even repeats Jerome's quotation from Josephus, but his general theme is the vocation of the Jews along with the Gentiles: ‘Quia … et gentium vocationem, de quibus minus videbatur, astruxerat prophetico testimonio, vult similiter auctoritate prophetica Iudaeorum vocationem ostendere.’ What Herveus wants to emphasise is that some Jews did believe, even if they were few (‘Hoc est, etiam si multitudo non crediderit, tamen pauci credent’) as well as their importance: ‘Hi enim qui ex circumcisione crediderunt, vocantur semen, quia sparsi per terras multiplicati sunt, et velut grana seminis copiosam segetem fidelium germinaverunt. Et propter istos non fuerunt Iudaei sicut Sodoma et Gomorrha, quia non omnes fuerunt reprobi, nec omnes perierunt, quoniam isti sunt electi atque salvati de multitudine illorum’: PL clxxxi.736B–737C.

105 On Isaiah lx.6 the prophet speaks of a ‘flood of camels … quia iam in hac plebe fidelium non nisi conversa gentilitas cernitur. Tanta est enim multitudo gentium qui crediderunt ad comparationem illorum, qui de circumcisione venerunt’: PL clxxxi.543A–B. However, one can ask whether Herveus appreciates this multitude, after the very negative description he gives of the Gentiles at the beginning of his exposition: the camels, he declares, signify the ‘tortuosae gentilium mentes’, while the dromedaries mentioned by Isaiah refer to those ‘qui in illo populo [i.e. the Gentiles] noxia libertate dissoluto discurrebant vagi ad omnia mala quae volebant’.

106 On Isaiah lxvi.5, PL clxxxi.580C.

107 On Isaiah iv.2, PL clxxxi.68C; cf. on lxv.8–12, PL clxxxi.571C. Herveus, like Haimo, adds the ‘multa milia’ to the three thousand and the five thousand, for instance on Isaiah xxxiii.2, PL clxxxi.310D–311A.

108 The only additional ocurrence I have found is in Bede, In primam partem Samuhelis l.IV iii.17, CCSL cxix.151, where the term designates Old Testament Jews.

109 There are other other occurrences: on Isaiah vii.21–2, PL clxxxi.104B; xxxiii.12, PL clxxxi.310C; xxxvii.7–8, PL clxxxi.346D; xlii. 25, PL clxxxi.410C; xliv.6, PL clxxxi.413B; xlviii. 12, PL clxxxi.452B; lvii.1–2, PL clxxxi.516B; lxii.8–9, PL clxxxi.558B.

110 For instance on Isaiah xli.8–9: ‘Vel primitivam ecclesiam possumus nunc Israel accipere, quam ab extremis terrae et a longinquis eius vocavit de universis nationibus congregans primum populum Iudaeorum’: PL clxxxi.392C.

111 On Isaiah viii.1–2: ‘Debellaturus enim in toto orbe regnum diaboli haec prima puer illi spolia detraxit, ut a perfidia Iudaeorum pastores ad se converteret et magos ad se adorandum conversa a peste illius superstitionis averteret’: PL clxxxi.106A–B. There are precedents, from St Augustine to Anselm of Laon passing by Gregory the Great, but these authors do not speak of conversion: their idea is that the shepherds and the magi signify, respectively, the two components of the Church, the Jews and the Gentiles. See, for instance, St Augustine, Sermones, ‘In epiphaniam Domini’, PL xxxviii.1026–30.

112 On Isaiah i.27: ‘Sion quae dicitur specula, plebs Iudaeorum est quae Christi praestolabatur adventum. Hanc enim Christus ipse veniens suo sanguine redemit … et postquam redempta est, reduxerunt eam apostoli ad gratiam Redemptoris Et hoc fecerunt in iustitia, quia iustum erat, ut ea filiis implerentur, quae fuerant promissa patribus. In hac iustitia Petrus eam reducere satagebat, cum diceret: vos estis filii prophetarum et testamenti, quod disposuit deus ad patres nostros [Acts xxxiii.25–6]. De illis vero, qui converti noluerunt, subiunctum est’: PL clxxxi.40A.

113 On Isaiah lxii.12: ‘Hebraeos, qui crediderunt, vocamus ita, ut dicamus: Iste est populus sanctus, et in sanctitate nutritus, qui etiam redempti sunt a Domino. Ecclesia vero de gentibus licet et ipsa populus sanctus vocari possit, tamen quia prius in squalore gentilitatis conversata est, non ita populus sanctus vocari consuevit, sed specialiter appellatur civitas quaesita et non derelicta, quoniam salvator eam utpote perditam quaesivit, et inventam non dereliquit’: PL clxxxi.558D–559A.

114 On Isaiah lxii.11: ‘Vos, inquit, o praedicatores, dicite filiae Sion, id est ecclesiae de gentibus, quae filia est primitivae ecclesiae: noli timere’: PL clxxxi.558C–D.

115 On Isaiah vii.1: ‘quoniam apostoli sunt prophetarum filii et prophetae filii patriarcharum’: PL clxxxi.95C. In the same text, interpreting the names of the persons mentioned by the prophet, Herveus presents the Christians as the brothers of the Jews.

116 See Giles Constable, ‘Twelfth-century spirituality and the late Middle Ages’, in O. B. Hardison, Jr (ed.), Medieval and Renaissance studies, v, Chapel Hill, NC 1971, 27–60, repr. in his Religious life and thought, xv, 39f.

117 For instance on Isaiah i.3: ‘quia quem Hebraicus et gentilis populus Deum cito cognovit, et ad eius gratiam a pristino ritu facile convolavit, hunc populus iste falsorum Christianorum, qui cum lacte carnis ab uberibus sanctae ecclesiae nutritus est et ex parentibus Christianis ortus, cognoscere non valuit’: PL clxxxi.24A. Or on Isaiah ii.7–9: ‘Quod autem nunc de domo Jacob dicitur, non de iustis, sed de hac multitudine peccantium, quae Christi nomen adhuc confitetur, debet intelligi’: PL clxxxi.48D–49A.

118 On Isaiah iv.2: ‘Et tunc exsultatio fuit his qui salvati erant de Israel, id est discipulis eius, quia sic certificati sunt de gloria resurrectionis eius ut eo coelos petente ipsi non solum nulla tristitia efficerentur, sed etiam gaudio magno replerentur … et eamdem laetitiam habuit multitudo reliquorum fidelium Hebraeorum, quorum erat cor unum et anima una’: PL clxxxi.68C. Similarly, on Isaiah xiv.1, PL clxxxi.160C.

119 On Isaiah iii.8: ‘Ruit enim Jerusalem … quia destructa est ab exercitu Romanorum, et Iuda concidit, quia populus Iudaeorum illis miserabiliter succubuit … Sed nunc repetentes videamus utrum de aliis quam de Iudaeis intelligi possunt’: PL clxxxi.57A–B. Here Herveus presents a violent denunciation of the abuses in the present Church, and concludes ‘Jerusalem id est ecclesia ruit quia murus fidei et disciplinae circa finem saeculi dissipatus est, atque turres arduarum virtutum delapsae sunt. Et Iuda, id est fidelium populus concidit, quia fere tota haec plebs statum rectitudinis amisit’: PL clxxxi.60C.

120 On Isaiah i.21–3: ‘Sed haec mala quae depinxit hactenus, et quae in hoc Christiano populo multiplicari quotidie cernimus, per Eliam corrigentur, ut credimus, quia Salvator in evangelio dicit: Elias venturus est, et restituet omnia [Matthew xvii.11]’: PL clxxxi.43A.

121 ‘Ne ergo tota simul religio in hac plebe sicut apud Sodomitas pereat, et sola regnet iniquitas, relinquitur semen, quod salvetur, quia licet multitudo reproborum semper in hoc saeculo nimis abundet, et maxime circa mundi finem, nequaquam tamen electi omnes ita subtrahuntur, ut solummodo perversi remaneant sicut in Sodomis, sed omni tempore iusti relinquuntur, qui caeteris exempla bonitatis ostendant’: PL clxxxi.29D–30A.

122 ‘Historialiter autem ab eo quod dictum est: terra vestra deserta, usque ad illud quod dicit: sicut civitas quae vastatur, praenuntiatum est excidium patriae Iudaeorum, quod Romani perpetraverunt, quando facta est per Vespasianum terra eorum deserta … quando obsidiente et capiente filio eius Tito Jerusalem, relicta est sicut tugurium in cucumerario … Et nisi Dominus exercituum reliquisset eis semen, quasi Sodoma vel Gomorrha fuissent, quia nisi Christus apostolos et qui per verbum eorum crediderunt, ibi reliquisset a passione eius, illic solummodo reprobi sicut in Sodomis remansissent’: PL clxxxi.30B.

123 ‘Hoc de illis dictum est Iudaeis, qui crediderunt praedicantibus apostolis Nam residuum Israel est, de quo Paulus ait: Sic ergo et in hoc tempore reliquiae secundum electionem gratiae salvae factae sunt [Romans xi.5]. Et illi fugerunt de domo Jacob, id est de synagoga, qui tandem intelligentes hunc esse Christum, quem crucifixerunt, compuncti sunt corde, et dixerunt ad apostolos: quid faciemus, viri fratres? [Acts ii.37]. Iam enim quaerebant effugium. Nec innisi sunt ultra super eum, qui percutiebat eos, et est super hostem antiquum, qui persequebatur illos et vulnerabat animas eorum, sed innisi sunt super fundamentum, quod est Christus, perseverantes in doctrina apostolorum’: PL clxxxi.135B–C.

124 ‘Potest hoc etiam de illis intelligi qui praedicante Elia credituri sunt. Nam caecitas ex parte contingit in Israel, donec plenitudo gentium intraret et sic omnis Israel salvus fieret [Romans xi.15]. Sed sive de illis qui tempore apostolorum crediderunt, sive de illis qui in fine credituri sunt accipiatur, evidens est quod subditur’: ibid.

125 On Isaiah xv.9: ‘Sed ne haec (persecutio antichristi) improvisa veniens omnes passim, quos imparatos invenerit, involvat, Henoch et Eliam ante huius exortum venturos in mundum, qui Israeliticam plebem ad fidei gratiam convertant, et ad pressuram tanti turbinis in parte electorum insuperabilem reddant. Qui, cum in primos tres semis annos praedicaverint, tunc exardescens illa horrida persecutio ipsos in primis martyrii virtute coronet deinde caeteros fideles corripiens vel martyres vel apostatas faciet’: PL clxxxi.177A–B.

126 Rainald's Isaiah commentary is preserved in Paris, BN, ms nat. lat. 494, Arnold's in Troyes, Bibliothèque municipale, ms 923. On Rainald, and his much more original commentary on the Pentateuch, see Dahan, Gilbert, ‘Une Introduction à l’étude de l’écriture au xiie siècle: le prologue du commentaire du Pentateuque de Rainaud de Saint-Eloi’, Recherches de theologie ancienne et médiévale liv (1987), 2751.

127 Arnold is better known for his other works, for instance his life of St Bernard, and his treatise De cardinalis operibus Christi: Giles Constable, Three studies in medieval religious and social thought, Cambridge 1995, 192.

128 On Isaiah xvii.4–6, 12–14, and xxvii.12 see ms Troyes 923, fos 42v, 43v, 62v; on Isaiah liii.1–4, see fo. 103v.

129 On Isaiah i.3, 9; xi.11–14; lii.11 see ms Troyes 923, fos 2v, 3r, 27r, 103v.

130 ms nat.lat. 494, fo. 27rb–va. The paucity of the Jewish converts is emphasised less than by Jerome in Rainald's commentary on Isaiah xvii.4–6 (fo. 42va), where the reference of the olives to the Apostles is left out, but it is regularly repeated, whereas the ‘thousands’ appear only in the commentary on Isaiah lxvi.7–9 (fo. 169va).

131 On Isaiah lxvi.7–9, ms Troyes 923, fo. 127v.

132 ‘Cum enim synagoga in fidei sterilitate peruenit sanctorum chorus decalogi preceptis doctorum predicatione repletus et ad fidem sancti trinitatis perductus per bonorum iugera operum ad perfectam ueniet libertatem per fidei spei et caritatis uirtutem’: ms nat. lat. 494, fo. 13rb.

133 On Isaiah v.5–6, ibid. fo. 13ra.

134 ‘Vinea enim, inquit, Domini exercituum, domus Israhel. Haec dilecto facta est acquisitione, non auri neque argenti, sed multorum mirabilium quae fecit in terra Aegypti … Nam idcirco illi facta est, ut praeparatam sibi ille adueniens possideret, et per suum sanguinem sanctificaret. Quod et fecit. Omnes enim per suum sanguinem de inferno eduxit, quorum pars uinea bona est. Sed et de radice eius apostolos sumpsit, de quibus uel per quos totus mundus bonis uitibus impletus est’: Ruperti Tuitiensis, De sancta trinitate et operibus eius, ed. Hrabanus Haacher osb, Turnhout 1972, In Isaiam prophetam, on Isaiah v.1–2, CCCM xxiii.1481.

135 There is a concentration of references to the ‘apostolici viri’ towards the end of the commentary: on Isaiah lxi.3–4, CCCM xxiii.1554; lxi.5–6, CCCM xxiii.1555; lxii.6–7, CCCM xxiii.1561 (in addition to their appearance in the commentary on Isaiah x.22, CCCM xxiii.1512), but they are never described as Jewish.

136 ‘Non dicatis: ira haec nimis est grandis, multitudo malorum nostris maior est meritis, nam nisi Dominus exercituum reliquisset nobis semen, nisi praedestinasset, ut reliquiae ex nobis saluae fierent, non obsidione hominum circumdaremur, non gladiis Romanorum interficeremur, non captiui in omnes gentes duceremur, sed sicut super Sodomam et Gomorram pluit sulphur et ignem Dominus a Domino, ita iustissime super nos in uindictam sanguinis sulphur et ignem pluisset Filius Dominus a Patre Domino. Sed si hoc fecisset non superessent reliquiae, quae salvae fierent ex nobis, postquam plenitudo gentium subintroierit’: CCCM xxiii.1460. Similarly, on Isaiah iv.1, CCCM xxiii.1478.

137 ‘Ergo iste Assur est diabolus, cuius captiuitati hic manifeste contradicitur. Vbi enim apostoli procedit auctoritas, cesset alia omnis interpretatio. Isaias, inquit, clamat pro Israhel. Si fuerit numerus filiorum Israhel tamquam arena maris, reliquae saluae fient …. Et reuera si legamus Iosephum et quanta hominum in Hierusalem et in Iudaea fuerit multitudo, quando passus est Dominus, intelligimus uix paucos in apostolis et apostolicis uiris ex Iudaeis esse saluatos. Notandum tandem quam ordinate diabolicae tyrannidis et damnationis eius similitudo praecessit in isto Assur’: CCCM xxiii.1512.

138 Cf. Jerome, CCSL lxxiii.154f., or ‘Brunonis commentarium’, quoted in n. 78 above.

139 On Isaiah xi.11–12: ‘Congregantur profugi Israhel, colliguntur huc a quattuor plagis terrae dispersi Iuda, ipsa namque congregatione uel collectione sua fiunt Israhel, fiunt Iuda quaelibet gentes, quaelibet nationes. Quid porro est quod ait: adiciet Dominus secundo manum suam ad possidendum residuum populi sui? Quid, inquam, nisi quia iam dudum manum suam extendit ad possidendum, sed adhuc locus erat? Nempe in manu forti eduxit filios Israhel de terra Aegypti, et illos per passionem suam in domum suam induxit, sed uidit quia adhuc locus est, quia nondum electorum numerus completus est. Adiecit ergo secundo manum suam, leuando scilicet signum illud, non tantum in Israhel, sed in nationes’: CCCM xxiii.1520–1; or on lxi.5–6, with the inclusion of the ‘apostolici viri’: ‘O fortes iustitiae, o plantatio Domini, sancti apostoli atque apostolici uiri, alieni, qui non erant de gente uestra, alieni, inquam, filii peregrinorum, id est gentiles, qui non erant ut uos de carne Abrahae, stabunt deuota fide, ad uestrum seruitium, ut pascant pecora uestra, uestras comportent uindemias, ut quibus uestra seminastis spiritualia, digne illorum metatis carnalia’: CCCM xxiii.1555.

140 ‘Alleuiata est terra Zabulon et terra Nepthalim, et nouissimo aggrauata est, id est praesentis Domini Iudaea et praedicationem audiuit et miracula uidit, assumpti autem in caelum uerbum reppulit, et uitae aeternae indignam se iudicauit. Primum illis oportuit loqui, nouissime ad gentes ire uel mittere, quia Iudaea cor suum aggrauauit’: CCCM xxiii.1507.

141 On Isaiah iv.2: ‘Et erit exsultatio his qui saluati fuerint de Israhel, exsultabunt enim apostoli, uidentes quanta per eos Deus in gentibus operatus est’: CCCM xxiii.1479 (very different from Herveus, and especially from Bruno); or on Isaiah vi.1, where the gifts of the Holy Spirit, given to ‘apostolis et ceteris in se credentibus’, are opposed to the blindness of the Jews: CCCM xxiii.1490.

142 ‘Non quaerimus ut propter nos ullae gentes occidantur, quarum terram optimam, terram lacte et melle manantem obtineamus’: CCCM xxiii.1478.

143 On Isaiah i.16–18: ‘Lauamini, mundi estote. Si forte compuncti aliqui ex uobis dicant ad Petrum et ad reliquos apostolos meos? Quid faciemus, uiri fratres, ecce dico uobis, Lauamini. Quod est dicere: paenitentiam agite, et baptizetur unusquisque uestrum in nomine Domini. Itaque lauamini, mundi estote, id est baptizamini et nolite rursus malis operibus munditiam baptismatis perdere … Et cum haec feceritis, venite et arguite me. Non enim contemnam ego Dominus iudicium uobiscum subire. Proponite causas, praemia exigite. Magnum quippe baptizati et mundati aduocatum habetis apud me, cuius lauistis uos sanguine, cuius purificati estis fide … Haec est lex Dei nostri, o populus Gomorrae. Omnem multitudinem uictimarum uestrarum, omnes solemnitates uestras odiuit anima mea, inquit. Solum hoc est quod uolo: Lauamini’: CCCM xxiii.1463.

144 On Isaiah vi.5: ‘uir pollutus labiis ego sum, quod in persona illorum recte dici facta ipsa consentiunt. Clamauerunt enim: Tolle, tolle, crucifige, crucifige! Veraciter ex eo polluta se labia cognouerunt habere, sed seducti fuerant et per ignorantiam tali clamore labia sua polluerant. Sequitur ergo: Et in medio populi polluta labia habentis, ego habito. Multi enim ex eis non per inuidiam clamauerunt, sed multitudinem secuti sunt’: CCCM xxiii.1492.

145 On Isaiah vi.6–7: ‘Iste unus de seraphim Petrus apostolus exstitit, qui gratiae pennis aduolans dixit: paenitentiam agite [Acts ii.38]. In manu eius calculus, inquit, calculus donum est spiritus sancti, quo peccata comburuntur in Christum credentium. Illud in manu erat seraphim, id est in potestate Petri apostoli prae ceteris. Illi namque Christus claues regni caelorum specialiter tradidit’: CCCM xxiii.1492f.

146 See David E. Timmer, ‘The religious significance of Judaism for twelfth-century monastic exegesis: a study in the thought of Rupert of Deutz, c. 1070–1129’, unpubl. PhD diss. Notre Dame 1983, 75.

147 See Johannes Heil, Kompilation oder Konstruktion? Die Juden in den Pauluskommentaren des 9. Jahrhunderts, Hanover 1998, 376–80.

148 See Dahan, ‘Une Introduction’, 32.

149 See John van Engen, Rupert of Deutz, Berkeley–Los Angeles–London 1983, 241–8; Maria Lodovica Arduini, Ruperto di Deutz e la controversia tra cristiani ed ebrei nel secolo XII, con testo critico dell' Anulus seu dialogus inter Christianum et Iudaeum a cura di Rhabanus Haacke, OSB, Rome 1979, 116–17; and Timmer, Religious significance, and ‘Biblical exegesis and the Jewish-Christian controversy in the early 12th century’, Church History lviii (1989), 309–21. See also the remarks on Rupert and the Jews in Anna Sapir Abulafia, Christians and Jews in the twelfth century renaissance, London–New York 1995, passim.

150 For instance, Herveus' text quoted in n. 94 continues: ‘Sed vos, inquit, o perfidi Iudaei … numerabo vos in gladio Romanorum vel novissimae ultionis’. On Haimo see Heil, Kompilation, and ‘Labourers in the Lord's quarry: Carolingian exegetes, patristic authority and theological innovation: a case study in the representation of Jews in the commentaries on Paul’, in Celia Chazelle and Burton Van Name Edwards (eds), The study of the Bible in the Carolingian era, Turnhout 2003, 75–95.

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The Journal of Ecclesiastical History
  • ISSN: 0022-0469
  • EISSN: 1469-7637
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