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The Cultural Determinants of Entrepreneurship and Economic Development: A Case Study Of Mendoza Province, Argentina, 1861–1914

  • William J. Fleming

Analyses of the cultural factors supporting modernization and development have moved along a continuum from the clear-cut formulations of Parsons, Schumpeter, and Weber to the paradoxical assertions of contemporary scholars. The failure of countries like Argentina to achieve sustained development after spectacular starts has contributed to the confusion. This study examines two popular cultural explanations for such developmental problems, and finds them both wanting. Men-doza's experience suggests the need to adjust development programs to local cultural exigencies, rather than the reverse, as most analysts have argued. A four-part sequence to this effect is presented.

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1 Fraboschi, Roberto O., “Historia de la agriculture, la ganaderia y la industria,” in Aparicio, Francisco de and Difieri, Horacio A., eds., La Argentina: Sutna de Geografia, 9 vols. (Buenos Aires, 1959), 4:178.

2 With the formation of the Sociedad Rural Argentina a few landowners sought to modernize Argentina's livestock industry. Their campaign lasted several decades, during which the society's Anales published articles on the latest techniques in the industry while its members led strong lobbying efforts in financial and political circles in defense of their interests. When cattle exporters in the late 1880s began paying much higher prices than the saladeros (who prepared salted beef for export) for stock raised in accordance with the Sociedad's preachings, recalcitrant ranchers began rapidly to modernize their breeding methods.

3 Scobie, James R., Argentina: A City and a Nation (New York, 1971), pp. 116–19.

4 Scobie, James R., Buenos Aires: Plaza to Suburb, 1870-1910 (New York, 1974), pp. 6768, 71.

5 Pulley, Raymond H., “The Railroad and Argentine National Development, 1852-1914,” The Americas, 23 (19661967), 6566.

6 , Scobie, Buenos Aires, p. 11.

7 Kenworthy, Eldon, “Argentina: The Politics of Late Industrialization,” Foreign Affairs Quarterly, 45 (04 1967), 465.

8 Lipset, Seymour Martin, “Values, Education, and Entrepreneurship,” in Lipset, and Solan, Aldo, eds., Elites in Latin America (New York, 1967), pp. 56.See also, Hoselitz, Bert F., Sociological Aspects of Economic Growth (Glencoe, 111., 1960), pp. 3031, 41-42.

9 Fillol, Tomas R., Social Factors In Economic Development: The Argentine Case (Cambridge, Mass., 1961), p. 22.

10 , Lipset, “Values, Education, and Entrepreneurship,” p. 23.

11 Ibid., p. 9.

12 Germani, Gino, Social Modernization and Economic Development in Argentina, United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, no. 70.6 (Geneva, 1970), p. 33.

13 Kirsch, Henry W., Industrial Development in a Traditional Society. The Conflict of Entrepreneurship and Modernization in Chile (Gainesville, 1977), p. 67.

14 , Germani, Social Modernization, p. 33.

15 , Kirsch, Industrial Development, p. 157.

16 Hagen, Everett E., On the Theory of Social Change. How Economic Growth Begins (Homewood, 111., 1962), p. 217.

17 Higgins, Benjamin, “Requirements for Rapid Economic Development in Latin America,” in Vries, Eg-bert de De and Echavarria, José M, eds., Social Aspects of Economic Development in Latin America, 2 vols., UNESCO, Technology and Society Series (Tournai, Belgium, 1963), 1: 156–57.

18 , Germani, Social Modernization, p. 33,and , Kirsch, Industrial Development, p. 157.

19 , Kirsch, Industrial Development, p. 56.

20 Cochran, Thomas C., “Cultural Factors in Economic Growth,” this JOURNAL, 20 (12. 1960), 529–30.

21 Cochran, Thomas C. and Reina, Ruben E., Entrepreneurship in Argentine Culture: Torcuato Di Telia and S.I.A.M. (Philadelphia, 1962), pp. 262–63; see also pp. 267-69.

22 Data from the 1864 Provincial Census reported in Llerena, Juan, “Cuadros descriptivos estadfs-ticos de las tres provincias de Cuyo,” Revisla de Buenos Aires, 10 (1866), 588592, and 11 (1866), 62-76.

23 Calderón, José Luis Masini, Mendoza hace den ahos: Historic de la provincia durante la presidencia de Mitre (Buenos Aires, 1967), p. 37; Mendoza, Provincia de, Anuario de la Direccidn General de Estadistica, 1881, chart between pp. 24 and 25; 1882, p. 22; 1883, p. 24; and Mendoza, Provincia de, La Provincia de Mendoza en su Exposicibn Interprovincial de 1885 (Mendoza, 1885), p. 14, and chart following p. 226.

24 Data on transandine commerce calculated from: Republica Argentina, Estadistica general del comercio exterior, 1874, pp. 423–24; 1884, pp. xii and xiv; 1895, pp. 257 and 260; and República Argentina, Registro estadistico, 1868, p., 230. Data on eastward commerce between 1878 and 1885 calculated from: “Gufas de importatión y exportaci6n,” Carpeta 41, Documentos 105-10, 113-15, 117-19; and Carpeta 197, Documentos 1-29, Archivo Historico de la Provincia de Mendoza; , Mendoza, Anuario, 1881, chart between pp. 29 and 30; 1883, p. 33; 1883, pp. 44, 48-50; 1884, p. 43; and, Mendoza, Exposition Interprovincial, appendix.

25 , Mendoza, Anuario, 1884, n.p.

26 Analysis of the wine industry and of agriculture and stockraising based on data appearing in Arata, Pedro, et al., Investigation vinicola: Informes (Buenos Aires, 1903), p. 215; L'Agriculture et I ele-vage dans le Republique Argentine (Buenos Aires, 1888), pp. 173-75, 289–95;, Mendoza, Anuario, 1887, p. 90; 1911, p. 361; 1914, p. 205; , Mendoza, Memoria, 1903, p. 126, and chart following p. 130; andRepública Argentina, Tercer censo national (1914), 5: 915, 929-930, and 6:9, 189-91.

27 Population data from Mendoza, Anuario, 1914, p. 7; and República Argentina, Segundocenso nacional (1895), 2: 369.Immigration data from Mendoza, Anuario, 1911, p. 63; and Sintesis de los anuarios, 19151922, p. 13.

28 Villanueva, Carlos E., El litoral y el interior. Observations sobre ganaderiay agricultura (Buenos Aires; 1887); see p. 112 for example.

29 “Sociedad Viti-vinfcola,” Los Andes, 05 8, 1888, p. 1.

30 “La unidn gremial entre vinateros y bodegueros de Mendoza,” La Viticulture Argentina, 2nd yr., nos. 9, 10, 11 (01., Feb., March, 1911), p. 155.

31 Biographical information on Mendoza's leading families for the sketches that follow comes from a wide variety of sources, some of which yielded only a single piece of information. In general, the most helpful sources were Caldeidn, Masini, Mendoza hace den anos, pp. 4351, 55-56, and 86-89, where he reproduces lists of landholders, stockraisers, and merchants; Mendoza, Provincia de, Padrón general de las vihas existentes en la provincia en 1883 (Mendoza, 1885); Guinazu, Fernando Morales, Historia de la cultura mendocina (Mendoza, 1943), pp. 303–15;Newton, Jorge, Diccionario biografic del campo argentino (Buenos Aires, 1972); Pedro Santos Martinez C, “Mendoza, 1862-1892: Ensayo de interpretaci6n sociopolitica,” in idem, ed., Contribuciones para la historia de Mendoza (Mendoza, 1969), pp. 131-78; and Tristany, Miguel R., Gula estadistica de la provincia de Mendoza (Mendoza, 1860), pp. 6164. Works of particular importance for each sketch are cited in the appropriate place.

32 Arata, Pedro, Investigation vinicola complementaria de 1904 (Buenos Aires, 1904), pp. 110–11;Elia, Angel G. de, Memoria sobre el estudio y traza definitiva del ferrocarril de Rio-Cuarto a San Luis, Mendoza y San Juan (Buenos Aires, 1872), pp. 4344;Galanti, A. N., La industria viti-vinicola argentina (Buenos Aires, 1900), pp. 112–13;Michael, G. and Mulhall, Edward T., Handbook of the River Plate Republics (London, 1875), p. 197; Villanueva, Joaqufn, “Regadi'o en Mendoza,” Boletin del De-portamento National de Agricultura, 7 (01. 31, 1883), 5960;Registro estadistico de la República Argentina, 18691873; “La unibn gremial,” p. 169; and “Bolsa Vitivinicola,” Los Andes, 08. 29, 1907, p. 4.

33 Bustos, Luis Castro, Justo Castro, gobemador de San Juan (Buenos Aires, 1939), pp. 3941 fn.; Fernandez, Mirta, et al., “Mendoza y el litoral al comenzar la Guerra del Paraguay,” Revista de la Junta de Estudios Historicos de Mendoza, 2nd ser., 2, no. 7 (1972), 678–79;“Mendoza,” Review of the River Plate, 05 7, 1892, p. 13; Alcorta, Santiago, ed., La Repiiblica Argentina en la Exposition Universal de Paris de 1889 (Paris, 1890), p. 29; , Arata, Investigation complementaria, p. 110; , Galanti, La in-dustria vitivinicola, pp. 101–02;J.A.P., “El Trapiche: el vifledo mas grande de Mendoza,” Los Andes, 02. 24, 1888, p. 1; and Rodriguez, Luis D., La Argentina (Buenos Aires, 1908), p. 273.

34 Bolet'm del Departamento National de Agricultura, 8 (09. 15, 1884), 593n; Civit, Emilio, Los vi-hedos de Francia y los de Mendoza (Mendoza, 1887); , Mendoza, Exposición interprovincial, p. 75; “La plantacion de la vid en Mendoza,” Los Andes, 05 4, 1888, p. 1; , Galanti, La industria vitivinicola, pp. 101–03;and Guinazu, Morales, Historia de la cullura mendocina, p. 306.

35 Navarro, Emilio Manurin, Contribution al estudio de la historia vitivinicola argentina (Mendoza, 1967), pp. 138–39 fn.

36 , Alcorta, Expositión de Paris; pp. 2948;“Mendora,” Review of the River Plate, 05 7, 1892, p. 13; , Arata, Investigation complementaria, p. 110; and, Rodriguez, La Argentina, 1908, p. 273, for information on Honorio Barraquero; andCorreas, Edmundo, “Doctor Ezequiel Tabanera (1830-1912),” Revista de la Junta de Estudios Historicos de Mendoza, 2nd ser., 1, no. 8 (1975), 605–06;Denis, Paul Y., “San Rafael: La Ciudad y su región,” Boletin de Estudios Geograficos (Mendoza) 16 (06-Dec. 1969), 231–32;, Mendoza, Memoria, 1903, p. 127; and , Rodriquez, La Argentina, 1912, pp. 314316, for information on Tabanera and the Bombal family.

37 , Lipset and , Solari, Elites in Latin America, p. viii. A similar argument is made byEchavarria, José Medina, “A Theoretical Model of Development Applicable to Latin America,” in De Vries and Echavarria, Social Aspects, p. 36.

38 Based on calculations made from Mendoza, Anuario, 1909, p. 483, 487, 491; 1910, p. 16; 1911, p. 61; 1912, p. 15; 1913, p. 15; and 1914, p. 7.

39 Repiiblica Argentina, Departamento General de Inmigración, La provincia de Mendoza (Buenos Aires, 1893), p. 16, andTercer censo national (1914), 3:219.

40 Segundo censo national (1895), 3:183–84,and Tercer censo national (1914), 5:396.

41 , Mendoza, Anuario, 1909, p. 355.

42 , Latzina, L'agriculture, p. 373.

43 Tercer censo national (1914), 5:396.

44 Scobie, James R., Revolution on the Pampas: A Social History of Argentine Wheat, 1860-1910 (2nd. ed.; Austin, 1967), p. 31.

45 The distribution of landholdings by size based on data in Tercer censo national (1914), 5:207; distribution of wineries by capacity based on data appearing in, Rodriguez, La Argentina, 1912, p. 309.

46 Particularly useful for information bearing on the activities of immigrants in Mendoza are Molins, Jaime W. and Dantil, Jorge, eds., La Republica Argentina.Region de Cuyo: San Juan, Mendoza, San Luis (Buenos Aires, 1922?); and Sergi, Jorge F., Historia de los italianos en la Argentina (Buenos Aires, 1940).

47 For an idea of the mixed composition of these societies' membership see: “La unión gremial, ” p. 169; Centra Comercial, Solicitud (Mendoza, 1897), pp. 78;“Centra viti-vinfcola,” Los Andes, 06 1, 1894, p. 1; and for some examples of their activities seeCentra Comercial, Esposicion (Mendoza, 1894),Memoria (Mendoza, 1893),and Solicitud (Mendoza, 1897); and Centro Vitivini'cola Argentino, Petition (Buenos Aires, 1895),and Peticion (Buenos Aires, 1896).

48 Germani, SocialModernization, p. 4, and, Hoselitz, Sociological Aspects of Growth, p. 5.

49 Geertz, Clifford, Peddlers and Princes: Social Change and Economic Modernization in Two Indonesian Towns (Chicago, 1968), p. 154.

50 Nash, Manning, Machine Age Maya: The Industrialization of a Guatemalan Community (Chicago, 1967), esp. pp. 144–50.

51 , Higgins, “Requirements for Rapid Development,” pp. 157–58.

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