Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Conditioning of cross-flow instability modes using dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators

  • Jacopo Serpieri (a1), Srikar Yadala Venkata (a1) (a2) and Marios Kotsonis (a1)
Abstract

In the current study, selective forcing of cross-flow instability modes evolving on a $45^{\circ }$ swept wing at $Re=2.17\times 10^{6}$ is achieved by means of spanwise-modulated plasma actuators, positioned near the leading edge. In the perspective of laminar flow control, the followed methodology holds on the discrete roughness elements/upstream flow deformation (DRE/UFD) approach, thoroughly investigated by e.g. Saric et al. (AIAA Paper 1998-781, 1998), Malik et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 399, 1999, pp. 85–115) and Wassermann & Kloker (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 456, 2002, pp. 49–84). The possibility of using active devices for UFD provides several advantages over passive means, allowing for a wider range of operating $Re$ numbers and pressure distributions. In the present work, customised alternating current dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators have been designed, manufactured and characterised. The authority of the actuators in forcing monochromatic stationary cross-flow modes at different spanwise wavelengths is assessed by means of infrared thermography. Moreover, quantitative spatio-temporal measurements of the boundary layer velocity field are performed using time-resolved particle image velocimetry. The results reveal distinct steady and unsteady forcing contributions of the plasma actuator on the boundary layer. It is shown that the actuators introduce unsteady fluctuations in the boundary layer, amplifying at frequencies significantly lower than the actuation frequency. In line with the DRE/UFD strategy, forcing a sub-critical stationary mode, with a shorter wavelength compared to the naturally selected mode, results in less amplified primary vortices and related fluctuations, compared to the critical forcing case. The effect of the forcing on the flow stability is further inspected by combining the measured actuators body force with the numerical solution of the laminar boundary layer and linear stability theory. The simplified methodology yields fast and computationally cheap estimates on the effect of steady forcing (magnitude and direction) on the boundary layer stability.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Email address for correspondence: j.serpieri@tudelft.nl
References
Hide All
Arnal, D., Gasparian, G. & Salinas, H.1998 Recent advances in theoretical methods for laminar–turbulent transition prediction. AIAA Paper 1998-0223.
Benard, N. & Moreau, E. 2014 Electrical and mechanical characteristics of surface AC dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators applied to airflow control. Exp. Fluids 55 (11), 143.
Bippes, H. 1999 Basic experiments on transition in three-dimensional boundary layers dominated by crossflow instability. Prog. Aerosp. Sci. 35 (4), 363412.
Bonfigli, G. & Kloker, M. 2007 Secondary instability of crossflow vortices: validation of the stability theory by direct numerical simulation. J. Fluid Mech. 583, 229272.
Bridges, T. J. & Morris, P. J. 1984 Differential eigenvalue problems in which the parameter appears nonlinearly. J. Comput. Phys. 55 (3), 437460.
Chernyshev, S., Kuryachii, A., Manuilovich, S., Rusyanov, D. & Skvortsov, V.2013 Attenuation of cross-flow-type instability in compressible boundary layer by means of plasma actuators. AIAA Paper 2013-321.
Corke, T. C., Enloe, C. L. & Wilkinson, S. P. 2010 Dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators for flow control. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 42, 505529.
Deyhle, H. & Bippes, H. 1996 Disturbance growth in an unstable three-dimensional boundary layer and its dependence on environmental conditions. J. Fluid Mech. 316, 73113.
Dörr, P. C. & Kloker, M. J. 2015a Numerical investigation of plasma-actuator force-term estimations from flow experiments. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 48 (39), 395203.
Dörr, P. C. & Kloker, M. J. 2015b Stabilisation of a three-dimensional boundary layer by base-flow manipulation using plasma actuators. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 48, 285205.
Dörr, P. C. & Kloker, M. J. 2016 Transition control in a three-dimensional boundary layer by direct attenuation of nonlinear crossflow vortices using plasma actuators. Intl J. Heat Fluid Flow 449465.
Dörr, P. C. & Kloker, M. J. 2017 Crossflow transition control by upstream flow deformation using plasma actuators. J. Appl. Phys. 121 (6), 063303.
Dörr, P. C., Kloker, M. J. & Hanifi, A.2017 Effect of upstream flow deformation using plasma actuators on crossflow transition induced by unsteady vortical free-stream disturbances. AIAA Paper 2017-3114.
Downs, R. S. III & White, E. B. 2013 Free-stream turbulence and the development of cross-flow disturbances. J. Fluid Mech. 735, 347380.
Fischer, T. M. & Dallmann, U. 1991 Primary and secondary stability analysis of a three-dimensional boundary-layer flow. Phys. Fluids A 3 (10), 23782391.
Friederich, T. & Kloker, M. J. 2012 Control of the secondary cross-flow instability using localized suction. J. Fluid Mech. 706, 470495.
Grundmann, S. & Tropea, C. 2008 Active cancellation of artificially introduced Tollmien–Schlichting waves using plasma actuators. Exp. Fluids 44 (5), 795806.
Haynes, T. S. & Reed, H. L. 2000 Simulation of swept-wing vortices using nonlinear parabolized stability equations. J. Fluid Mech. 405, 325349.
Högberg, M. & Henningson, D. 1998 Secondary instability of cross-flow vortices in Falkner–Skan–Cooke boundary layers. J. Fluid Mech. 368, 339357.
Hosseini, S. M., Tempelmann, D., Hanifi, A. & Henningson, D. S. 2013 Stabilization of a swept-wing boundary layer by distributed roughness elements. J. Fluid Mech. 718, R1-1–R1-11.
Joslin, R. D. 1998 Aircraft laminar flow control. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 30 (1), 129.
Jukes, T. N. & Choi, K.-S. 2013 On the formation of streamwise vortices by plasma vortex generators. J. Fluid Mech. 733, 370393.
Kawakami, M., Kohama, Y. & Okutsu, M.1999 Stability characteristics of stationary crossflow vortices in three-dimensional boundary layer. AIAA Paper 1998-811.
Kotsonis, M. 2015 Diagnostics for characterisation of plasma actuators. Meas. Sci. Technol. 26 (9), 092001.
Kotsonis, M., Ghaemi, S., Veldhuis, L. & Scarano, F. 2011 Measurement of the body force field of plasma actuators. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 44 (4), 045204.
Kotsonis, M., Giepman, R., Hulshoff, S. & Veldhuis, L. 2013 Numerical study of the control of Tollmien–Schlichting waves using plasma actuators. AIAA J. 51 (10), 23532364.
Kotsonis, M., Shukla, R. K. & Pröbsting, S. 2015 Control of natural Tollmien–Schlichting waves using dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators. Intl J. Flow Control 7 (1–2), 3754.
Kurz, H. B. E. & Kloker, M. J. 2014 Receptivity of a swept-wing boundary layer to micron-sized discrete roughness elements. J. Fluid Mech. 755, 6282.
Lohse, J., Barth, H. P. & Nitsche, W. 2016 Active control of crossflow-induced transition by means of in-line pneumatic actuator orifices. Exp. Fluids 57 (8), 110.
Mack, L. M.1984 Boundary-layer linear stability theory. AGARD Rep. 709.
Malik, M. R., Li, F., Choudhari, M. & Chang, C.-L. 1999 Secondary instability of crossflow vortices and swept-wing boundary-layer transition. J. Fluid Mech. 399, 85115.
Messing, R. & Kloker, M. J. 2010 Investigation of suction for laminar flow control of three-dimensional boundary layers. J. Fluid Mech. 658, 117147.
Pereira, R., Kotsonis, M., De Oliveira, G. & Ragni, D. 2015 Analysis of local frequency response of flow to actuation: application to the dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator. J. Appl. Phys. 118 (15), 103301-1–103301-10.
Pereira, R., Ragni, D. & Kotsonis, M. 2014 Effect of external flow velocity on momentum transfer of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators. J. Appl. Phys. 116 (10), 153301-1–153301-9.
Radeztsky, R. H., Reibert, M. S. & Saric, W. S. 1999 Effect of isolated micron-sized roughness on transition in swept-wing flows. AIAA J. 37 (11), 13701377.
Raffel, M., Willert, C. E., Wereley, S. T. & Kompenhans, J. 2007 Particle Image Velocimetry. Springer.
Reibert, M. S., Saric, W. S., Carrillo, R. B. Jr. & Chapman, K.1996 Experiments in nonlinear saturation of stationary crossflow vortices in a swept-wing boundary layer. AIAA Paper 1996-0184.
Saric, W., Reed, H. & Banks, D.2004 Flight testing of laminar flow control in high-speed boundary layers. NATO-RTO-MP-AVT-111.
Saric, W., Carrillo, R. Jr. & Reibert, M. 1998 Leading-edge roughness as a transition control mechanism. AIAA Paper 1998-781.
Saric, W. & Reed, H.2002 Supersonic laminar flow control on swept wings using distributed roughness. AIAA Paper 2002-147.
Saric, W. S., Carpenter, A. L. & Reed, H. L. 2011 Passive control of transition in three-dimensional boundary layers, with emphasis on discrete roughness elements. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond A 369 (1940), 13521364.
Saric, W. S., Reed, H. L. & White, E. B. 2003 Stability and transition of three-dimensional boundary layers. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 35 (1), 413440.
Scarano, F. 2002 Iterative image deformation methods in PIV. Meas. Sci. Technol. 13 (1), R1.
Schlichting, H. & Gersten, K. 2000 Boundary Layer Theory. Cambridge University Press.
Schrijer, F. F. J. & Scarano, F. 2008 Effect of predictor–corrector filtering on the stability and spatial resolution of iterative PIV interrogation. Exp. Fluids 45 (5), 927941.
Schuele, C. Y., Corke, T. C. & Matlis, E. 2013 Control of stationary cross-flow modes in a mach 3.5 boundary layer using patterned passive and active roughness. J. Fluid Mech. 718, 538.
Serpieri, J. & Kotsonis, M. 2016 Three-dimensional organisation of primary and secondary crossflow instability. J. Fluid Mech. 799, 200245.
Serpieri, J. & Kotsonis, M. 2017 Conditioning of unsteady cross-flow instability modes using AC-DBD plasma actuators. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. (under review).
Serpieri, J., Yadala Venkata, S. & Kotsonis, M.2017 Towards laminar flow control on swept wings with AC-DBD plasma actuators as active roughness. AIAA Paper 2017-1459.
Shahriari, N.2016 On stability and receptivity of boundary-layer flows. PhD Thesis, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
Sirovich, L. 1987 Turbulence and the dynamics of coherent structures. Part i: coherent structures. Q. Appl. Maths 45 (3), 561571.
Tucker, A. A., Saric, W. S. & Reed, H. L.2014 Laminar flow control flight experiment design and execution. AIAA Paper 2014-909.
Wassermann, P. & Kloker, M. 2002 Mechanisms and passive control of crossflow-vortex-induced transition in a three-dimensional boundary layer. J. Fluid Mech. 456, 4984.
Wassermann, P. & Kloker, M. 2003 Transition mechanisms induced by travelling crossflow vortices in a three-dimensional boundary layer. J. Fluid Mech. 483, 6789.
Welch, P. D. 1967 The use of fast fourier transform for the estimation of power spectra: a method based on time averaging over short, modified periodograms. IEEE Trans. Audio Electroacoust. 15 (2), 7073.
White, E. & Saric, W.2000 Application of variable leading-edge roughness for transition control on swept wings. AIAA Paper 2000-283.
White, E. B. & Saric, W. S. 2005 Secondary instability of crossflow vortices. J. Fluid Mech. 525, 275308.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Fluid Mechanics
  • ISSN: 0022-1120
  • EISSN: 1469-7645
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-fluid-mechanics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
MathJax

JFM classification

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed