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    Grimshaw, Roger Wang, Caixia and Li, Lan 2016. Modelling of Polarity Change in a Nonlinear Internal Wave Train in Laoshan Bay. Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 46, Issue. 3, p. 965.

    YAMASHITA, Kei KAKINUMA, Taro NAKAYAMA, Keisuke OIKAWA, Masayuki TSUJI, Hidekazu and NISHIKAWA, Manabu 2010. Nonlinear Characteristics of Internal Waves in a Deep-Water Region or near a Wave-Breaking Point. Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. B2 (Coastal Engineering), Vol. 66, Issue. 1, p. 26.

    Nakayama, K. and Kakinuma, T. 2009. Internal waves in a two-layer system using fully nonlinear internal-wave equations. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, p. n/a.

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  • Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Volume 424
  • December 2000, pp. 279-301

Internal wave evolution in a space–time varying field

  • D. A. HORN (a1), L. G. REDEKOPP (a2), J. IMBERGER (a1) and G. N. IVEY (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 16 November 2000

An extended Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation is derived that describes the evolution and propagation of long interfacial gravity waves in the presence of a strong, space–time varying background. Provision is made in the derivation for a spatially varying lower depth so that some topographic effects can also be included. The extended KdV model is applied to some simple scenarios in basins of constant and varying depths, using approximate expressions for the variable coefficients derived for the case when the background field is composed of a moderate-amplitude ultra-long wave. The model shows that energy can be transferred either to or from the evolving wave packet depending on the relative phases of the evolving waves and the background variation. Comparison of the model with laboratory experiments confirms its applicability and usefulness in examining the evolution of weakly nonlinear waves in natural systems where the background state is rarely uniform or steady.

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Journal of Fluid Mechanics
  • ISSN: 0022-1120
  • EISSN: 1469-7645
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-fluid-mechanics
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