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Turbulence strength in ultimate Taylor–Couette turbulence

  • Rodrigo Ezeta (a1), Sander G. Huisman (a1), Chao Sun (a1) (a2) and Detlef Lohse (a1) (a3)
Abstract

We provide experimental measurements for the effective scaling of the Taylor–Reynolds number within the bulk $\mathit{Re}_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D706},\mathit{bulk}}$ , based on local flow quantities as a function of the driving strength (expressed as the Taylor number $\mathit{Ta}$ ), in the ultimate regime of Taylor–Couette flow. We define $Re_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D706},bulk}=(\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}_{bulk}(u_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D703}}))^{2}(15/(\unicode[STIX]{x1D708}\unicode[STIX]{x1D716}_{bulk}))^{1/2}$ , where $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}_{bulk}(u_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D703}})$ is the bulk-averaged standard deviation of the azimuthal velocity, $\unicode[STIX]{x1D716}_{bulk}$ is the bulk-averaged local dissipation rate and $\unicode[STIX]{x1D708}$ is the liquid kinematic viscosity. The data are obtained through flow velocity field measurements using particle image velocimetry. We estimate the value of the local dissipation rate $\unicode[STIX]{x1D716}(r)$ using the scaling of the second-order velocity structure functions in the longitudinal and transverse directions within the inertial range – without invoking Taylor’s hypothesis. We find an effective scaling of $\unicode[STIX]{x1D716}_{\mathit{bulk}}/(\unicode[STIX]{x1D708}^{3}d^{-4})\sim \mathit{Ta}^{1.40}$ , (corresponding to $\mathit{Nu}_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D714},\mathit{bulk}}\sim \mathit{Ta}^{0.40}$ for the dimensionless local angular velocity transfer), which is nearly the same as for the global energy dissipation rate obtained from both torque measurements ( $\mathit{Nu}_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D714}}\sim \mathit{Ta}^{0.40}$ ) and direct numerical simulations ( $\mathit{Nu}_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D714}}\sim \mathit{Ta}^{0.38}$ ). The resulting Kolmogorov length scale is then found to scale as $\unicode[STIX]{x1D702}_{\mathit{bulk}}/d\sim \mathit{Ta}^{-0.35}$ and the turbulence intensity as $I_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D703},\mathit{bulk}}\sim \mathit{Ta}^{-0.061}$ . With both the local dissipation rate and the local fluctuations available we finally find that the Taylor–Reynolds number effectively scales as $\mathit{Re}_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D706},\mathit{bulk}}\sim \mathit{Ta}^{0.18}$ in the present parameter regime of $4.0\times 10^{8}<\mathit{Ta}<9.0\times 10^{10}$ .

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Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
Email address for correspondence: chaosun@tsinghua.edu.cn
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