Skip to main content Accessibility help

Steinernema pwaniensis n. sp., a new entomopathogenic nematode (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) from Tanzania

  • V. Půža (a1), J. Nermut (a1), Z. Mráček (a1), S. Gengler (a2) and S. Haukeland (a3)...


A new species of entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema pwaniensis n. sp., belonging to the glaseri group, is described from Tanzania. The infective juveniles of S. pwaniensis n. sp. are characterized by a body length of 978 μm (808–1131), distance from anterior end to excretory pore of 86 μm (80–95) and a tail length of 87 μm (75–95). The ratios a, c and E% of S. pwaniensis n. sp. are substantially lower than those of all other African ‘glaseri’ group members. The first-generation males of S. pwaniensis n. sp. can be distinguished by a large spicule length of 92 μm (80–97) and by the absence of the caudal mucron, while second-generation males possess a short spine-like mucron. First-generation females have a peg-like tail tip bearing three spine-like projections. Second-generation females can be recognized by a slightly protruding vulva and well-developed post-anal swelling. The new species is further characterized by sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial 28S regions of the ribosomal DNA. Phylogenetic analyses show that S. pwaniensis n. sp. forms a strongly supported monophyletic clade with two other East African species, S. ethiopiense and S. karii.


Corresponding author



Hide All
Abd-Elbary, N.A., Shamseldean, M.S., Stock, S.P. & Abu-Shady, N.M. (2012) Diversity of entomopathogenic nematode species (Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) in Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Agronematology 11, 333353.
Adams, B.J. (1998) Species concept and the evolutionary paradigm in modern nematology. Journal of Nematology 30, 121.
Adams, B.J., Fodor, A., Koppenhöfer, H.S., Stackebrandt, E., Stock, S.P. & Klein, M.G. (2006) Reprint of ‘Biodiversity and systematics of nematode–bacterium entomopathogens’ [Biol. Control 37 (2006) 32–49]. Biological Control 38, 421.
Akyazi, F., Ansari, M.A., Ahmed, B.I., Crow, W.T. & Mekete, T. (2012) First record of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) from Nigerian soil and their morphometrical and ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Nematologia Mediterranea 40, 95100.
Courtney, W.D., Polley, D. & Miller, V.I. (1955) TAF, an improved fixative in nematode technique. Plant Disease Reporter 39, 570571.
Hall, T.A. (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series 41, 9598.
Hatting, J., Stock, S.P. & Hazir, S. (2009) Diversity and distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae) in South Africa. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 102, 120128.
Kanga, F.N., Waeyenberge, L., Hauser, S. & Moens, M. (2012) Distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes in Southern Cameroon. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 109, 4151.
Malan, A.P., Nguyen, K.B. & Addison, M.F. (2006) Entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) from the southwestern parts of South Africa. African Plant Protection 12, 6569.
Malan, A.P., Knoetze, R. & Moore, S.D. (2011) Isolation and identification of entomopathogenic nematodes from citrus orchards in South Africa and their biocontrol potential against false codling moth. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 108, 115125.
Mekete, T., Gaugler, R., Nguyen, K.B., Mandefro, W. & Tessera, M. (2005) Biogeography of entomopathogenic nematodes in Ethiopia. Nematropica 35, 3136.
Mráček, Z., Půža, V. & Nermut', J. (2014) Steinernema poinari sp. n. (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) a new entomopathogenic nematode from Czech Republic. Zootaxa 3760, 336350.
Mráček, Z., Půža, V. & Nermut', J. (2015) The significance of the tail projections in female entomopathogenic nematodes within the family Steinernematidae. Journal of Helminthology. doi:10.1017/S0022149X14000935.
Mwaitulo, S., Haukeland, S., Sæthre, M.G., Laudisoit, A. & Maerere, A.P. (2011) First report of entomopathogenic nematodes from Tanzania and their virulence against larvae and adults of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 31, 154161.
Mwaniki, S.W., Nderitu, J.H., Olubayo, F., Kimenju, J.W. & Nguyen, K. (2008) Factors influencing the occurrence of entomopathogenic nematodes in the Central Rift Valley Region of Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 46, 7984.
Nei, M. & Kumar, S. (2000) Molecular evolution and phylogenetics. 333 pp. New York, NY, USA, Oxford University Press.
Nguyen, K.B. & Smart, G.C. (1995) Scanning electron microscope studies of Steinernema glaseri (Nematoda: Steinernematidae). Nematologica 41, 183190.
Nguyen, K.B. & Smart, G.C. (1997) Scanning electron microscope studies of spicules and gubernacula of Steinernema spp. (Nemata: Steinernematidae). Nematologica 43, 465480.
Nguyen, K.B. (2007) Methodology, morphology and identification. pp. 59119 in Nguyen, K.B. & Hunt, D.J. (Eds) Entomopathogenic nematodes: systematics, phylogeny and bacterial symbionts. Nematology Monographs and Perspectives, vol. 5. Leiden, The Netherlands, Brill.
Poinar, G.O. Jr (1979) Nematodes for biological control of insects. 249 pp. Boca Raton, Florida, USA, CRC Press.
Půža, V., Chundelová, D., Nermut', J., Žurovcová, M. & Mráček, Z. (2015) Intra-individual variability of ITS region in entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae: Nematoda): implications for their taxonomy. Biocontrol 60, 547554.
Rzhetsky, A. & Nei, M. (1992) A simple method for estimating and testing minimum evolution trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution 9, 945967.
Saitou, N. & Nei, M. (1987) The neighbor-joining method: A new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution 4, 406425.
Seinhorst, J.W. (1959) A rapid method for the transfer of nematodes from fixative to anhydrous glycerin. Nematologica 4, 6769.
Shamseldean, M.M. & Abd-Elgawad, M.M. (1994) Natural occurrence of insect pathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) in Egyptian soils. Afro-Asian Journal of Nematology 4, 151154.
Spiridonov, S.E., Reid, A.P., Podrucka, K., Subbotin, S.A. & Moens, M. (2004) Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Steinernema (Nematoda: Rhabditida) as inferred from analyses of sequences of the ITS1–5.8S–ITS2 region of rDNA and morphological features. Nematology 6, 547566.
Tamura, K., Stecher, G., Peterson, D., Filipski, A. & Kumar, S. (2013) MEGA6: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution 30, 27252729.
Vrain, T.C., Wakarchuk, D.A., Levesque, A.C. & Hamilton, R.I. (1992) Intraspecific rDNA restriction fragment length polymorphism in the Xiphinema americanum group. Fundamental and Applied Nematology 15, 563573.
Zadji, L., Baimey, H., Afouda, L., Houssou, F.G., Waeyenberge, L., De Sutter, N., Moens, M. & Decraemer, W. (2013) First record on the distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) in Southern Benin. Russian Journal of Nematology 21, 117130.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed