Skip to main content Accessibility help

Current demand of paediatric otolaryngology input for children with Down's syndrome in a tertiary referral centre

  • M Khalid-Raja (a1) and K Tzifa (a1)



This study aimed to evaluate the activity of paediatric otolaryngology services required for children with Down's syndrome in a tertiary referral centre.


A review of the paediatric otolaryngology input for children with Down's syndrome was performed; data were obtained from the coding department for a two-year period and compared with other surgical specialties.


Between June 2011 and May 2013, 106 otolaryngology procedures were performed on children with Down's syndrome. This compared to 87 cardiac and 81 general paediatrics cases. The most common pathologies in children with Down's syndrome were obstructive sleep apnoea, otitis media, hearing loss and cardiac disease. The most common otolaryngology procedures performed were adenoidectomy, tonsillectomy, grommet insertion and bone-anchored hearing aid implant surgery.


ENT manifestations of Down's syndrome are common. Greater provisions need to be made to streamline the otolaryngology services for children and improve transition of care to adult services.


Corresponding author

Address for correspondence: Dr Mamoona Khalid-Raja, ENT Department, Birmingham Children's Hospital, Steelhouse Lane, Birmingham B4 6NH, UK E-mail:


Hide All
1 Chin, CJ, Khami, MM, Husein, M. A general review of the otolaryngological manifestations of Down syndrome. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2014;78:899904
2 McDowell, KM, Craven, DI. Pulmonary complications of Down syndrome during childhood. J Pediatr 2011;158:319–25
3 Down's Syndrome Association. In: [22 August 2016]
4 Bittles, AH, Glasson, EJ. Clinical, social, and ethical implications of changing life expectancy in Down syndrome. Dev Med Child Neurol 2004;46:282–6
5 Lin, SC, Davey, MJ, Horne, RS, Nixon, GM. Screening for obstructive sleep apnoea in children with Down syndrome. J Pediatr 2014;165:117–22
6 Bull, MJ, Committee on Genetics. Health supervision for children with Down syndrome. Pediatrics 2011;128:393406
7 Goffinski, A, Stanley, MA, Shepherd, N, Duvall, N, Jenkinson, SB, Davis, C et al. Obstructive sleep apnoea in young infants with Down syndrome evaluated in a Down syndrome speciality clinic. Am J Med Genet A 2015;167A:324–30
8 Steward, DJ. Anesthesia considerations in children with Down syndrome. J Crit Care 2006;25:136–41
9 Hans, PS, Belloso, A, Sheehan, PZ. Parental satisfaction with health services provided to children with Down syndrome in north-west England: an ENT perspective. J Laryngol Otol 2007;121:382–6
10 Marcus, CL, Keens, TG, Bautista, DB, von Pechmann, WS, Ward, SL. Obstructive sleep apnoea in children with Down syndrome. Pediatrics 1991;88:132–9
11 Wolkove, N, Baltzan, M, Kamel, H, Dabrusin, R, Palayew, M. Long-term compliance with continuous positive airway pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Can Respir J 2008;15:365–9
12 Shete, MM, Stocks, RM, Sebelik, ME, Schoumacher, RA. Effects of adeno-tonsillectomy on polysomnography patterns in Down syndrome children with obstructive sleep apnea: a comparative study with children without Down syndrome. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2010;74:241–4
13 Leonardis, RL, Robison, JG, Otteson, TD. Evaluating the management of obstructive sleep apnoea in neonates and infants. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2013;139:139–46
14 Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. Working Party on Sleep Physiology and Respiratory Control Disorders in Childhood: Standards for Services for Children with Disorders of Sleep Physiology, Report, September 2009. In: [22 August 2016]
15 McDermott, AL, Williams, J, Kuo, MJ, Reid, AP, Proops, DW. The role of bone anchored hearing aids in children with Down syndrome. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2008;72:751–7
16 Sheehan, PZ, Hans, PS. UK and Ireland experience of bone anchored hearing aids (BAHA) in individuals with Down syndrome. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2006;70:981–6
17 Dahle, AH, McCollister, FP. Hearing loss and otologic disorders in children with Down syndrome. Am J Ment Defic 1986;90:636–42
18 Buchanan, LH. Early onset of presbyacusis in Down syndrome. Scand Audiol 1990;19:103–10
19 Malik, V, Verma, RU, Joshi, V, Sheehan, PZ. An evidence-based approach to the 12-min consultation for a child with Down's syndrome. Clin Otolaryngol 2012;37:291–6
20 Shott, SR. Down syndrome: common otolaryngologic manifestations. Am J Med Genet Part C Semin Med Genet 2006;142C:131–40
21 Frazier, JB, Friedman, B. Swallow function in children with Down syndrome: a retrospective study. Dev Med Child Neurol 1996;38:695703
22 O'Neill, AC, Richter, GT. Pharyngeal dysphagia in children with Down syndrome. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2013;149:146–50
23 Stoel-Gammon, C. Phonological development in Down syndrome. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 1997;3:300–6
24 NICE. Prophylaxis against infective endocarditis: antimicrobial prophylaxis against infective endocarditis in adults and children undergoing interventional procedures. In: [22 August 2016]
25 Borland, LM, Colligan, J, Brandon, BW. Frequency of anaesthetic-related complications in children with Down syndrome under general anaesthesia for noncardiac procedures. Paediatr Anaesth 2004;14:733–8
26 Glasson, EJ, Dye, DE, Bittles, AH. The triple challenges associated with age-related comorbidities in Down syndrome. J Intellect Disabil Res 2014;58:393–8
27 Scal, P. Transition for youth with chronic conditions: primary care physicians’ approaches. Pediatrics 2002;110:1315–21
28 Sawyer, SM, Blair, S, Bowes, G. Chronic illness in adolescents: transfer or transition to adult services? J Paediatr Child Health 1997;33:8890
29 Jensen, KM, Davis, MM. Health care in adults with Down syndrome: a longitudinal cohort study. J Intellect Disabil Res 2013;57:947–58
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Journal of Laryngology & Otology
  • ISSN: 0022-2151
  • EISSN: 1748-5460
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-laryngology-and-otology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed