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    de Ru, J.A. and Grote, J.J. 2004. Otitis media with effusion: disease or defense?. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, Vol. 68, Issue. 3, p. 331.

    Kubba, H. Pearson, J.P. and Birchall, J.P. 2000. The aetiology of otitis media with effusion: a review. Clinical Otolaryngology and Allied Sciences, Vol. 25, Issue. 3, p. 181.

    Kitchens, George G. 1995. Relationship of environmental tobacco smoke to otitis media in young children. The Laryngoscope, Vol. 105, Issue. S69, p. 1.

    Worley, Gordon Sturner, Raymond A. Green, James A. and Frothingham, Thomas E. 1994. Evidence for a relationship between head shape and prevalence of middle ear effusion in children. Clinical Anatomy, Vol. 7, Issue. 2, p. 84.

    SCHILDER, ANNE G. M. ZIELHUIS, GERHARD A. and BROEK, PAUL 1993. The otological profile of a cohort of Dutch 7.5?8-year-olds. Clinical Otolaryngology, Vol. 18, Issue. 1, p. 48.

    Stenstrom, Robert Bernard, Philippe A.M. and Ben-Simhon, Haim 1993. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke as a risk factor for recurrent acute otitis media in children under the age of five years. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, Vol. 27, Issue. 2, p. 127.


Impedance tympanometry and the home environment in seven-year-old children

  • David P. Strachan (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 June 2007

The distribution of tympanogram types among 872 seven-year-old children from a random population sample was related to 14 features of the home environment reported by parents in a questionnaire. Parental smoking was an important determinant of middle ear underpressure and effusion, and accounted for much of the associations observed with dampness, crowding and rented accommodation. Gas cooking was associated with a higher prevalence of effusion, but a lower prevalence of underpressure; this may deserve further study.

After adjustment for seasonal variation, tenure and household smokers, the weekly mean temperature in the bedrooms of 34 children with Type B tympanograms was 18.2°C, compared to 17.9°C for 190 children with Type A tympanograms. The equivalent figures for bedroom relative humidity were 51.8 percent and 52.7 per cent. It is unlikely that heating or ventilation of the home is an important determinant of middle ear effusion and underpressure in this age-group.

Corresponding author
Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Social Medicine, St George's Hospital Medical School, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 ORE.
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The Journal of Laryngology & Otology
  • ISSN: 0022-2151
  • EISSN: 1748-5460
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