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The original description of Shrapnell's membrane reviewed in the light of recent experimental studies

  • S. Hellström (a1) and L.-E. Stenfors (a2)

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Corresponding author

Dr. Lars-Eric Stenfors, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Umeå, S-901 87 Umeå, Sweden.

References

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Alm, P., Bloom, G. D., Hellström, S., Stenfors, L.-E., and Widemar, L. (1983) Middle ear effusion caused by mechanical stimulation of the external auditory canal. An experimental study on the rat. Acta Otolaryngologica (Stockholm), 96: 9198.
Alm, P., Bloom, G. D., Hellström, S., Salén, B., and Stenfors, L.-E. (1982) The release of histamine from the pars flaccida mast cells—one cause of otitis media with effusion? Acta Otolaryngologica (Stockholm), 94: 517522.
Békésy, G. von (1941) Uber die Messung de Schwingungsamplitude de Gehörknöchelchens mittels einer kapazitiven Sonde. Akust Zeitschrift, 6: 116.
Filogamo, G. (1949) Recherches sur las structure de la membrane du tympan chez les différents vertébrés. Acta anatomica, 7: 248272.
Fumagalli, Z. (1942) Contributo aila conoscenza della struttura della lamina propria della membrana del timpano urnana. Achivio Italiano di Otologia, Rinologia e Laringologia, 54: 369401.
Hellström, S., Salen, B., and Stenfors, L.-E. (1981) The site of initial production and transport of effusion materials in otitis media serosa. A study on rat middle-ear cavity. Acta Otolaryngologica (Stockholm), 93: 435440.
Hentzer, E. (1969) Ultrastructure of the human tympanic membrane. Acta Otolaryngologica (Stockholm), 68: 376390.
Kawabata, I., and Ishio, H. (1971) Fiber arrangement in the tympanic membrane. Acta Otolaryngologica (Stockholm), 72: 243254.
Kirikae, I. (1960) The structure and function of the middle-ear. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.
Lim, D. J. (1968a) Tympanic membrane, I. pars tensa. Acta Otolaryngologica (Stockholm), 66: 181189.
Lim, D. J. (1968b) Tympanic membrane. II. Pars flaccida. Acta Otolaryngologica, 66: 515532.
Lim, D. J. (1970) Human tympanic membrane. An ultrastructural observation. Acta Otolaryngologica (Stockholm), 70: 176186.
Secondi, U. (1951) Structure and function of the lamina propria of the tympanic membrane in various mammals. Archives of Otolaryngology, 53: 170181.
Shimada, T., and Lim, D. J. (1971) The fiber arrangement of the human tympanic membrane. A scanning electron microscopic observation. Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, 80: 210217.
Shrapnell, H. J. (1832a) On the form and structure of the membrana tympani. London Medical Gazette, 10: 120124.
Shrapnell, H. J. (1832b) On the structure of the os incus. London Medical Gazette, 10: 171173.
Shrapnell, H. J. (1832c) On the function of the membrana tympani. London Medical Gazette, 10: 282285.
Shrapnell, H. J. (1832d) On the nerves of the ear. London Medical Gazette, 10: 505509.
Stenfors, L.-E., Salén, B. and Winblad, B. (1979) The role of the pars flaccida in the mechanics of the middle ear. Acta Otolaryngologica (Stockholm), 88: 395400.
Stenfors, L.-E., Carlsöö, B., and Winblad, B. (1981) Structure and healing capacity of the rat tympanic membrane after eustachian tube occlusion. Acta Otolaryngologica (Stockholm), 91: 7584.
Stenfors, L.-E., Carlsöö, B., Hellström, S., Salén, B., and Winblad, B. (1982) Structure of the pars flaccida after occlusion of the eustachian tube or blockade of the tympanic isthmus. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 4: 251258.
Tonndorf, J. and Khanna, S. M. (1970) The role of the tympanic membrane in the middle-ear transmission. Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, 69: 743–733.
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The Journal of Laryngology & Otology
  • ISSN: 0022-2151
  • EISSN: 1748-5460
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-laryngology-and-otology
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