Skip to main content

Pied-piping in cognition 1


The paper offers an analysis of pied-piping within the theoretical framework of Word Grammar. This framework combines cognitive linguistics with dependency grammar, so it assumes that the full power of domain-general cognition is available for syntax, and that syntactic structure can be conceived as a network of relations between individual words. In this network, words are related by at least two kinds of link: dependencies and ‘landmark’ links that determine word order. To handle the special characteristics of pied-piping, the analysis also includes a single special relation, ‘pipee’, which links the ‘piper’ (the wh-type word) to the word which replaces it in the landmark structure. The analysis is applied in detail to English, and then compared with previous analyses and extended to accommodate both the pied-piping with inversion found in Meso-American languages, and the boundary markers found in other languages.

Corresponding author
Author’s address: Department of Linguistics, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
Hide All

This paper has benefited from extensive discussion with And Rosta, Nik Gisborne and Stefan Müller, as well as from detailed and enormously helpful comments by two independent Journal of Linguistics referees. I am deeply grateful to all five.

Hide All
Biber, Douglas, Johansson, Stig, Leech, Geoffrey, Conrad, Susan & Finegan, Edward. 1999. Longman grammar of spoken and written English. London: Longman.
Briscoe, Ted, Copestake, Ann & De Paiva, Valeria. 1993. Inheritance, defaults, and the lexicon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Broadwell, George. 1999. Focus Alignment and Optimal Order in Zapotec. Proceedings from the Parasession of the Chicago Linguistic Society 35 (CLS 35), 1527.
Broadwell, George. 2006. Alignment, precedence and the typology of pied piping with inversion. In Butt, Miriam & Holloway King, Tracy (eds.), Proceedings of the LFG06 Conference Universität Konstanz, 5170.
Bybee, Joan. 2010. Language, usage and cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cable, Seth. 2010. Against the existence of pied-piping: Evidence from Tlingit. Linguistic Inquiry 41.4, 563594.
Cable, Seth. 2012. Pied-piping: Introducing two recent approaches. Language and Linguistics Compass 6.12, 816832.
Croft, William & Cruse, Alan. 2004. Cognitive linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dahl, Östen. 1980. Some arguments for higher nodes in syntax: A reply to Hudson’s ‘Constituency and dependency’. Linguistics 18, 485488.
Duran-Eppler, Eva. 2011. Emigranto: The syntax of German–English code-switching. Vienna: Braumüller.
Evans, Nicholas & Levinson, Stephen. 2009. The myth of language universals: Language diversity and its importance for cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32, 429492.
Gazdar, Gerald & Pullum, Geoffrey K.. 1981. Subcategorisation, constituent order, and the notion ‘head’. In Moorttgat, Michael, van der Hulst, Harry & Hoekstra, Teun (eds.), The scope of lexical rules, 107123. Dordrecht: Foris.
Geeraerts, Dirk & Cuyckens, Hubert. 2007. Introducing cognitive linguistics. In Geeraerts & Cuyckens (eds.), 321.
Geeraerts, Dirk & Cuyckens, Hubert (eds.). 2007a. The Oxford handbook of cognitive linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gisborne, Nikolas. 2010. The event structure of perception verbs. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Goldberg, Adele. 1995. Constructions: A Construction Grammar approach to argument structure. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Golomb, Julie, Peelle, Jonathan, Addis, Kelly, Kahana, Michael & Wingfield, Arthur. 2008. Effects of adult aging on utilisation of temporal and semantic associations during free and serial recall. Memory & Cognition 36.5, 947956.
Gries, Stefan. 2002. Preposition stranding in English: Predicting speakers’ behaviour. Proceedings of the Western Conference on Linguistics 12, 230241.
Guasti, Maria Teresa & Shlonsky, Ur. 1995. The acquisition of French relative clauses reconsidered. Language Acquisition 4, 257276.
Hauser, Marc, Chomsky, Noam & Tecumseh Fitch, W.. 2002. The faculty of language: What is it, who has it, and how did it evolve? Science 298, 15691579.
Hawkins, John. 1999. Processing complexity and filler–gap dependencies across grammars. Language 75.2, 244285.
Hawkins, John. 2004. Efficiency and complexity in grammars. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Heck, Fabian. 2008. On pied-piping: Wh-movement and beyond. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Heck, Fabian. 2009. On certain properties of pied-piping. Linguistic Inquiry 40, 75111.
Hoffmann, Thomas. 2008. English relative clauses and Construction Grammar: A topic which preposition placement can shed light on?In Trousdale, Graeme & Gisborne, Nikolas (eds.), Constructional explanations in English grammar, 77112. Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter.
Hoffmann, Thomas. 2011. Preposition placement in English: A usage-based approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Horvath, Julia. 2006. Pied piping. In Everaert, Martin & van Riemsdijk, Henk (eds.), The Blackwell companion to syntax, vol. 3, 569630. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Huddleston, Rodney. 2002. Clause type and illocutionary force. In Huddleston & Pullum et al., 851–945.
Huddleston, Rodney & Pullum, Geoffrey K. et al. . 2002. The Cambridge grammar of the English language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Huddleston, Rodney, Pullum, Geoffrey K. & Peterson, Peter. 2002. Relative constructions and unbounded dependencies. In Huddleston & Pullum et al., 1031–1096.
Hudson, Richard. 1984. Word Grammar. Oxford: Blackwell.
Hudson, Richard. 1990. English Word Grammar. Oxford: Blackwell.
Hudson, Richard. 1998. English grammar. London: Routledge.
Hudson, Richard. 2003. Trouble on the left periphery. Lingua 113, 607642.
Hudson, Richard. 2004. Are determiners heads? Functions of Language 11, 743.
Hudson, Richard. 2007. Language networks: The new Word Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hudson, Richard. 2010. An introduction to Word Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hudson, Richard. 2013a. A cognitive analysis of John’s hat . In Börjars, Kersti, Denison, David & Scott, Alan (eds.), Morphosyntactic categories and the expression of possession, 149175. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Hudson, Richard. 2013b. Pied-piping in Word Grammar. In Yaguchi, Michiko, Takagi, Hiroyuki, Igarashi, Kairi, Watanabe, Tsutomu, Maekawa, Takafumi & Yoshimura, Taiki (eds.), Kyoto Working Papers in English and General Linguistics: Special issue in honour of Professor Kensei Sugayama on the occasion of his 60th birthday, 319. Tokyo: Kaitakusha.
Hudson, Richard. In press. French pronouns in cognition. In Hippisley, Andrew & Gisborne, Nikolas (eds.), Defaults in morphological theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Johansson, Christine & Geisler, Christer. 1998. Pied-piping in spoken English. In Renouf, Antoinette (ed.), Explorations in corpus linguistics, 6782. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Keenan, Edward & Comrie, Bernard. 1977. Noun phrase accessibility and universal grammar. Linguistic Inquiry 8, 6399.
Lamb, Sydney. 1966. Outline of Stratificational Grammar. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Lamb, Sydney. 1998. Pathways of the brain: The neurocognitive basis of language. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Langacker, Ronald. 2007. Cognitive Grammar. In Geeraerts & Cuyckens(eds.), 421462.
Lebeaux, David. 1988. Language acquisition and the form of the grammar. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Massachusetts Amherst.
Luger, George & Stubblefield, William. 1993. Artificial intelligence: Structures and strategies for complex problem solving, 2nd edn. New York: Benjamin Cummings.
McCawley, James. 1988. The syntactic phenomena of English. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
McDaniel, Dana, McKee, Cecile & Bernstein, Judy. 1998. How children’s relatives solve a problem for Minimalism. Language 74, 308334.
Müller, Stefan. 1999. An HPSG-analysis for free relative clauses in German. Grammars 2, 53105.
Perera, Katharine. 1984. Children’s writing and reading: Analysing classroom language. Oxford: Blackwell.
Pollard, Carl & Sag, Ivan A.. 1994. Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Reisberg, Daniel. 2007. Cognition: Exploring the science of the mind, 3rd edn. New York: Norton.
Roberge, Yves & Rosen, Nicole. 1999. Preposition stranding and que-deletion in varieties of North American French. Linguistica Atlantica 21, 153168.
Ross, John. 1967. Constraints on variables in syntax. Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.
Rosta, Andrew. 1997. English syntax and Word Grammar Theory. Ph.D. dissertation, University College London.
Rosta, Andrew. 2005. Structural and distributional heads. In Sugayama, Kensei & Hudson, Richard (eds.), Word Grammar: New perspectives on a theory of language structure, 171203. London: Continuum.
Sprenger, Simone, Levelt, Willem & Kempen, Gerard. 2006. Lexical access during the production of idiomatic phrases. Journal of Memory and Language 54, 161184.
Talmy, Leonard. 2000. Toward a cognitive semantics, vol. 2: Typology and process in concept structuring. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Trotta, Joe. 2001. Wh-clauses in English: Aspects of theory and description (Language & Computers), Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Van Langendonck, Willy. 2007. Iconicity. In Geeraerts & Cuyckens(eds.), 394418.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Linguistics
  • ISSN: 0022-2267
  • EISSN: 1469-7742
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-linguistics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed