Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Curvature effects in carbon nanomaterials: Exohedral versus endohedral supercapacitors

  • Jingsong Huang, Bobby G. Sumpter, Vincent Meunier (a1), Gleb Yushin (a2), Cristelle Portet and Yury Gogotsi (a3)...

Capacitive energy storage mechanisms in nanoporous carbon supercapacitors hinge on endohedral interactions in carbon materials with macro-, meso-, and micropores that have negative surface curvature. In this article, we show that because of the positive curvature found in zero-dimensional carbon onions or one-dimensional carbon nanotube arrays, exohedral interactions cause the normalized capacitance to increase with decreasing particle size or tube diameter, in sharp contrast to the behavior of nanoporous carbon materials. This finding is in good agreement with the trend of recent experimental data. Our analysis suggests that electrical energy storage can be improved by exploiting the highly curved surfaces of carbon nanotube arrays with diameters on the order of 1 nm.

Corresponding author
b)e-mail: This author was an editor of this journal during the review and decision stage. For the JMR policy on review and publication of manuscripts authored by editors, please refer to
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1. B.E. Conway Electrochemical Supercapacitors: Scientific Fundamentals and Technological Applications (Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York1999)

4. J.R. Miller , P. Simon Materials science—Electrochemical capacitors for energy management. Science 321, 651(2008)

5. A. Burke Ultracapacitors: Why, how, and where is the technology. J. Power Sources 91, 37(2000)

6. R. Kötz , M. Carlen Principles and applications of electrochemical capacitors. Electrochim. Acta 45, 2483(2000)

7. P. Simon , Y. Gogotsi Materials for electrochemical capacitors. Nat. Mater. 7, 845(2008)

8. A.G. Pandolfo , A.F. Hollenkamp Carbon properties and their role in supercapacitors. J. Power Sources 157, 11(2006)

9. E. Frackowiak Carbon materials for supercapacitor application. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 1774(2007)

11. H. Shi Activated carbons and double layer capacitance. Electrochim. Acta 41, 1633(1996)

12. C. Vix-Guterl , E. Frackowiak , K. Jurewicz , M. Friebe , J. Parmentier , F. Béguin Electrochemical energy storage in ordered porous carbon materials. Carbon 43, 1293(2005)

13. M. Sevilla , S. Alvarez , T.A. Centeno , A.B. Fuertes , F. Stoeckli Performance of templated mesoporous carbons in supercapacitors. Electrochim. Acta 52, 3207(2007)

14. J. Chmiola , G. Yushin , Y. Gogotsi , C. Portet , P. Simon , P.L. Taberna Anomalous increase in carbon capacitance at pore size less than 1 nanometer. Science 313, 1760(2006)

15. J. Huang , B.G. Sumpter , V. Meunier Theoretical model for nanoporous carbon supercapacitors. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 520(2008)

16. H. Gerischer The impact of semiconductors on the concepts of electrochemistry. Electrochim. Acta 35, 1677(1990)

17. D.W. Wang , F. Li , M. Liu , G.Q. Lu , H.M. Cheng 3D aperiodic hierarchical porous graphitic carbon material for high-rate electrochemical capacitive energy storage. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 373(2008)

18. M.D. Stoller , S.J. Park , Y.W. Zhu , J.H. An , R.S. Ruoff Graphene-based ultracapacitors. Nano Lett. 8, 3498(2008)

19. J. Huang , B.G. Sumpter , V. Meunier A universal model for nanoporous carbon supercapacitors applicable to diverse pore regimes, carbon materials, and electrolytes. Chem. Eur. J. 14, 6614(2008)

20. C. Portet , G. Yushin , Y. Gogotsi Electrochemical performance of carbon onions, nanodiamonds, carbon black and multiwalled nanotubes in electrical double layer capacitors. Carbon 45, 2511(2007)

21. E.G. Bushueva , P.S. Galkin , A.V. Okotrub , L.G. Bulusheva , N.N. Gavrilov , V.L. Kuznetsov , S.I. Moiseekov Double layer supercapacitor properties of onion-like carbon materials. Phys. Status Solidi B 245, 2296(2008)

23. Y. Honda , T. Haramoto , M. Takeshige , H. Shiozaki , T. Kitamura , K. Yoshikawa , M. Ishikawa Performance of electric double-layer capacitor with vertically aligned MWCNT sheet electrodes prepared by transfer methodology. J. Electrochem. Soc. 155, A930(2008)

24. Y. Honda , M. Takeshige , H. Shiozaki , T. Kitamura , K. Yoshikawa , S. Chakrabarti , O. Suekane , L.J. Pan , Y. Nakayama , M. Yamagata , M. Ishikawa Vertically aligned double-walled carbon nanotube electrode prepared by transfer methodology for electric double layer capacitor. J. Power Sources 185, 1580(2008)

25. V.L. Kuznetsov , Y.V. Butenko , A.L. Chuvilin , A.I. Romanenko , A.V. Okotrub Electrical resistivity of graphitized ultra-disperse diamond and onion-like carbon. Chem. Phys. Lett. 336, 397(2001)

26. S. Osswald , G. Yushin , V. Mochalin , S.O. Kucheyev , Y. Gogotsi Control of sp2/sp3 carbon ratio and surface chemistry of nanodiamond powders by selectrive oxidation in air. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 11635(2006)

27. T. Iwasaki , T. Maki , D. Yokoyama , H. Kumagai , Y. Hashimoto , T. Asari , H. Kawarada Highly selective growth of vertically aligned double-walled carbon nanotubes by a controlled heating method and their electric double-layer capacitor properties. Phys. Status Solidi RPL 2, 53(2008)

28. Y. Honda , T. Ono , M. Takeshige , N. Morihara , H. Shiozaki , T. Kitamura , K. Yoshikawa , M. Morita , M. Yamagata , M. Ishikawa Effect of MWCNT bundle structure on electric double-layer capacitor performance. Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12, A45(2009)

29. H. Zhang , G.P. Cao , Y.S. Yang Electrochemical properties of ultra-long, aligned, carbon nanotube array electrode in organic electrolyte. J. Power Sources 172, 476(2007)

30. C. Portet , J. Chmiola , Y. Gogotsi , S. Park , K. Lian Electrochemical characterizations of carbon nanomaterials by the cavity microelectrode technique. Electrochim. Acta 53, 7675(2008)

31. D. Hulicova-Jurcakova , X. Li , Z.H. Zhu , R. de Marco , G.Q. Lu Graphitic carbon nanofibers synthesized by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and their electrochemical performances in supercapacitors. Energy Fuels 22, 4139(2008)

32. Y. Korenblit , M. Rose , K. Kockrick , L. Borchardt , A. Kvit , S. Kaskel , S. Yushin High-rate electrochemical capacitorsbased on ordered mesoporous silicon carbide-derived carbon. ACS Nano 4, 1337(2010)

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Materials Research
  • ISSN: 0884-2914
  • EISSN: 2044-5326
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-materials-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 79 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 257 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th September 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.