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Structure and temperature-dependent phase transitions of lead-free Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3–Bi1/2K1/2TiO3–K0.5Na0.5NbO3 piezoceramics

  • Eva-Maria Anton (a1), Ljubomira Ana Schmitt (a2), Manuel Hinterstein (a3), Joe Trodahl (a4), Ben Kowalski (a5), Wook Jo (a6), Hans-Joachim Kleebe (a7), Jürgen Rödel (a8) and Jacob L. Jones (a9)...

Structure and phase transitions of (1 − y)((1 − x)Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3xBi1/2K1/2TiO3)–yK0.5Na0.5NbO3 (x; y) piezoceramics (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.4; 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.05) were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, neutron diffraction, temperature-dependent x-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. The local crystallographic structure at room temperature (RT) does not change by adding K0.5Na0.5NbO3 to Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3xBi1/2K1/2TiO3 for x = 0.2 and 0.4. The average crystal structure and microstructure on the other hand develop from mainly long-range polar order with ferroelectric domains to short-range order with polar nanoregions displaying a more pronounced relaxor character. The (0.1; 0) and (0.1; 0.02) compositions exhibit monoclinic Cc space group symmetry, which transform into Cc + P4bm at 185 and 130 °C, respectively. This high temperature phase is stable at RT for the morphotropic phase boundary compositions of (0.1; 0.05) and all compositions with x = 0.2. For the compositions of (0.1; 0) and (0.1; 0.02), local structural changes on heating are evidenced by Raman; for all other compositions, changes in the long-range average crystal structure were observed.

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