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On Psychoses after Influenza

  • Julius Althaus (a1)

The discussion which I have been invited to open is on a subject which is new to all of us, and which may, therefore, simply on this account, claim a share of our attention. Indeed, on searching the works of Clouston, Blandford, Savage, and others, as well as the extensive periodical literature which is at our disposal in the “Journal of Mental Science,” the “West Riding Asylum Reports,” and similar publications in France and Germany, the subject of mental affections occurring subsequently to influenza has hardly been mentioned with a single word previous to the epidemics of that distemper which we have recently passed through. Nor is there anything to be found on this subject in the numerous books and papers descriptive of influenza which have appeared before 1890. All that has been written on mental disorders in connection with influenza previous to that date refers to the febrile or initial delirium which may occur at any time during the progress of the feverish attack, and may, indeed, precede all other symptoms, setting in sometimes before there is any rise of temperature. This initial delirium has been described as long ago as 1510 by Sauvages, and later on by Huxham, Ash, Haygarth, Gray, Smyth, Rush; more recently by Lombard, Bonnet, and Pétrequin, and during the last epidemics by Ewald,1 Joffroy,2 Gwynne,3 Creagh,4 Nicholson,5 Van Deventer,6 Mairet,7 and others. In the German Collective Investigation Report, edited by Leyden and Guttmann,8 no less than 276 such cases have been collated. It is, however, not this initial delirium which we have met here to consider to-day, but those better defined psychoses which are prone to occur after the feverish attack is over, during, or some time subsequently to convalescence.

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1. Ewald, .—Über Influenza. Deutsche Med. Wochenschrift, Jan. 23, 1890.
2. Joffroy, .—Délire avec agitation maniaque dans l'influenza, Mercredi médical, No. 13, 1890.
3. Gwynne, .—Notes of two hundred cases of influenza in Sheffield. The Lancet, August 21, 1891.
4. Creagh, .—Suicidal tendency during an attack of influenza. The Lancet, July 11, 1891.
5. Nicholson, .—The complications and sequelæ of influenza. Brit. Med. Journal, June 13, 1891.
6. Deventer, Van.—Uber Infl. verbunden mit Geisteskrankheiten. Centralblatt für Nervenheilkunde, May, 1890.
7. Mairet, .—Grippe et aliénation mentale. Montpelier Médical, Mai et Juin, 1891.
8. Leyden, and Guttmann, .—Die Influenza, Epidemic 1889-90. In Auftrage des Vereins für innere Medicin in Berlin herausgegeben. Wiesbaden, 1892.
9. Crichton-Browne, James Sir.—On Acute Dementia. West Riding Hospital Reports, London, 1874.
10. Savage, .—Influenza and Neurosis. The Lancet and Brit. Med. Jour. for Nov. 7, 1891, Journal of Mental Science, July, 1892.
11. Clouston, .—Clinical Lectures on Mental Diseases, 3rd Edition, London, 1892.
12. Tuke, Hack.—Mental Disorder following Influenza. In Dictionary of Psychological Medicine, London, 1892, Vol. 1., p. 688.
13. Flint, .—Insanity attributed to la grippe. North Western Lancet, St. Paul, 1890, p. 367.
14. Harrington, .—Epidemic Influenza and Insanity. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, 1890, Vol. 2., No. 6.
15. Paine, .—Epidemic Influenza and Insanity. Medical Standard, Chicago, 1890, p. 168.
16. Richardson, .—The Causation of Mental Disease in Relation to La Grippe. Cincinnati Lancet, 1891, p. 600.
17. Kraepelin, .—Ueber Psychosen nach Influenza. Deutsche Medic. Wochenschrift, 1890, No. 11.
18. Jutrosinski, .—Ueber Influenza Psychosen, Tübingen, Moser, 1890, also in Deutsche Medicin. Wochenschrift, 1891, No. 3.
19. Pick, .—Geisteskrankheit. nach Infl. Neurolog. Centralblatt, 1890.
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27. Weynerowski, .—Beiträge zur Casuistik von Psychosen nach Infl.; Tübingen, 1890.
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29. Holst, Von.—Psychosen nach Infl. Berliner Klin. Woch., 1890, No. 27.
30. Krypiakiewicz, .—Uber Psychosen nach Infl. Jahrbuecher für Psychiatrie. Leipzig, 1891, Vol. 10., 1.
31. Müller, .—Uber Cerebrale Störungen nach Infl. Berl. Klin. Woch., 1890, No. 37.
32. Munter, .—Psychosen nach Infl. Allg. Zeit. f. Psych., 1890, Vol. 47., p. 156.
33. Ladame, .—Des Psychoses après l'Infl., Annales Médico-Psychologiques. Paris, 1890, p. 20.
34. Bidon, .—Etude Clinique de l'action exercée par la grippe de 1889-90, sur le système nerveux. Revue de Médecine. Paris, August and October, 1890.
35. Leledy, .—La grippe et l'aliénation mentale. Paris, 1891.
36. Voisin, .—Idées de persécution à la suite de la grippe. Gazette des hôpitaux. Paris, 1890, p. 1012.
37. Morselli, .—Sui alcuni effetti neuro e psicopatici dele' infl. Riforma medica, 1890, p. 542.
38. Trigerio, .—Alienazione mentale consecutiva all'Infl. Istituto Lombardo, 1890, Fasc. 9.
39. Christiani, .—Psicosi consecutive all'infl. Riforma Med., 1890, p 962.
40. Lojacono, .—L'infl. c la malattie nervose e mentale. Rif. Med., 1890, p. 932.
41. Cantarano, .—Sui rapporti tra l'infl. e le malattie nervose e mentale. Psichiatria. Naples, 1890, p. 158.
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44. Althaus, .—On Mental Affections after Infl. International Journal of the Medical Sciences. Philadelphia and London, April, 1892.—Influenza, its pathology, symptoms, complications and sequels, etc., 2nd Edition, London, 1892, pp. 84 to 126.
45. Kraepelin, .—Uber den Einfluss akuter Krankheiten auf die Entstehung von Geisteskrankheiten. Arohiv für Psychiatrie, Vol. 11., pp. 137, 295 and 649; and Vol. xii., p. 287. Berlin, 1881-82.
46. Kirn, .—Die nervösen und Psychischen Störungen der Infl. Leipzig, 1891.—Münch. Med. Woch., 1890, 17.—Allg Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Vol. xlviii., 1, 1891.
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48. Weber, Hermann.—On Delirium or Acute Insanity during the Decline of Acute Diseases, especially the Delirium of Collapse. Med.-Chir. Transactions, London, 1865, Vol. 48., p. 135.
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51. Thompson, Ashburton. —Report on the Epidemic of Influenza in New South Wales during 1891. Sydney, 1892.
52. Metz, .—Heilung einer Paranoia nach Infl.; Neurol. Centralblatt, 1890, No. 7.
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On Psychoses after Influenza

  • Julius Althaus (a1)
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